1902 Encyclopedia > Artillery

Artillery




The modern term Artillery is used in two senses,— firstly, to designate the materiel of artillery, i.e., the guns, etc.; secondly, the personnel and organisation by which the power of this arm is wielded. The word itself is derived by some from " arcus," a bow; by others from " ars telaria," signifying bows, arrows, and. all implements of projectile warfare. The earliest forms of artillery were the " engines invented by cunning men to shoot arrows and great stones," of which we read in the Old Testament; these developed, with the progress of military art, into the more elaborate machines used by the Eomans under the names of catapulta, balista, battering-ram, <fcc.; and under various forms and names this " mechanical artillery " con-tinued in use, until the discovery of a propelling agent so powerful as to supersede all others and revolutionise both the implements and the art of war.
The history of artillery proper may be said to date from the discovery of gunpowder. This is popularly attributed to the two monks, Eoger Bacon and Bartholdus Schiraz, about the end of the 13th century (see GUNPOWDER) ; but there is ample evidence that substances of somewhat similar composition and powers had been known and used for purposes of war in the East at far earlier times. The Chinese seem to have been the first discoverers of explosive compounds as engines of war, and to have used them for several centuries before the Christian era; and their " thunder of the earth," produced by filling a huge bombshell with some such compound, and exploding it at the proper moment, is spoken of as early as the 3d or 4th centuries of our era. According to Father Amyot, stone mortars, projecting stone balls, were used by them in the 8th century; and although they were first in-structed in the scientific casting of cannon by mission-aries in the 17th century, there is evidence of large cannon and wall pieces of rough construction having been in use as early as the 12th century. The inhabitants of India seem to have possessed fire-arms of some sort as early as the time of Alexander; but the information is too meagre to admit of more than the merest speculation as to their nature. The celebrated Greek fire, of which we have ample accounts, was usually in a liquid form, and vomited through long copper tubes, with which the bows of vessels of war were provided, or projected in fire-balls, or by means of arrows and javelins around which flax was twisted. It was used by the Romans of the Eastern empire with much effect, especially at the defences of Constantinople (668-675 and 716-718 A.D.), and the secret of its manufacture was preserved with a superstitious care for nearly 400 years; but it afterwards passed into the hands of the Mahometans, and was much used by them in their wars with the Chris-tians. The Moors first introduced fire-arms in western Europe; according to Conde, they used artillery against Saragossa in 1118 A.D., and a little later they defended Niebla by means of machines which threw darts and stones through the agency of fire.
The application of gunpowder to projectile warfare, and the use of cannon, became general in Europe during the 14th century. Mention is made, however, of isolated in-stances of their employment at earlier periods, especially among the Moors. Artillery is also said to have been used by Henry ILL of England during the rebellion of the Duke of Gloucester in 1267, and by the Spaniards against Cordova in 1280 and against Gibraltar in 1306. But it is held by those well qualified to judge, that the first unquestionable testimony of the employment of cannon is in 1338 under Edward ILL of England. The substitution of the new engine for the old mechanical artillery was gradual, and was not effected without opposition ; and in the 13th and early part of the 14th centuries, we still find various machines, such as the trebuchet, onazer, scorpion, and espringal, whose action was dependent on the elasticity of twisted cords, used to hurl stones, Greek fire, <fcc.
The earliest trace of an artillery organisation, such as now plays so important a part in all great armies, is found in the middle of the 14th century. In 1344 Edward III. formed an artillery train and an ordnance establish-ment, numbering 340 men; but of these only twelve were termed artillerymen and gunners, the remainder consisting of waggoners, engineers, and artificers of various kinds. The ordnance establishment at the siege of Harfleur, in 1415, included twenty-five master gunners and fifty " ser-vitour gunners." The gunner of those days seems to have been the captain of the gun, and to have had general charge of the guns and stores, with the especial duty of laying and firing the piece in action. The manufacturing establish-ments, now maintained on so gigantic a scale, do not seem to have sprung up till considerably later. Robert states that gun-foundries were established in France in 1377 ; but we have no trace of them in Germany till 1440, and record of them is wanting in England until 1521.
The guns of the 14th century were of the rudest make, cumbrous and inefficient, and though an advance on the earlier machines, and useful in sieges, still played but little part in battles. Whether Edward III. used them at Creci or not (a point which has been much debated), it may safely be affirmed that they had but little to do with the result of that day. Progress, however, began to show itself in the 15th century; the "bombards" were replaced by brass guns, and the cumbrous beds, upon which the earlier ordnance were transported, gave way to rude artillery-carriages on wheels; and iron was substituted for stone in the manufacture of projectiles. The first step towards a better organisation and some tactical system appears to have been made towards the end of the 15th century by Charles VIII. of France, who used a numerous artillery in his Italian campaigns; and Louis XII. largely owed his successes in Italy to this arm. Francis I. still further increased its mobility, adopting a lighter construction for field-guns, and having them drawn by the best description of horses; and in the defeat of the Swiss in 1515, "the French artillery played a new and distinguished part, not only by protecting the centre of the army from the charges of the Swiss phalanxes, and causing them excessive loss, but also by rapidly taking up such positions from time to time during the battle as enabled the guns to play upon the flanks of the attacking columns." In England also con-siderable attention was bestowed on ordnance matters during this period, though the progress was not so great. In 1456 it is stated that a commission was issued to John Judd, as master-general of the ordnance; and in 1483 (Richard III.), Rauf Bigod was appointed master of the ordnance, an office which continued down to 1852. These early masters of the ordnance personally commanded the artillery in expeditions and wars, besides being responsible for the general aclministration of the personnel and materiel of such artillery as then existed. Henry VII. and Henry VIII. did much to advance the progress of artillery. Tar-taglia gives tables of the different cannon in use about this time. The heavy pieces, i.e., culverins, &c, were drawn by oxen, and corresponded to those now in use for

siege or position purposes, while the field guns appear to have been the 2, 4, 6|, and 8 pounders,—-falcons, falconets, and takers. No permanent artillery trains existed at this time; the personnel was obtained by withdrawing gunners from garrisons, and supplementing them with men hired for the occasion, and the cattle required for transport were also hired. The artillery train on service included the ammunition waggons, pontoons, and a large proportion of artificers, besides the men actually required to serve the gun, corresponding nearly to the artillery park of the present day, and had its position assigned in camp and on the march. " On the march the train was preceded by an advanced guard of light cavalry to protect it. The first portion of this troop carried hatchets and saws; the second, instruments and implements for the construction of ma-chines ; the third, sledge-hammers, iron wedges, and pick-axes ; finally, the last were provided with pioneers' imple-ments. After these came carriages loaded with guns, capstans, levers, and other like machines; these were followed by the light pieces, by the heavy siege guns, by ammunition waggons, by pontoons and the necessary men for them, by the artillery artificers, and, lastly, by the
1. Put hack your piece.
2. Order your piece to load. 8. Search your piece.

4. Sponge your piece.
5. Fill your ladle.
6. Put in your powder.
7. Empty your ladle.
16th cen- The 16th century was not marked by any great advance tnry. m artillery science, though the number of guns which accompanied an army had increased considerably—as many as 1600 gunners, cannoneers, armourers, and clerks of the ordnance, being attached to Lord Mountjoy's army in Ireland in 1599. The artillery tactics were simple; the guns usually deployed in advance of the troops and fired a few rounds, but from their want of mobility could neither accompany an advance nor protect a retreat, and were generally captured on the first advance of the enemy. Greater progress, however, was made in the attack and defence of fortresses by artillery. Vertical fire was used to a considerable extent, and seams to have been conducted by artificers while the." cannoneers" served the guns. In 17th cen- England but little advance was made even in the 17th tury. century, and the commencement of the Great Rebellion found the artillery of England in a very feeble and backward state. Two books by artillerymen of those days2 give us much information on its condition, and a very complete account of the " Field Artillery of the Great Rebellion " is furnished by Captain H. W. L. Hime, R.A.3 The guns chiefly used were the light pieces known as "minion," "saker," and "demi-culverin," i.e., 3-pounder, 6-pounder, and 9-pounder respectively. The heavier pieces being used in sieges and garrisons, and ranging from the "whole culverin," or 15-pounder, to the " Canon Royall," or 63-poander. The carriages were cumbrous. " They were formed of two large cheeks or brackets, whose general outline was much the same as the brackets of our own bracket-trails, connected together by four transoms." The transport of the ammunition was in carts or wheelbarrows, or on men's backs. The gunners walked beside the gun, and, as in later times, their pace was a measure of the mobility of the field artillery. Cartridges, when used, were made of paper or canvas, but an iron ladle was preferred. The following words of command show the gun-drill of those days:-
8. Put up your powder.
9. Thrust home your wad.

