1902 Encyclopedia > The Alps > Central Tyrol Alps

The Alps
(Part 19)



(B) MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE ALPS

(m) Central Tyrol Alps


To the eye of the geologist, taking a cursory view of the Eastern Alps, it is may appear that the great central zone, extending from the upper valley of the Adige eastward to the neighbourhood of Grats, forms but a single district of tolerably uniform structure. He will, however, remark that about the centre of the range the prevailing crystalline rocks --- gneiss and mica-schist – give place to metamorphic schists, probably of palæozonic age, that rise into several of the highest peaks of the entire mass. Those who are disposed to regard the above-named crystalline rocks as merely extreme forms of metamorphic sedimentary strata, may not attach much importance to this circumstance; but it is a still more significant fact that at a short distance east of the more significant fact that a short distance east of the same extension of the metamorphic rocks we have proof of the former existence of a depression which to have cut completely through the central range. On the north side Triassic rocks extend from the Enns to the upper valley of the Mur, and the presence of Miocene deposits at several points in the latter valley, the Lieserthal and the Maltathal, seems to show that at a much later period this portion of the chain underwent great relative depression as compared with those on either side. Another and more obvious character that distinguished the western from the eastern portion of the central zone, is the fact that in the latter the great range that extends like a vertebral column from the Weisskugel to the Hochalpenspitz forks into two branches of inferior height, that enclose between them the upper valley of the Mur. Ancient geographers divided the main mass of the Alps between the Bernerdine Pass and the Frontier of Hungary into two vast divisions, respectively called the Rhætian and Noric Alps, placing the boundary between these at or about the Dreiherrnspitz, at the head of the Ahrenthal, and their example has been followed by some modern geographers. Nothing in the form or structure of the chain justifies the adoption of that arbitrary boundary between two main divisions of the Alps. We have already assigned reasons for fixing the western boundary of the Rhætian Alps at the upper valley of the Adige, and we propose to retain the designation Central Tyrol Alps for the portion of the main chain extending thence to the head of the Malta Thal in Carithia, nearly the whole of which lies within the limits of Tyrol. The exact boundaries of this division are, on the north, the course of the Inn from Landeck to the opening of the Zillerthal, the track thence over the Gerlos Pass to the head of the Pinzgau, and the valley of the salsa to the opening of the Gross Arl Thal; to the east, the way through the latter valley, over the Arlscharte, through the Malta Thal to Gmund, and the road thence to Villach; on the south, the continuous trough extending from near the latter town to Muhlwald, on the Rienz, through the Gail Thal, the Lessach Thal, the head of the Drauthal and the Upper valley of the Rienz. From Muhwald the tortuous course of the Eisack forms the boundary as far as Botzen, whence the high road running N.W. along the Adige and through the Finstermunz completes the western boundary, Although the region thus limited does not present many prominent peaks, it is remarkable for the great average height of the main chain which forms the watershed between the affluent of the Danube on one side, and those of the Adige and the Drave on the other. In a distance of 120 miles --- which would be much increased if measured along the sinusitis of the main chain --- there is a single low pass, that of the Brenner, none other being below 8000 feet in height, or suited for the construction of a carriage road. The Brenner is the lowest pass in the entire range of the Alps, and has from a remote period affordable the easiest access from middle Europe to the plains of northern Italy, buy is properly described as a pass rather than as a breach in the continuity of the chain.





Chief Peaks of the Central Tyrol Alps.

Karls-spitz………………… 10,253 Loffelspitz…………………. 11,108
Glockenthurm……………. 10,998 Reichenspitz……………….. 10,866
Portles-spitz………………. 10,066 Wildgerlos-spitz…………... 10,771
Rems-spitz………………… 10,511 Eidechsberg, or Hegedex…. 8,975
Blickspitz…………………. 11,045 Dreiherrnspitz…………….. 11,494
Weiskugel………………… 12,277 Rodtspitz………………….. 11,459
Wildspitz…………………. 12,390 Gross Durreck……………. 10,325
Anichspitz………………… 11,654 Gross Venediger………….. 12,053
Similaun………………….. 11,810 Hohe Furleg………………. 11,114
Rothbergspitz(The "Rothen- Lasorling………………….. 10,171
Spitz" of Sonklar… 11,904 Hochgall, or Rieser………. 11,284
Texelspitz………………… 10,890 Schneebige Nock, or Ruth-
Birkkogel…………………. 9,231 nerhorn……………. 11,068
Grieskogel (highest peak).. 10,638 Tauernkogel………………. 9,790
Ruderhofspitz……………. 11,393 Kitzsteinhorn……………… 10,482
Schrankogl……………….. 11,474 Johannisberg……………… 11,425
Serles-spitz, or Waldraster- Gross Glockner…………… 12,405
spitz……………….. 8,898 Hoch Schober…………….. 10,628
Schaufelspitz……………… 10,924 Petzeck…………………….. 10,761
Wilder Pfaff (Zuckerhutl).. 11,512 Vischbachhorn……………. 11,738
Sonklarspitz………………. 11,410 Fuscherkahrkopf…………. 10,957
Habicht……………………. 10,746 Hochnarr………………….. 10,692
Sarner Scharte……………. 8,255 Ankogl…………………….. 10,674
Rittnerhorn……………….. 8,064 Hochalpenspitz…………… 11,026
Glungetzer………………… 8,781 Sauleck……………………. 10,108
Gilfertsberg……………….. 8,201 Kreuzkofel………………… 8,979
Olperer Fuss-stein………… 11,451 Dobratch, or Villacher Alp. 7,067
Hochfeiler…………………. 11,535


