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Academy
(Part 5)



IV. ACADEMIES OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY.

Germany
. -- The Academy of Naturoe Curiosi, called also the Leopoldine Academy, was founded in 1662, by J.L. Bausch a physician of Leipsic (Leipzig) who imitating the example of the English, published a general invitation to medical men to communicate all extraordinary cases that occurred in the course of their practice. The works of the Naturoe Curiosi were at first published separately; but this being attended with considerable incovenience, a new arrangement was formed, in 1770, for publishing a volume of observations annually. From some cause, however, the first volume did not make its appearance until 1784, when it came forth under the title of Ephemerides. In 1687, the Emperor Leopold took the society under his protection, and established it at Vienna; hence the title of Leopoldine which it in consequence assumed. But though it thus acquired a name, it had no fixed place of meeting, and no regular assemblies; instead of which there was a kind of bureau or office, first established at Breslau, and afterwards removed to Nuremberg, where communications from correspondents were received, and persons properly qualified admitted as members. By its constitution the Leopoldine Academy consists of a president, two adjuncts or secretaries, and colleagues or members, without any limitation as to numbers. At their admission the last come under a two fold obligation-first, to choose some subject for discussion out of the animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdom, provided it has not been previously treated of by any colleague of the academy; and secondly, to apply themselves to furnish materials for the annual Ephemerides. Each member also bears about with him the symbol of the academy, consisting of a gold ring, whereon is represented a book open, with an eye on one side, and on the other the academical motto of Nunquam otiosus.





The Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted by the present emperor, under the direction of the celebrated Brambella. In it there were at first only two professors; and to their charge the instruction of a hundred and thirty young men was committed, thirty of whom had formerly been surgeons in the army. But latterly the number, both of teachers and pupils was considerably increased. Gabrielli was appointed to teach pathology and practice; Boecking, anatomy, physiology, and physics; Streit, medical and pharmaceutical surgery; Hunczowsky, surgical operations, midwifery, and chirurgia forensis, and Plenk, chemistry and botany. To these was also added Beindel, as prosecutor and extraordinary professor of surgery and anatomy. Besies this, the emperor provide a large and splendid edifice in Vienna, which affords accommodation both for the teachers, the students, pregnant women, patients for clinical lectures, and servants. For the use of this academy the emperor also purchased a medical library, which is open everyday; a complete set of chirurgical instruments; an apparatus for experiments in natural philosophy; a collection of natural history; a number of anatomical and pathological preparations; a collection of preparations in wax, brought from Florence; and a variety of other useful articles. Adjoining the building there is also a good botanical garden. With a view to encourage emulation among the students of this institution, three prize medals, each of the value of 40 florins, are annually bestowed on those who return the best answers to questions proposed the year before. these prizes, however, are not entirely founded by the emperor, but are in part owing to the liberality of Brendellius, formerly protochirurgus at Vienna.

France. -- Royal Academy of Medicine. -- Medicine is a science which has always engaged the attention of the kings of France. Charlemagne established a school of medicine in the Louvre, and various societies have been founded, and privileges granted to faculty by his successors. The Royal Academy of Medicine succeeded to the old Royal Society of Medicine and the Academy of Surgery. It was erected by a royal ordinance, dated December 20, 1820. It was divided into three sections-medicine, surgery, and pharmacy. In its constitution it closely resembled the Academy of Sciences (vid. Sup). Its function was to preserve or propagate vaccine matter, and answer inquired addressed to it by the Government on the subject of epidemics, sanitary reform, and public health generally. It has maintained an enormous correspondence in all quarters of the globe, and published extensive minutes.





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