10. Regard your shot.
11. Put home your shot gently.
12. Thrust home your last wad
with three strokes.
1 Owen's Modern Artillery.
* The Gunner, by Robert Norton, one of His Majesty's gunners and engineers, 1628 ; The Gunner's Glasse, by 'William Eldred, master-gunner of Dover Castle, 1646.
* Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution. vol. vi.
13. Gauge your piece.
As to the draugnt, twenty-three horses were required for a cannon on good ground, fifteen or seventeen for the demi-cannon, and nine for a culverin. The proportion of guns to men was 1 per 1000. The artillery general was a greater man in those days than in more modern times, as we find that " the general! of the artillery hath alwayes a part of the charge, and when the chief general! is absent, he is to command all the army." The " gentlemen of the artillery" seem to answer to our present majors, and the duties of the " gunners " were much the same as those now performed by lieutenants. In the Scotch invasion of 1640, leather guns were used with effect against the English in the passage of the Scots over the river Tyne. When Charles I. took the field in 1642, the earl of Peterborough, as parliamentary general of artillery, had a large train under his orders, but such was its want of mobility, that he was obliged to leave his guns behind him for a time. It came up, however, at last, and was used at the battle of Edgehill, 23d October 1642. In 1643, at Braddoch Doun, an instance occurred of the use of field artillery first masked by cavalry; and at Roundway Lord Wilmot handled his guns so well that he prepared the way for his cavalry, and finally was able to seize the enemy's guns and turn them against him. At other affairs, however, the artillery seems to have been comparatively useless, and the presence of twenty-five guns on the Royalist side at Marston Moor was neutralised by Cromwell's flank attack; and in no battles of this war did the artillery assume the importance it had already attained on the Continent.
The first half of this century forms an era in the history of this arm in Europe. Henry IV. of France was among the first to recognise its coming importance, and occupied himself diligently with improving it. His minister, Sully, was named master-general, and during the last ten years of his reign (1600-1610), he may be said to have created an artillery. More than 400 guns were turned out, including a number of field-pieces. Maurice of Nassau also helped to develop the use of this arm. But it was under the great Swedish warrior Gustavus Adolphus that Gustavus artillery first began to take its true position on the battle- Adolphus. field. Recognising the necessity for the mobility of field artillery, he introduced "Kalter" guns, "consisting of a thin cylinder of beaten copper screwed into a brass breech, whose chamber was strengthened by four bands of iron, the tube itself being covered with layers of mastic, over which cords were rolled firmly round its whole length and equalised by a layer of plaster, a coating of leather, boiled and varnished, completing the piece." This primitive field artillery was drawn and served by two men, and was first used in his Polish war. The guns could naturally bear but a small charge; the great point gained was mobi-lity, all guns heavier than 12-pounders being separated from field artillery. In his German campaigns he used iron 4-pounder guns, weighing about 5 J cwt., and drawn by two horses. Rapidity of fire was obtained by the use of car-tridges instead of the old method of ladling the powder. Gustavus attached two of these guns to each regiment, and placed them under the orders of the colonel. Gustavus Adolphus may therefore be said to be the father of the battalion system of guns,—a system which had its advantages in those days of imperfect organisation, but, like many other things, was carried down to a late date when the necessity for the system had entirely disappeared. But he also appreciated the value of concentration of fire, and frequently massed his guns in strong batteries at the centre and flanks. He appears to have been fully alive to the necessity of having both a heavy and fight artillery, and it was his practice to retire his heavy guns, protecting a

retreat by the field artillery. It was in the celebrated Thirty Years' War that his artillery showed the advan-tages which it could win when handled properly. The artillery of the Imperialists was as cumbrous as that of their Swedish adversaries was mobile. Tilly's guns were chiefly 24-pounders, each requiring twenty transport horses and twelve horses for the waggons, while the service of the guns was primitive and defective, and they could hardly even be moved during the course of an action. The first battle of Leipsic was fought the 7th September 1631, between the allied Swedes and Saxons under Gustavus Adolphus and the Imperialists under Tilly. The Imperialist artillery was badly disposed on a range of hilla in rear of their position, so that any forward movement would effectually mask the fire of the guns. Gustavus, on the other hand, advanced his guns more, and covered his front with 100 guns, which he was able to use with considerable effect. The next action in which the use of the artillery is remark-able was the passage of the Lech, a tributary of the Danube. Tilly had taken up a position on the right bank of the river between Augsburg and Rain, and awaited attack. On the night of the 3d April 1632 the Swedish army threw up earth-works, upon which were mounted seventy-two pieces of artillery. Gustavus, taking advantage of the re-entering bend of the river, brought such a con-verging fire upon the Imperialists that he forced them to retire and gained the passage of the stream. At the battle of Liitzen, 6th November 1632, Wallenstein had taken advantage of certain eminences and rising ground in his position to post his guns in batteries of from four to fourteen pieces, while Gustavus placed powerful batteries on the wings and centre of his line. The battle closed the glorious career of this great warrior, who was struck down in the hour of victory. During his life he had done much to forward the science of artillery. He had increased its mobility and rapidity of fire, and raised the proportion of guns to over six per 1000 men ; and though he may be said to have been the originator of the battalion system, with its attendant evils of dispersion of guns, he checked this evil by keeping in hand a considerable re-serve.
Further progress was made in construction and organisation during the latter part of the century. In England the laboratory at Woolwich was established in 1672, and a great reorganisation of the artillery took place in 1682 under the master-general, Lord Dartmouth. About that time we read, that at the Hounslow camp "brass 3-pounders, under gentlemen of the ordnance, were escorted to then-places by the grenadiers of the various regiments," an example of the tactical system of " battalion guns " already spoken of. The train of artillery with which James II. pre-pared to meet the invasion of 1688 was a considerable one; details of it will be found at page 53 of Duncan's History of the Royal Artillery. William III. (1689) introduced foreign artillery, and undertook the reorganisation of the personnel. He formed the first regimental establishment. Howitzers, mortars, and hand-grenades were introduced during this period, being used principally by the Dutch and English. In France the improvements under Louis XrV. seem to have been made chiefly in siege artillery. Heavy guns of position were much used, and there appears to have been a disposition to regard batteries of this kind, covered by epaulements, as in field fortifications, as the natural rdle of artillery. Louis XIV., however, was the first to give a permanent foundation to the new arm. In 1671 he raised a regiment of royal fusiliers as artillerymen, composed of gunners and workmen. Schools of instruction were established, and the arm recognised as a special branch. Improvements were also effected in the materid. The calibres were reduced in number and made uniform, and those then adopted have remained unaltered up to the present day, some having been rifled. Carriages were improved. " Siege and field carriages had heavy bracket-trails, but were provided with limbers having a straight pintail on the top, like an old service siege limber." Plat-form waggons were used to transport guns; wrought-iron field carriages and mortar carriages were used; and the carriage for coast batteries was little dissimilar to the standing gun-carriage of the present day.
II - 83
The 18th century was fruitful in artillery progress. In 18th cen-England it saw the Royal Regiment of Artillery permanently tury. established, and rapid strides made on the Continent in Englan& every branch of the arm. The Duke of Marlborough was appointed master-general of the ordnance on the accession of Queen Anne, in 1702, and in the same year war was declared with Germany and the States-General. We have but scanty record of the handling of his artillery by this great general; but at Blenheim it is said a strong battery, posted on the allied right wing, greatly assisted by its enfilade fire; and at Malplaquet, Marlborough deployed forty guns in the centre of his position. The artillery trains were considerably increased. In 1706 forty-six guns and sixty mortars formed the artillery of a force of 11,000 men, the mortars being used mounted upon travel-ling carriages. The history of the " Royal Regiment of Artillery" commences from the 26th May 1716, when the artillery which had so long existed was formed into two permanent companies of Royal Artillery. In 1727 the organisation was expanded into four complete companies, commanded by a colonel, lieut.-colonel, and a major, and in 1740 two more companies were added. A company consisted of 5 officers, 4 fire-workers, 18 non-commissioned officers and bombardiers, 30 gunners and cadet gunners, 48 matrosses and cadet matrosses, and 2 drummers. Albert Borgard was the first coloneL By birth a Dane, he served first in the Danish army and afterwards in the Prussian service, and subsequently entered that of England. He was adjutant of the short-lived regiment formed by William III., and died in 1751 at the age of 92. In 1741 the Royal Military Academy was instituted at Woolwich for the instruction of cadets, and of officers and men of the artillery. The cadets were accommodated in buildings at the Warren, and it was not till 1806 that the new academy was opened at the foot of Shooter's Hill In 1748 a company of Royal Artil-lery went to the East Indies and took part in the siege of Pondicherry, subsequently forming the nucleus of the Indian artilleries. In 1755 four additional companies were raised for service in the East Indies, and in 1757 the regiment had increased to twenty-four companies. A Royal Irish Artillery corps was also formed, which gradually increased from a small nucleus to a strength of twenty companies, and was amalgamated with the Royal Artillery in 1801. About this period (the middle of 18th century) the guns in use consisted of 24-pounders, 12-pounders, 6-ponnders, and 3-pounders. The guns were divided into brigades, corresponding to the present batteries, of four, five, and six guns respectively, and began to be separated into " heavy " and " light " brigades. Each field gun was drawn by four horses, the two leaders being ridden by artillerymen, and had 100 rounds of shot and 30 rounds of grape. Three companies of the Royal Artillery took part in the battle of Minden in 1759, and were handled with great success; and even in those days the English artillery won praise from foreign critics. Decker says,2 " The English artillery was distinguished by its lightness, its elegance, and the good quality of its materials. In the battle of Marburg (1760), although the English artillery

