Greek Corinthian Order - Its Three Parts: (a) Stylobate; (b) Column; (c) Entablature
The importance which the Greeks attached to a graduated stylobate, and the necessity of giving it a relevant proportion in a columnar ordinance, are shown in the building above mentioned, which is the only example of this order of Grecian origin remaining to us. Unlike the Doric and Ionic in its application, this order is represented in a small circular structure, resting on a lofty square basement; and yet, like those orders, it has a stylobate in receding courses (see Plate XII. fig. 3), and in plan, too, corresponding with the arrangement of the columns, and not with that of the substructure, - this furnishing further proof that the stylobate was considered a part of the columnar ordinance. The Corinthian column is ten diameters in height. The base is composed of a torus and fillet; a scotia and another similar fillet, rather less than the former, and a second torus or reversed ovolo, on which rests a third fillet basing the apophyge of the shaft. The shaft diminishes with entasis to five-sixths of its diameter at the hypotrachelium, and, like that of the Ionic order, has twenty-four flutes and fillets. The flutes are semi-ellipses, so deep as nearly to approach semi-circles, terminating at the head in leaves, to which the fillets are stalks. The fillets are rather more than one-fourth the width of the flutes. The hypotrachelium is a simple channel or groove immediately under the capital. The capital itself is rather more than 1 1/3 diameters in height; its core is a perfect cylinder, in bulk rather less than the superior diameter of the shaft. This is banded by a row of water leaves, whose profile is a flat cavetto, one-sixth of the whole height, and another of leaves of the acanthus, with flowered buttons attaching them to the cylinder. The latter have the contour of a cyma-recta, and occupy one-third of the whole capital. Rather more than another third is occupied by calices and tendrils, which latter support a honeysuckle against the middle of the abacus. This member is in plan a square whose angles are cut off at 45°, and whose sides are deeply concaved. In profile it consists of a narrow fillet, an elliptical cavetto or reversed scotia, and another fillet surmounted by a small ovolo, or rather a moulding whose profile is the quadrant of an ellipse. In the entablature (which is 2 2/7 diameters in height), the architrave is divided, like that of the Ionic order, into three equal fascias, which are not perpendicular, but incline inwards, so that their lower angles are all in the same vertical line; this impends the surface of the shaft about one-third of the height from the base. The frieze is one plain band, slightly inclining inwards like the fascias of the architrave, and slightly projected beyond them. the cornice consists of a deep congeries of bed mouldings, and a corona, with the accustomed small crown-mouldings, and fillet. As in the Ionic cornice additional height is given to the bed-moulds by undercutting the planceer. The cornice is surmounted by a cut fascia supporting honeysuckle antefixae, which may indeed be taken as a part of the order, as the solitary example in question presents it.
Of Corinthian antae we have no examples, nor indeed have we of insulated columns; but as we find in the Ionic examples quoted that the attached columns are less in proportion to the entablature than those which are insulated, we mat conclude that it would be the same with this, - thus reducing the entablature to two diameters, the ordinary average of that part in Greek columnar architecture.
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