Chief Passes of the Central Tyrol Alps.

Reschen Scheideck (Landeck to Meran), carriage road………. 4,596
Weisse See Joch (Glurns to Kaunser Thal), glacier……………. 9,657
Langtauferer Joch (Mallag to Fend), glacier…………………… 10,335
Hoch Joch (Fend to Kurzras), glacier…………………………… 9,515
Nieder Joch (Fend to Obervernagt), glacier……………………. 9,847
Gebatsch Joch (Fend to Kaunser Thal), glacier………… about. 10,800
Timbler Joch (Oetzthal to Meran), bridle-path………………… 8,298
Langthaler Joch (Gurgl to Pfelders Thal), glacier ……………... 9,939
Gruben Joch (Pfelders to Schnalser Thal), glacier…………….. 9,548
Gurgl Joch (Gurgl to Schnalser Thal), glacier…………………. 9,956
Pitzthaler Joch (Pitzthal to Solden), glacier……………………. 9,806
Jaufen Pass (Meran to Sterzing), bridle-path…………………... 6,872
Penser Joch (Botzen to Sterzing), footpath ……………………... 7,040
Gries Joch (Selrain to Lengenfeld), snow……………………….. 8,652
Mutterberger Joch (Neustift to Lengenfeld), glacier…………… 9,893
Bildstockl Pass (Neustift to Solden), glacier…………………….. 10,294
Grub Joch (Pflersch to Oberbergthal), footpath……………….. 7,021
Brenner Pass (Innsbruck to Sterzing), carriage road………….. 4,588
Pfitscher Joch (Sterzing to Mayrhofen), bridle-path…………… 7,297
Tuxer Joch (Stafflach to Lanersbach), footpath……………….. 7,618
Lappacher Joch (lappach to Ahrenthal), footpath……………... 7,763
Horndl Joch (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), snow………………….. 8,368
Heiligengeist Jochl (Mayrhofen to Kasern), footpath………….. 8,309
Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), snow………………….. 9,071
Dorfer Sulzbach Thorl (Pregratten to Wald), glacier………….. 9,438
Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrey to Mittersill), footpath……… 8,024
Vorder Umbal Thorl (Pregratten to Kasern), glacier………….. 9,723
Troyer Thorl (Pregratten to Defereggen), snow………………… 4,845
Mulitz Thorl (Virgen to Defereggen), snow…………………….. 8,911
Klamml Joch (Defereggen to taufers), footpath………………… 7,606
Staller Sattel (Defereggen to Antholz), bridle-path……………. 6,738
Gsiesser Joch (Defereggen to Gsiess), footpath………………… 7,353
Kalser Tauern (Kals to Uttendorf), snow………………………. 8,410
Kapruner Thorl (Stubachthal to Kaprun), glacier…………….. 8,740
Riffelthor (Kaprun to Heiligenblut), glacier……………………. 9,958
Pfandelscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), glacier…………….. 8,817
Fuscher Thorl (Ferleiten to Seidelwinkelthal), footpath………. 7,998
Hoch Thor (Bucheben to Heiligenblut), footpath………………. 8,551
Berger Thorl (Kals to Heiligenblut), footpath………………….. 7,971
Auf der Stanz (Bucheben to Gastein), bridle-path……………… 6,920
Tramerscharte (Rauris to Dollach), glacier…………………….. 8,391
Klein Zirknitzscharte (rauris to Fragant), snow……………….. 8,855
Mallnitzer Tauern (Gastein to Mallnitz), bridle-path…………. 8,038
Arlscharte (St Johann in Pongau to Gmund), footpath……….. 7,499
Klein Elendscharte (gastein to Gmund), glacier……………….. 8,231
Dossner Scharte (Gmund to Ober Vellach), snow …………….. 8,748
Toblacher Feld (Bruneck to Lienz), carriage road…………….. 3,951
Zochen Pass (Lienz to Maria Lukau), footpath………………… 7,394
Kotschach Sattel (Oberdrauburg to Kotschach), carriage road. 3,210





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