was not horsed, it followed Lord Granby's cavalry at a trot, and was always ready to engage." "The English artillery," says Tempelhof, " could not have been better served; it followed the enemy with such vivacity, and maintained its fire so well, that it was impossible for the latter to re-form." In the great blockade and siege of Gib-raltar (1779-83), the gallantry and devotion of the garri-son artillery were conspicuous.
Before passing on to the era formed by the great war against Napoleon, it is necessary to trace the progress made by this arm on the Continent.
I'russia. The Prussian artillery was very backward at the begin-ning of this century. In 1688 the Brandenburg (Prussian) artillery numbered only 300 men; and at the death of Frederick-William I., in 1740, there was only one battalion of field artillery of six companies, and one of garrison artillery of four companies. Nor did Frederick the Great at first place much value upon its services. But experi-ence soon convinced him of the necessity for creating an efficient and mobile field artillery. His first efforts in this direction were not successful; and though the Prussian artillery contributed much to Frederick's victory at Rossbach, it was usually no match for the excellent and well-handled Austrian artillery. But the gradual destruction of his veteran infantry obliged him to devote more attention to this arm; he considerably raised the proportion of guns, and in 1759 he formed the first horse artillery, consisting of a battery of ten light 6-pounders (afterwards changed to six 6-pounders) and two 7-pounder howitzers. Frederick placed great value on howitzers, and made much use of them against entrenched positions, and at the close of the war, after experiments on a large scale, ordered forty heavy howitzers to be attached to each army corps. Frederick seems to have made the mistake during the Seven Years' War of trying to bring heavy artillery into the field, instead of trying to lighten his artillery generally. But he gave a great impetus to the progress of artillery. He raised the proportion of guns from 2^ and 3 per 1000 men in the Silesian wars to 5 or 6 per 1000 at the end of the Seven Years' War. He created a horse artillery which in rapidity of movement could rival cavalry; and commenced the formation of a real field artillery by the adoption of a number of light pieces'and howitzers, while the heavier guns were relegated to parks for siege and position purposes. And his wars brought forward three important tactical prin-ciples in the employment of artillery,—the establishment of smaller batteries at important points in the line of battle in lieu of the old formations at the centre and flanks, opening the battle and protecting the deployment of columns by light guns, and changing the position of batteries accord-ing to the course of the action.
Russia and Austria, though they produced no great military leader like Frederick, were ahead of Prussia in the
Russia. development of this particular arm. In Russia its import-ance had always been recognised, and large numbers of guns employed, while each dragoon regiment had three " licornes" or howitzers attached, with mounted gunners, forming a
Austria. species of horse artillery. In Austria, though the tactical employment of the artillery was often defective, its general excellence was pre-eminent, and it was ably organised under Prince Lichtenstein, the chief of artillery. But it
France. was in France that the experience of Frederick's wars was best utilised, and the great strides to a more perfect system were made. At the commencement of the century French artillery had made but little progress. The carriages and waggons were driven by waggoners on foot, and on the field of battle the guns were dragged about by ropes or remained stationary. Hollow projectiles had made their appearance, and lead tarred balls arranged round an axis and kept together by a net, and termed grape, were employed.
But the ammunition generally was of a rough and primitive description. Towards the middle of the century some improvements were made, Field guns and carriages were lightened, and the guns separated into brigades. Siege cartridges were introduced, the ladle being abolished, and shot with wooden bottoms or sabots invented. But it was under General Gribeauval, in 1765, that the great reforms in the French artillery were commenced. This officer had been sent to Austria during the Seven Years' War, and had held an artillery command under Prince Lichtenstein. Struck with the improvements effected in Austria, he strove, on his return, to build up a complete system both of per-sonnel and materiel, creating a distinct materiel for field, siege, garrison, and coast artillery. Alive to the vital importance of mobility for field artillery, he dismissed from the park all pieces of greater calibre than 12-pounders; and reduced the length (necessary for the service of guns in embrasures and behind parapets) and weight of those retained. He also reduced the charge and the windage. His reforms were resisted, and for a time successfully; but in 1776 he became first inspector-general of artillery, and was able to carry through the improvements which will ever cause his name to be celebrated. For many years artillery had been separated into regimental or battalion guns, artillery of position, garrison, and siege artillery, the position guns being distributed in large batteries on the flanks or in front of a position, and the siege artillery collected in a park or train. The field artillery of the new system included 4-pounder regimental guns, and for the park 8 and 12 pounders, with 6-inch howitzers. The am-munition was improved by the introduction of " case " or canisters of sheet-iron holding cast-iron balls, the old grape and case being abolished.
The carriages were constructed on a uniform model, strengthened with iron, the limber-wheels heightened, and the draught diminished. Iron axletrees were introduced, straight pintails on the top of the limbers, and poles took the place of shafts. Boxes on the carriage held part of the ammunition. Travelling trunnion poles were introduced. The horses were harnessed in pairs, instead of in file as formerly, and the prolong of rope was introduced to unite the trail of the gun and the limber in slow retiring move-ments. A new ammunition waggon, carrying fixed ammunition, was also invented. The service of the guns was improved by the introduction of cross-headed elevating screws and tangent scales,—Ihe later experiments exploding the old false ideas with regard to the absolute flatness of the path of a projectile. The manner in which the teams were driven remained much the same; but the bricole was introduced, a collar with rope and hook, to which the gun-ners and foot soldiers harnessed themselves. For siege and garrison service Gribeauval adopted the 16-pounder and 12-pounder guns, 8-inch howitzer, and 10-inch mortar; the 12, 10, and 8-inch gomer mortars being introduced in 1785. Siege only differed from field carriages in having shafts in lieu of poles. Gribeauval introduced for garrison service a carriage with wheels in front and a truck in rear, while for coast service traversing platforms were adopted, having a bolt in front and a truck in rear running upon a circular racer. The great step made was in a uniform con-struction being adopted for all materiel, and the parts sus-ceptible made interchangeable.
In 1765 the personnel of the French artillery was reor-ganised. The field artillery with an army was divided into regimental guns and corps or reserve artillery. This latter portion was subdivided into divisions of eight guns of the same calibre. A company of artillery was also attached to each brigade of four battalions. The battery or division was thus made the tactical unit, with guns, munitions, and gunners complete, the horses and drivers


being added at a later date. The French horse artillery dates from 1791. Horsemen and gunners were combined, each class learning the work of the other. Companies were attached to a battery of six guns; and in 1793, when the divisional organisation was adopted, artillery was attached to divisions in proportionate strength, and regimental guns were abandoned and entirely suppressed by Napoleon in 1796. The reforms of Gribeauval bore fruit in the wars of the republic. The tables of construction which had been drawn up secured a uniformity of manufacture; the re-duction of the weight of the gun gave mobility to the field artillery, and enabled it to be used with the greatest effect in the new tactics which Napoleon introduced*; and the last step in the complete organisation of field artillery was made in 1800, when the establishment of a driver corps of soldiers put an end to the old system of horsing by con-tract.
War of the At the commencement of our wars on the Continent in French 1793, the British artillery was in anything but an efficient Revolu- condition. The guns were dispersed among the infantry, they were horsed in single train, the ammunition was packed in rough deal boxes, the ammunition waggons were cumbrous and ill-constructed, the drivers were mere carters on foot with long whips, and the whole equipment was scarcely able to break from a foot pace.1 Prior to the Peninsular war, however, the exertions of an able officer, Major Spearman, had done much to bring about an improved state of things. Horse artillery had been introduced in 1793, and the driver corps established in 1794. The battalion or regimental guns were abolished in 1802, and field batteries or " brigades " of six guns were formed, horse artillery batteries being styled troops. Mili-tary drivers were introduced, the horses teamed in pairs, the drivers being mounted on the off-horses, while eight gunners were carried on the limbers and waggons. The equipment was lightened and simplified, the ammunition was properly packed, and a correct system of manoeuvres was introduced. The invention of shrapnel shell by Major Shrapnel in 1803, and the transformation of the rocket from a mere signal to a destructive engine by Sir W. Con-greve in 1806, also added to artillery power.
The composition of a troop of horse artillery from 1805 to 1807 was about as follows:—

Horse Artillery .
Driver Corps . Men. Animals. Carriages.

Officers. N.C. Officers. Gunners. Drivers. Artificers.



6
... 14 1 85 60 20 3 164 horses 36 mules 19
The composition of a field " brigade " between 1808 and 1816 was as follows:—

Companyof Artillery Driver Corps . Men. Animals. Carriages.

Officers. N.C. Officers. Gunners. Driver». Artificers.



fi 1 17 9 123 96 10 160 horses 10 mules 19
The troops of horse artillery were armed with five guns (6 or 9 pounders) and one 5|-inch howitzer. The field brigades were likewise armed with five guns and one how-

Briiisk Gunner.
itzer, the guns ranging from fight 6-pounders to 12-pounders. At Waterloo there were four different armaments for field brigades. The "driver corps," raised in 1794, consisted of a few subaltern officers, with non-commissioned officers, artificers, drivers, and horses. The corps was divided into troops, the addition of one of which to a company of foot artillery converted it into a field " brigade." The horse artillery possessed both drivers and horses, and required very limited assistance from the driver corps.
Although the British artillery distinguished itself on many occasions during the Peninsular war2 and at Water-loo, and French officers were loud in its praise, the field artillery still suffered from the great evil, want of mobility. Matters, however, had somewhat improved by the end of the war. Great augmentations had also taken place dur- Progress of ing the war, and in 1815 the Royal Artillery numbered British 23,085 of all ranks. After the peace it was again reduced, ^06*1815 and horse artillery troops and field brigades were placed on a skeleton establishment of two guns each. In 1822 the driver corps was abolished, and the men and horses distributed among the field battalions, men being enlisted as " gunners and drivers." This system did not work well, owing to the difficulty of finding men who could combine such dissiinilar duties. During the Peninsular war field guns and waggons were drawn by six and four horses respectively; but in 1820 a committee recommended eight horses for heavy field guns, and six for light guns and waggons; and after considerable opposition this was ulti-mately adopted. For some years the artillery, in common with the other branches of the British army, was kept down to the lowest state, but in 1848 the troops of horse artillery were increased to four pieces, and in 1852 they and the field batteries were raised to six guns. The field and horse artillery was increased to twenty batteries, giv-ing a total of 120 guns. Shortly before the Crimean war a further increase of several battalions took place; but notwithstanding these various augmentations, both field and garrison artillery were entirely insufficient during the siege. At this time the field artillery consisted of " position bat-teries " of three 18-pounders and one 8-inch howitzer, or of four 12-pounders and two 32-pounder howitzers; of " field batteries " of four 9-pounders and two 24-pounder howitzers; and of " horse artillery troops" of four 6-pounders and two 12-pounder howitzers. In 185 8 drivers, specially enlisted and trained, were permanently attached to each field battery. In. 1859 the Royal Regiment of Artil-lery, which had increased to fifteen battalions of field and garrison artillery and one brigade of horse artillery was reorganised and divided into horse, field, and garrison brigades—each an administrative unit complete in itself with its own staff; and in 1862 the Indian artillery was amalgamated with the Royal Artillery, and the total strength of establishment was five horse and twenty-five field and garrison brigades.
Important changes also took place in the materiel about this period. The advantages of rifling had been long known, but it was not practically applied to ordnance until 1846. Rifled guns were first used by the British artillery at the siege of Sebastopol, but with no great effect, owing to defective construction. A few years later the introduc-tion of the Armstrong breech-loading rifled gun (first used in the China campaign of 1860) caused a great alteration in the equipment of the British artillery. The 7-inch gun of 82 cwt. was introduced for garrison service and even for siege purposes; 40-pounders, on block trail travelling carriages, for batteries of position, while 20-pounders were intended for the same or heavy field batteries; the
' For an interesting summary of the employment of artillery in the Peninsular War, see a paper by Captain Hime, R.A., No, 5, vol. viii., Proceedings of R.A. Institution, 1873.

12-pounder of 8 cwt. being for the armament of field, and the 9-pounder of 6 cwt. for horse artillery. The field carriages were provided with a gun-metal " saddle" worked by a lever and hand-wheel for traversing, and ball-and-socket elevating screw. The limbers and ammunition waggons were constructed of an improved pattern, and the whole equipment showed a great advance in efficiency; 124 rounds per gun were carried on the gun carriage and ammunition waggon, and a further " reserve "in a second line of wag-gons. The system of attaching small arm ammunition waggons to field artillery was abolished, and in future separate " ammunition columns " will convey this as well as reserve ammunition for artillery. The Armstrong system, which was but little tested in the field, has since 1873 been almost entirely superseded by muzzle-loading rifled guns, which will be described further on.
France. In France a new era for artillery opened with the wars of the consulate and the empire. The materiel underwent no great alteration, the 6-pounder being substituted for the 8 and 4-pounders for horse and divisional artillery, and a 24-pounder howitzer introduced. But beyond all other changes, we may note the increased tactical employment of artillery under the great artillery officer, Napoleon I. It is to his wars that we first look for instances of the impor-tant effects produced by this arm, in that concentration of fire which in those days was only produced by massing guns.1 After the peace of 1815 the system of Gribeauval, which had served its time, was further improved upon. The materiel adopted in 1827 consisted of 12-pounder and 8-pounder guns, and 6-inch and 24-pounder howitzers. A six gun battery was composed of either four 12-pounders and two 6-inch howitzers, or four 8-pounders and two 24-pounder howitzers. The carriages and ammunition waggons were also improved, so that the detachments could be mounted on them, and the mobility thus much increased. A new mountain artillery equipment was also adopted; a powerful 12-pounder howitzer, but weighing only 220 lbs., was introduced, the carriage and ammunition boxes being carried on mules ; and this equipment proved very service-able in the Algerian campaigns. In 1852 Napoleon III., when president of the Republic, did much to simplify the materiel, and introduced a 12-pounder shell gun, intended to fire solid shot or shrapnel shell. Louis Napoleon had always made artillery a special subject of study; and the great work on artillery commenced and mainly carried out by him is a standard work on the subject. In 1858 rifled guns, 12-pounders and 4-pounders, were adopted in the French service, and used with great effect against the Austrians in the Italian campaign of the following year. Since the war of 1870-71, where the French artillery proved itself markedly inferior both in numbers, power, and hand-ling to that of their adversaries, the French have been actively engaged in carrying on experiments, with a view to the introduction of a superior weapon, and have further increased their force of artillery by 120 batteries.
Prussia. At the commencement of the 19th century the Prussian artillery was rather powerful than mobile, the field artil-lery counting 216 12-pounders, 96 heavy 6-pounders, and only 120 light 6-pounders. After the disasters of 1806-7 this defect was remedied; and in 1816, when a further reorganisation took place, the ninety-six guns allotted to each army corps were in the proportion of three heavy to eight light The horse artillery numbered twenty batteries in 1809, and twenty-seven in 1816, and for many years formed the bulk of the reserve artillery. The personnel of the Prussian artillery has developed enormously during the 19th century. In 1808 it formed three brigades, each consisting of six field and two horse artillery batteries. In
1 See below under " Tactics."
1814 it was increased to nine brigades, each composed of twelve field and three horse artillery batteries, besides a proportion of garrison artillery and artificers, and corre-sponding to one of the permanent army corps of the Prus-sian army. It was with this organisation but slightly modified that Prussia undertook the wars of 1864 and 1866. In the latter war the Prussian artillery did not shine so much as its Austrian adversary; and deficiencies were brought to light which were carefully remedied in the few years of peace which followed. In 1867 an addition was made of three Prussian and one Saxon regiment of field artillery, with four divisions of garrison artillery, conse-quent on the incorporation of Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Nassau, Ac., and the formation of three new army corps from these provinces. It was with this establishment that the war of 1870-71 commenced. The South German forces contributed four regiments of Bavarian artillery and twenty-eight batteries of Wiirtemberg, Baden, and Hes-sian artillery ; and altogether seventeen regiments of field and nine of garrison artillery took part, or were effective for service, in that war. In 1872 the German artillery was reorganised, the field artillery of each army corps being augmented to seventeen batteries, and divided into two regiments.
Similar progress was made by the other great European Austria, powers during this century. The Austrian artillery has always been pre-eminent both in the excellence of its materiel and in tactical handling on the field. In 1859 rifled guns-were introduced; and in 1861 gun-cotton was substituted for gunpowder, but was soon afterwards aban-doned. In the unsuccessful war of 1866 her artillery especially distinguished itself by its gallantry and devotion, and showed itself decidedly superior to that of her adver-sary. A considerable development of her artillery has taken place within the last few years, which will be treated of further on. Russia, which specially distinguished itself Russia, in the Napoleonic wars by the power and good service of her artillery, has continued to devote the same attention to it. In 1861 she adopted the French system of rifled guns, but after the German war of 1866 she abandoned it for the breech-loading system of Prussia, and has armed her field artillery mainly from the manufactory of Krupp at Essen. Of late years Russia has shown the greatest activity in all matters connected with artillery ; the re-equipment of her siege, garrison, and coast artillery has been energetically proceeded with, and her fortresses re-armed; more than 1000 rifled guns having been supplied and mounted in the years 1869-70. Her field artillery has also been increased from three to four batteries per division, and thirty-eight batteries of mitrailleuses added.
To complete this historical portion of the subject some Indian brief notice is necessary of the Indian artillery, which artillery, springing from the Royal Artillery in 1748 returned to it again in 1862, after a varied but glorious career. The company of Royal Artillery sent to the East Indies in 1748 formed the nucleus from which three companies of regular artillery, one for each presidency, were raised in 1749. Five more companies were sent out between that and 1756; and on the reorganisation of the Indian army by Olive in 1765, the greater part of the Royal Artillery then serving there volunteered for, and was incorporated with, the Indian army, thus forming the basis upon which were formed the three corps of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay artillery. Its early days were passed in difficulties and comparative obscurity; it was recruited largely from the navy or merchant service, and many of the terms still in use, such as "lascar" (native assistant-gunner), were drawn from that service. Its officers, as a rule, were utterly without technical training. By degrees, however, educated officers were obtained from the Royal Artillery, and both maiiriel

and organisation were improved, the changes following those adopted in England though somewhat tardily. Up to the end of the 18th century, however, bullocks were alone used for artillery draught, attached to the carriages by yokes and traces of raw hide; and in the earlier wars the ammunition was carried on the heads of lascars. The artillery developed rapidly, as our Indian possessions and Indian armies increased, and bore a constantly increasing share in our triumphs in that country. Early in the 19th century it numbered three horse brigades, and seven Euro-pean and three native battalions. In 1845 the Afghan and Gwalior campaigns led to improvements in this branch; and in the Sikh wars the artillery was at last placed in its proper position. In 1857 it had attained its maximum strength, and numbered no less than sixty-five European and sixty-six native troops and batteries, with a total of 524 field guns. Its last and most brilliant services as a separate body were rendered in the great Sepoy mutiny, and in 1862 it was amalgamated with the Royal Artillery.
Organisation, Administration, and Materiel.
Modern artillery is broadly divided into field, siege, and garrison; and field artillery, again, is divided into moun-tain, horse, field (or foot), and position artillery. The battery is essentially the unit of artillery organisation, both tactical and administrative; and brigades or regiments are formed by combining a number of batteries for convenience of administration.
A battery of field artillery comprises three elements:
Field viz., materiel—guns, carriages, ammunition, and stores; per-
artilkry. sonnel—officers and non-commissioned officers, gunners to serve, drivers to groom and drive, and artificers; and trans-port—horses, mules, elephants, oxen, <fcc. The number of guns in a battery varies from four to eight. Mountain and position batteries have usually four or six, field and horse batteries six or eight guns each. In England, France, and Prussia, there are six guns to a field or horse battery; while Russian and Austrian batteries have eight guns. The latter uumber seems to possess decided advantages. It admits of more convenient division; and the half-battery of four guns is a small but convenient battery for any particular service. In England, where the battery is divided into three divisions of two guns each, the centre division has to be divided to form half-batteries. Moreover, the larger the unit consistent with tactical considerations, the fewer will be the relative number of non-fighting carriages, such as forges, <fec.
Usually the guns in a battery are all of one class, but sometimes what are termed mixed batteries are formed. Thus, until recently a field battery consisted of five guns and one howitzer, or four guns and two howitzers. These mixed batteries were supposed to have an advantage over those of guns alone, in that they commanded every kind of fire, and were adapted to every variety of circumstance. There was, however, a serious objection in the fact, that the differences between the gun and howitzer were so great in range and employment, that the fire of one must usually be comparatively neutralised; and the universal use of shell guns has now practically abolished mixed batteries.
The carriages which accompany a battery include (besides gun-carriages and limbers) ammunition waggons, store and provision carts or waggons, and forge waggons. The num-ber of ammunition waggons depends upon the amount of ammunition which it is considered necessary for a battery to take with it in action—an important question, upon which there is considerable diversity of opinion. The greater the amount of ammunition a battery carries with it, the more independent it is; on the other hand, every additional waggon makes the battery more cumbrous, and lengthens out the column of march,—a serious considera-tion at all times, and especially in the case of artillery moving with the advanced guard of an army. The pro-portion of ammunition to be carried must be based on past experience. At the battle of Liitzen, 1813, the French fired 220 rounds per gun, and on this they based their estimate. But in all the great battles of the Franco-German war of 1870-71 the maximum expenditure was 94 rounds per gun; at Vionville and at many of the great engage-ments not more than half this average was reached. The accumulation of waggons leads to batteries leaving a large part of their ammunition waggons at some convenient point under shelter when going into action; and the tendency now is to reduce the amount of ammunition with the bat-tery in order to obtain the greatest possible mobility, and provide against any failure of ammunition by a more effi-cient system of ammunition columns. In former days bat-teries were further hampered by having to carry the reserve of small-arm ammunition for the infantry and cavalry. This system was said to be advantageous, in that the infantry knew at once where they could obtain their ammunition, but its disadvantages were numerous, as it seriously en-cumbered the artillery; and, moreover, with the new tactics of long-ranging guns, the artillery, instead of closely accompanying the infantry, will often remain at a consider-able distance in rear, while the infantry is advancing. The reserve of small-arm ammunition is therefore now carried by special ammunition columns.
The distinction between horse and field or foot artillery is another question at present engaging attention. Horse artillery was created to compete with cavalry in rapidity of motion, and for this purpose every man was mounted, while field batteries were supposed to accompany the infantry, and their pace under ordinary circumstances to be limited to that of a man on foot. Under the new condi-tions of improved fire-arms, the dash of horse artillery has no longer its former value, while more mobility and more independence of action is required for the field batteries. It is therefore held by many that there should be only two classes of artillery : horse, or very mobile field artillery, and position batteries of heavy guns.
The organisation and interior economy of a battery is much the same in all field artillery. In England the com-mand is held by a major. Upon the commanding officer depends to a great extent the efficiency of the battery in peace and in war. He should be not only well versed in stable management and the ordinary routine of his duties, but he should be acquainted with the materiel with which he has to deal, and be a practical gunner; and further, besides the tactics of his own arm, he should understand the combined tactics of the other arms in order to appre-ciate intelligently what is required of artillery in modern warfare. The second in command is a captain. The bat-tery is divided into three divisions of two guns each, each under a subaltern officer, who is responsible for everything connected with his division,—men, horses, guns, carriages, ammunition, and stores. Each division, again, consists of two subdivisions, each comprising one gun and ammunition waggon, with ita quota of men and horses; and at the head of each is the No. 1 of the gun detachment,—usually a sergeant,—who is immediately responsible to the divi-sional officer for his subdivision. The No. 1 is technically the head of the gun detachment of nine gunners, and his duties in the field are to lay and command the gun.
Rockets and Mitrailleurs are generally associated with

field artillery in organisation, but 'will be found treated of
under their own titles. Rockets were applied to warlike
purposes by Sir W. Congreve about 1804. They were
used in 1809 in the Walcheren expedition, and with great
success at Leipsic in 1813, but have since fallen somewhat
into discredit on account of the danger of the service and
their inaccuracy of flight. They are, however, still used
for mountain and forest warfare against savage tribes, as in
Abyssinia, in 1868, and in Ashantee, in 1874; and are
very valuable for this purpose, from their extreme porta-
bility and their moral effect. The rockets now used are
Hale's ; they have no stick. They are carried in special
rocket carriages when required The rocket troop of horse
artillery did excellent service in its day, but has long been
abolished ; for some time a rocket section was attached to
every battery, but this has also been done away with.
Mitrailleurs are extensively used by some of the Continental
powers, especially the French and Russians, but have not
yet been adopted as part of the British field artillery. The
Germans oppose them on the ground that they are not equal
to the guns, which they to a certain extent supersede. A
Russian infantry division has one, and a French division
one battery of mitrailleurs attached to it.
Siege and Siege and Garrison Artillery.—Siege and garrison artillery
garrison have not usually the complete and permanent organisation
artillery, (Jigtinguishes field artillery. In India and some other
countries permanent siege trains are maintained ; but usually the matériel is kept in store, and the personnel and transport are supplied from other sources according to requirement. In garrison artillery, the guns mounted on fortresses and batteries, or stored in arsenals for the pur-pose, furnish the matériel, and the battalions or companies of garrison artillery the personnel. England. In giving a brief account of the artillery services of dif-ferent nations at the present time, we begin with that of Great Britain.
Mountain (a.) Mountain Batteries have for many years past been batteries. X^QÇI in India, where the details have from time to time been changed by. the light of experience. In England no batteries of this kind are maintained, though the matériel would be forthcoming and the personnel would be supplied from the garrison artillery. In 1868 two batteries were organised for the Abyssinian expedition, each composed of six 7-pounder M.L.R. guns, with steel carriages, ammunition boxes, rockets, forge, &c. The gun now adopted is a 7-pounder steel M.L.R. gun, of 3 in. calibre and 200 B> weight. The carriages are entirely of iron, the axletree consisting of a stout bar of wrought-iron, the brackets, of single plate, being housed directly across it. The projec-tiles are common shell, double shell, sharpnel, and case ; the double shell is fired at high angles, with a reduced charge, and a modified form of vertical fire is thus secured, which is very useful in hill campaigns. In Abyssinia the guns were carried on the backs of mules, transversely sup-ported on iron saddles or cradles. It is generally considered more expedient, however, to carry the guns lengthwise. The carriage is distributed between two mules, one carrying the bed and trail, and the other the wheels. The ammuni-tion is carried in boxes, a pair to each mule. Mules are also provided for a small forge, tools, stores, <fec.
In India mountain batteries are of two kinds, European and native, both officered from the Royal Artillery. There are two European batteries stationed in the Himalayas. The detail of each is 6 officers, 23 non-commissioned officers and trumpeters, 1 collar maker, 70 gunners ; total, 100 Europeans, with 119 native drivers, besides a native

1 The abbreviations M.L.R. and B. L.R., for "muzzle loading rifled " and "breech loading rifled" respectively, are used in the technical description of guns.
establishment of muleteers for baggage mules, grass cutters, artificers, &c, and 182 mules. There are two native mountain batteries in Bengal, and two in Scinde; and it is intended to increase the mountain batteries of India by turning certain native field batteries attached to the local Panjab Frontier Force into mountain batteries.
(b.) Horse Batteries.—Horse artillery batteries differ Horse from field batteries in possessing a lighter equipment, batteries, and in having the detachments of gunners to serve the guns mounted on horses. They are armed with six 9-pounder M.L.R. guns of wrought-iron, with tempered steel tube weighing 6 cwt.2 The personnel of a horse artillery battery at home is as follows :—
Peace Eatab- War Estab-lishment liahment.
Officers 5 5
N.-C. Officers and Trumpeters 20 22
Artificers 7 10
Gunners 70 70
Drivers 66 70
Horses (exclusive of officers' I riding 54 62
chargers) (draught.... 78 102
In India a battery has, further, a large non-combatant -native establishment, as 23 subordinate medical and hospital attendants, and no less than 339 artificers and followers of various kinds.
The detail of guns and carriages is as follows,—6 guns and carriages, 6 ammunition waggons, 1 forge, 1 store, 1 general service waggon, and 1 store cart. The construction of our carriages is very solid, excessively so in the opinion of many, as mobility is sacrificed to gain strength ; but this is partly caused by the fact that English carriages must be so constructed as to endure all extremes of climate. The gun-carriage for horse (and field) artillery is of wrought-iron.
The ammunition waggons are built on a framework of wrought-iron, with wrought-iron perches and wooden ammunition boxes. The projectiles are common and shrapnel shell, and case shot. Each limber has two boxes, and the body of the ammunition waggon four; each box contains a centre compartment, with 18 filled cartridges, two compartments front and rear, each with 6 shrapnel shells, and two side compartments containing 3 common shells and fuses in proportion. The ammunition carried is 4 case shot in the axletree boxes of the gun-carriage, 12 common shell, 24 shrapnel in the limber of the gun, and 36 common shell and 72 shrapnel in the ammunition waggons. A total of 148 rounds is thus carried by each gun with its fl.Tnmnnit.inn waggon.
The stores for horse and field batteries are numerous, consisting of camp equipment, entrenching tools, harness and saddlery, artificers' tools, ordnance stores, and miscel-laneous articles, the details of which will be found in the regulation hand-books and equipment tables. These are packed and carried on the different carriages of the battery. Thus the gun-limber carries drag-ropes and axe in front, and other implements, such as spade, shovel, pick-axe, at the side of the boxes, or underneath. A centre box on the limber contains time and percussion fuzes and friction tubes. On the lids of the boxes inside are carried various fuze implements, and a camp kettle and two leather buckets are carried under the limber-boxes. Traversing handspikes and sponges are carried on the gun-carriage itself, and in the axletree boxes, besides the case shot, linch-pins, drag-washers, gun-spikes, <!sc.
The waggon is packed much in the same way, but two camp kettles are carried under the body, and a spare wheel in front, three picket posts are carried on each side of the body, and under each alternate waggon of the battery a spare shaft or axletree. The tents are packed between the

ammunition boxes, and the many other stores distributed in various ways throughout the battery.
Each carriage in a horse artillery battery has six horses,
except the general service waggon and store cart, which
have only four. The horses are teamed in pairs,—lead,
centre, and wheel,—the drivers mounted on the near horses.
The off horse of the wheel is in the shafts. Much contro-
versylhas been raised as to the respective merits of " shafts "
or " pole ;" the latter was in use in India for many years,
and is still generally used by Continental powers. The
balance of advantage seems to lie on the side of shafts, but
it requires a very powerful horse for the off wheeler, on
whom so much is thrown. The harness is strong and fairly
simple. The off horses have pads upon which the valises
containing the drivers' kits are carried. Picket ropes and
posts are carried on the waggons, and each mounted man
has a head rope and a forage cord, which may be used as
a heel rope, a peg and leather shackle being carried for it.
Field (c.) Field Batteries differ from horse artillery in that they
batteries, have a heavier armament, and the gunners are not mounted.
The guns now in use are—(1) 9-pounder M.L.R. gun of cwt., (2) 12-pounder B.L.R. Armstrong gun of 8 cwt., (3) 16-pounderM.L.E. gun of 12 cwt. No. 2 has, however, been superseded in England, and will erelong become ob-solete in India also, where the whole of the field artillery is being armed with the 9-pounder M.L.E. The 16-pounder is a most powerful gun, probably the most powerful field gun in Europe, but is heavier than the corresponding guns in Continental armies, and some consider that its weight is inconsistent with sufficient mobility.
The personnel of a field battery is as follows :—
Peace Estab- War Estab- Indian Estab-
lishment, lishment. lishmenl
Officers 5 5 5
N.-C. Officers 19 20 20
Artificers 7 9 5
Gunners and Trumpeters 68 87 78
Drivers 61 73 54
Horses 88 154 110
The peace establishment, however, is variable. In India a field battery has, further, a native establishment of hos-pital attendants, lascars, grass-cutters, artificers, &c, and amounting in all to 247.
A field battery has 6 guns and carriages, 6 ammunition waggons, 1 forge, 1 store, and 1 general service waggon— total, 15. In war time the 6 ammunition waggons (known as the second line of waggons) form the nucleus of the ammuni-tion reserve. In India the second line of waggons are kept in readiness in the arsenals, and when taken into the field are drawn by bullocks. The gun-carriages are of wrought-iron, similar in construction to those of horse artillery. The obstacle to the rapid movement of field artillery has always been, that no means were provided for carrying with the gun the gunners required to serve it, as the limber could at most only accommodate three men. In India the constant necessity for rapid movement had caused the adoption of axletree seats, by which two more gunners could be mounted, one on each side of the gun, and saddles were also provided for the lead and centre horses of the gun team, so that, with the mounted non-commissioned officer, seven men would be at hand to serve the gun, independently of those mounted on the waggons. The axle-tree, seats are generally used on the Continent, and have recently been adopted in England for field batteries.
The projectiles for the M.L.R. guns are common shell, shrapnel, and case; the first used against earthworks, buildings, &c, the second against troops, and the third at close quarters. The fuzes used are percussion and wood time fuzes. The amount of ammunition carried with the 9-pounder M.L.E. gun, and manner of carrying it, are the same as in the horse artillery. With the 16-pounder M.L.R.
field batteries, the arrangement of the ammunition and the packing of the boxes and stores are similar, but the number of rounds carried is less. The near limber box of both gun and waggon contains 7 common and 5 shrapnel shells, the off one 5 common and 7 sharpnel, while the front waggon boxes contain each 5 common and 7 shrapnel shells, and the rear boxes 12 shrapnel; so that, with four rounds of case in the axletree boxes, the gun and waggon carry 34 common shell, 62 shrapnel, and 4 case, or 100 rounds altogether. In India the ammunition stores, &c, are similarly packed, but the camp equipment being larger is separately carried on camels provided for the purpose.
Eield artillery has been carried on elephants in India, and cradles or saddles are kept up there for the purpose in case of need; and has also been transported by sleighs, as in Canada. The sleigh is a platform placed on runners 16 inches high and 3 feet broad A description of th* sleigh-carriages and the exercise with them is given in the Hand-booh for Field Service.
(d.) Position Batteries,—a heavy field artillery, capable Position of movement, but not required to move fast, or to change batteries, position frequently, and used in the defence of special important points on a battle-field, entrenchments, <fcc. No manned batteries of this description are kept up in England, but the matériel is kept in store, and the personnel would be furnished from the garrison and field artillery. The guns at present used are 40-pounder B.L.R. Armstrong guns, 40-pounder M.L.R., and 25-pounder M.L.R. guns. The carriages are of angle iron, with bracket trails, and of great strength; the projectiles are common and shrapnel shell, and case. The detail for a battery'is as follows,—4 guns and carriages, 4 ammunition waggons, 1 forge, 1 general service, 1 platform, 1 store waggon, and 1 store cart. The guns are drawn by 12 horses, harnessed four abreast ; and as it is intended that the horses shall be furnished from the country if possible, the batteries have been specially fitted for the attachment of farmers' horses.
In India position artillery is maintained in the form of " heavy field batteries," some being armed with 40-pounder Armstrong guns and 8-inch mortars, others still with the old smooth-bore guns. The guns are dragged by elephants, two for each gun, one in the shafts and the other as leader ; the mortars and ammunition waggons by oxen. Elephants are dangerous under fire, and, therefore, their place is then taken by bullocks, of which ten pair are required for a gun.
(e.) Siege Artillery.—There is no special organisation of Siege siege artillery in England in time of peace. The matériel artillery, is kept in store, and the personnel and transport are furnished according to the. requirements of the particular service. The new M.L.R. wrought-iron guns, 40 and 64-pounders of 35 and 64 cwt. respectively, will probably form part of any future siege train, and with these will be associated 10-inch and 8-inch M.L.R. howitzers, and 5£ inch and 10-inch mortars, or, perhaps, a rifled mortar. The personnel would be supplied from the garrison artillery, a battery of which at war strength would form a siege train battery. The transport might be specially furnished or supplied from the country in which operations were to be conducted
The proportions of guns, &c, in a British siege train would be approximately—
55 64-pounder M.L.R. guns.
20 40-pounder „ „
30 8-inch M.L.R. howitzers.
105
To these would probably be added rifled and smooth-bore mortars according to circumstances.
The proportion of ammunition must vary with the

nature of the siege, but as a standard a detail has been fixed, which is given at length in the Revised Army Regu-lations o/1870.
The number of men required is calculated for three reliefs, or 30 men per gun, 15 per large mortar, and 9 per small mortar, with a reserve. A brigade of garrison artillery on war strength, numbering 51 officers, 135 non-commissioned officers and trumpeters, and 800 gunners, is held to be sufficient to man a siege train of 35 pieces.
The carriages employed are gun-carriages and limbers, howitzer and mortar-carriages, platform waggons, general service waggon, siege waggon, store waggon, sling waggon and cart, hand and trench carts. The carriages are generally of the block trail pattern, and, except that they are stronger, are similar in construction to the travelling carriages for field service. The new siege limber is of universal pattern, and similar to the field limber in con-struction. The mortar-carriages consist of a bed with an axletree mounted on two wheels, and with a perch for limbering up to a limber for travelling. The platform waggon is composed of a fore and hind carriage, with a platform over them for carrying guns and mortars. The general service waggon consists of a fore and hind carriage with body over them, covered with waterproof canvas. The siege waggon is merely the general service waggon strengthened and fitted so as to transport shot and shell. The store waggon consists of a body and limber, and will contain spare stores and materials, and necessary tools. The sling waggon is composed of a body and limber, and fitted with windlass arrangement so that guns can be slung up underneath. In the heavier pieces iron sling waggons are used. Considerable improvements will probably be made in siege carriages so as to admit of the abolition of embrasures and of the gun being fired over the parapet.
In India siege trains are kept in readiness in arsenals, and the transport, which is composed of bullocks, is to a large extent also maintained. These siege trains have been hitherto composed of old smooth-bore guns, but these will be replaced by rifled guns. There are 16 such trains, with a total of 400 or 500 pieces. The personnel would be supplied from the garrison artillery and the native establishment in the arsenals.
The duties of the siege trains, the position of parks and battories, &c, rather relate to the conduct of sieges, and do not therefore fall within the scope of the present article. Garrison (y.) Garrison Artillery.—The garrison battery consists artillery. onjy Q£ personnel, the materiel used being part of the defences or fortress in which this branch of the artillery is employed. The establishment of a battery is as follows :—
Peace. War. India.
Officers 4 4 5
N.-C. Officers 16 16 16
Gunners and Trumpeters 80 to 120 142 72
An Indian battery, further, has a native establishment of 30 hospital attendants, followers, &c. The care and preservation of the ordnance in fortresses and batteries, with all the complicated appliances and scientific construc-tions of modern artillery materiel, and of the carriages, stores, and ammunition, devolve upon the garrison artillery in peace time.
For fortress defence large numbers of smooth-bore 68, 32, and 24-pounders, and 8 and 10-inch shell guns, are still mounted. The general tendency, however, is to replace these with rifled guns of calibre suited to the importance and object of the work, while the nfitrailleuT or Gatling gun will probably be used in flanks and for the defence of ditches. Large numbers of 7-inch or 110-pounder B.L.R. Armstrong guns have been mounted since 1862. The M.L.R. guns are 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12-inch, the latter weighing 35 tons. The projectiles of these are common, shrapnel, and Palliser shell, case, and Palliser cored shot, and attain the extraordinary weight of 690 B>. An 81-ton gun is now (1875) in process of construction, and is calcu-lated to throw a shell of 1600 lb.
The old smooth-bore garrison carriages are of wood, with various arrangements and platforms for traversing The new carriages for the large M.L.R. guns are of wrought-iron, with hydraulic buffer arrangements. The Moncrieff carriage and system, by which the gun is loaded and laid in a gun pit, raised by a counterweight, and released again, descending after firing by the regulated power of the recoil, will probably be extensively employed in coast defences; and it is probable that still further improve-ments will be made in the carriages for the immense ord-nance now used.
General Organisation.—The whole of the British artillery forms one regiment, the "Royal Regiment of Artillery," numbering 1414 officers and 33,688 men, and distributed in 216 batteries of horse, field, and garrison artillery. For purposes of administration a unit higher than the battery is adopted, called the brigade. Each brigade has its own staff of colonel-commandant, 4 lieutenant-colonels, adjutant, quarter-master, &c. The batteries of the bri-gades are, as far as possible, kept in the same part of the country where the headquarters are serving. There are 6 brigades of horse artillery, 12 of field artillery, 13 of garrison artillery, and the " coast brigade ; " their detail and distribution will be found in the account of the British army (see ARMY, p. 578). Besides the brigade organisa-tion, there is another which may be termed the territorial system, or district commands, having reference especially to local duties, stationary matériel, such as guns mounted on forts and batteries, &c. These artillery districts corre-spond generally to the army districts, and have at their head a colonel on the staff, or other officer commanding the artillery district. In the United Kingdom there are also artillery sub-districts, under lieutenant-colonels, who are invested with the commands of the auxiliary and reserve force artillery of the sub-district. The highest administra-tion of the Royal Artillery is conducted at the War Office, in the department of the Commander-in-Chief,—a deputy-adjutant-general of artillery, with assistants, being attached for that purpose to the adjutant-general's division. An inspector-general of artillery is charged with special artil-lery inspections in the United Kingdom, and also inspects the materiel and munitions of war in the hands of the artillery. The department of the director of artillery and stores at the War Office is a branch of the Ordnance Department (see AEMY, pp. 573, 582), and deals with all matters relating to armaments, stores, and munitions not in artillery charge, and superintends the manufacture of warlike stores and the scientific experiments which have to be constantly made. In India the administration is not dissimilar, a depaty-adjutant-general and inspector-general of artillery performing duties analogous to those of the similar officials in England, while the director of artillery is represented by an inspector-general of ordnance and magazines.
Although Woolwich is no longer the official headquarters of the artillery it is the chief artillery station, and continues to be that to which officers and men practically look as their headquarters. The mess and band of the regiment are permanently maintained there ; and a large number of batteries, including the greater part of the depot brigade, are always stationed there, and it further contains most of the great artillery establishments, both manufacturing and instructional.
For an account of the manufacturing establishment see ARSENAL, p. 633, and for the scientific and educational establishments see ARMY, p. 586.

Proportion Unlike Continental nations, England has no permanently of guns to organised army corps and divisions, and, consequently, no combinations of artillery with the other arms. Her colonial possessions, and the vast extent of her Indian empire, raise almost insurmountable obstacles to any organisation which shall fulfil equally the conditions of peace and war, and have necessitated a distribution of the artillery on princi-ples other than those which obtain in the more facile systems of Continental armies. The proportion of guns to men at present existing is 2'45 per 1000 men; the grand total of guns for field service,—including field, mountain, and position batteries—being 784, while the total strength of troops, British and native, is 320,000. This proportion is somewhat under that now generally accepted, viz., 3 guns per 1000 men. The proportion of guns to men has varied with the circumstances of the age and country. During the 18th century the proportion was usually 3 per 1000, though Frederick at one time raised it to over 5 per 1000. In the earlier wars of the French Republic the allies increased the proportion unduly; and Napoleon, whose rapid tactics did not admit of his hampering his army with heavy trains, reduced it again. He advocated 2 guns per 1000 with old and tried troops, but 3 guns per 1000 with the usual composition of an army; and in his later cam-paigns, when his armies consisted almost entirely of recruits, he even exceeded this proportion. In the Crimean war, and in 1859, the Russians and Austrians increased this ratio considerably, but the great increase to the strength of armies which took place between 1866 and 1871 led to a comparative decrease of artillery, and the Germans have now rather less than 3 per 1000. It must be remembered, however, that the actual proportion on service is always in excess of the nominal one, often considerably so, as the guns are not reduced by the wear and tear of the campaign as the personnel of an army is; a battalion is soon reduced from 1000 to 500 men, but a battery always retains its six guns. In the great American war of 1861-65, the pro-portion of guns at first was nearly 6 per 1000, but towards the end was reduced to little over 1 per 1000, showing how the proportion is affected by the nature of the country which is the scene of operations.
Important questions connected with the organisation of
the British artillery are now giving rise to discussion, and
will probably be solved shortly; the two principal ones
being the breaking up of the huge, overgrown " regiment"
of artillery into smaller units, and the separation of the
field from the garrison artillery. The appellation " regi-
ment," for a force of 35,000 men and officers, is manifestly
a misnomer, and the continuance of the present system is
upheld principally on what may be termed " sentimental"
grounds,—unwillingness to break old ties and uproot
traditions, and fears that the esprit-de-corps of the service
might suffer in the change. The separation of the field
from the garrison artillery has often been advocated on the
grounds of the essentially different nature of the two ser-
vices, and the fact that the men and materiel are already
separate, the officers alone being transferred from one
branch to the other. The full discussion of the proposed
changes does not fall within the province of this article.
France The organisation of the French artillery has been com-
pletely changed by recent regulations. Previous to the Franco-German war of 1870-71, it consisted of 1 horse artillery and 1 field artillery regiment of the guard, 4 horse artillery and 12 field artillery regiments of the line, with garrison artillery, making up 19 regiments. The horse artillery regiments consisted of 8 batteries of 6 guns each, and the field artillery regiments of 12 batteries. Only 8 out of the 12 were mobilised during war, 4 remaining as batteries de sortie for garrison service. The number of field guns available was 984. This number of guns could not be put in the field at once, as 58,000 men and 39,00C horses were required, while in peace time only 34,000 men and 16,000 horses were kept up. The guns in the service were a 9-pounder (shell) mountain gun of 2 cwt., 9-pounder of 6J cwt. for field artillery (canon de i), 16-pounder of 11| cwt. (canon de 8), 25-pounder of 12 cwt. for position artillery (canon de 12), and 50-pounder of 40 cwt. (canon de 24) for siege purposes. These were of bronze, and rifled on the La Hitte system. In naval service B.L.R. guns of cast-iron, strengthened by rings, have been em-ployed, ranging from 70 to 300-pounders. The field guns fired studded projectiles, shell, shrapnel, and case ; and the heavy guns heavy elongated projectiles of similar kinds.
In accordance with the recent regulations, each of the 18 French army corps has a brigade of artillery attached to it, consisting of 2 regiments, 1 of divisional, the other of corps artillery. The divisional regiment consists of 8 field batteries and 1 depot battery ; the corps regiment, of 3 horse artillery batteries (1 of which is attached to the cavalry in time of war), 9 field batteries (1 of which is utilised for service in Algeria), and 1 depot battery. Each brigade has besides 4 dismounted batteries for garrison service, and 4 companies of drivers for ammunition columns. An army corps has, therefore, 4 batteries attached to each of its divisions, and employs 10 batteries in addition as its corps or, as it was formerly called, reserve artillery. The war strength of each battery is 5 officers and 168 men. The field guns in use are the 15 and 10-pounder bronze B.L.R. Reffye guns (canons de 5 et de 7). (See GUNS AOT> GUNNERY.)
The general organisation and distribution of the German Germany, artillery will be found under ARMY (p. 597). To each terri-torial army corps is attached a brigade of artillery, consist-ing of 2 regiments of field artillery and a regiment, or por-tion of a regiment, of garrison artillery. The first field Field, regiment or corps artillery consists of 2- field divisions of 3 artillery, field batteries each, and one horse artillery division of 3 batteries. The second field regiment or divisional artillery consists of 2 divisions, each of 4 field batteries. The field guns are the 9-centimetre B.L.R. gun, firing a shell of 15J lb weight, used by the field batteries, and the 8-centimetre B.L.R. gun, firing a projectile weighing 11 lb, with which the horse artillery is armed. These guns are of cast steel, with polygrooved rifling and wedge breech action (système de Krupp). Each battery has 16 carriages, viz., 6 guns and carriages, 6 ammunition waggons, 3 provision and store waggons, and 1 forge waggon. The gun-carriages are double cheeked, and made of plate iron. The ammuni-tion waggon carries one large box opening to the rear. The projectiles are a common shell of novel construction, case, and shrapnel—the latter only lately introduced. The following ammunition is carried per gun :—

The artillery ammunition columns have 25 waggons each, and provide a first reserve of about 125 rounds per gun. The infantry columns have 24 small-arm ammunition waggons.

The following table gives the personnel and transport of a battery or ammunition column on war establishment :—
Ammunition Columns.

Horse.
1 4
I-
8-centm. 9-centm.
Commanding officer
Subalterns
Officers of ammunition
columns
1
1
12 2 48 60 23
1 1
Laboratory conductor
(officer)
Quartermaster
12 2 42 49
12 2 42 60 23
1 1
12 2 8 26 34 3 1 1
84
12 2 8 23 37 3 1 1
80
Ensign (aspirant to rank of
officer)
ÎTon-Commissioned officers
Trumpeters
Gunners
Drivers
Spare men
Corporals
Hospital orderly
Collarmakers and Saddlers Soldiers of the transport
train uncluding officers'
servants)
158
153
159
176
172
4
140 22
7 92 16
15 92 100 6
4
132 22 8
7 92 16 10
Total , I Officers'.
174
213
123
125
166
' Spare
Total
Siege For siege purposes the Germans use the 12-centimetre
artillery. (4-f38 inch) bronze gun, firing a 29-Ib shell, and steel and
bronze guns of 15 centimètres (6 "85 inch) calibre, firing a
54-B> shell. The mortars used are the 8-inch rifled, and
the smooth-bore 15-centimetre. The usual composition of
a siege train is 400 guns, viz. :—
I 40 of 9-cm. (bronze).
son ™-A„j . ; 120 of 12-cm. (bronze).
820 rifled guns j m q{ u^ 'snort
' 40 of 15-cm. (steel), long. 40 rifled 21-cm. mortars, 40 smooth-bore 15-cm. mortars,—
besides 150 rifled wall pieces.
A 21-cm. shell gun and a 28-cm. rifled mortar are likely to be added to this list soon. Each gun has 508 rounds of ammunition ready for immediate service.
The siege trains are 2 in number, and in time of war have 16 ammunition columns attached to each. These columns consist of 46 ammunition waggons, 6 open waggons, a forge, and some baggage and forage carts. Each waggon is adapted for draught for either 4 or 6 horses. Garrison The garrison guns are the 12-centimetre gun in cast-iron artillery, and bronze, 15-centimetre, 23-centimetre (9-inch) cast-iron howitzer and heavy guns for garrison, coast, and naval purposes, ranging from 7-inch to 13-inch calibre. The Prussian artillery is breech-loading, and three systems are employed in the closing of the breech, viz., that of Wahren-dorf, or the " piston" arrangement (Kolbenverschluss)—that of Kreiner, or the "wedge" system (Keilverschluss)—and the Krupp system, or cylindro-prismatic wedge (Rundheilver-schluss). The first dates from 1861 ; the second system has been applied to land guns since 1864 ; the third is, in slightly varying forms, applied to all the most recently manufactured guns. The siege carriages have a peculiar arrangement of iron supports on the cheeks, by means of which the gun is enabled to fire over the parapet. The foot or garrison artillery has recently been reorganised into 30 battalions, counting 122 batteries or companies. The number of regiments is 19, but the number of battalions in a regiment varies. The garrison artillery is separated from the field artillery, and is specially attached to the army territorial commands, and officers can only be transferred from one branch to the other by special permission.
The Austrian artillery is divided into field, garrison, and Austria, technical artillery.
The field artillery consists of 13 regiments, having Field their permanent headquarters in Prague, Olmiitz, Komorn, artillery. Josephstadt, Pesth (2), Gratz, Vienna (2), Lemberg, Neustadt, Laibach, Temesvar. Each regiment comprises six 8-pounder and four 4-pounder field batteries, three 4-pounder horse batteries, one dep6t battery, and five or six ammunition columns.
Three batteries are attached to each infantry division, and three form the corps artillery, one battery being detached to the cavalry. In peace time a battery has only four guns and two ammunition waggons horsed; on war footing they have eight guns and eight waggons each drawn by four horses in the 4-pounder field batteries, and by six horses in the others. The guns are 4 and 8-poundei bronze rifled guns, having calibres of 3 and 3"9 inches, and firing 8-lb and 14-H) shell respectively.
War Establishment.
Steel B.L. guns of the Prussian type are, however, being gradually brought into the service, the M.L. system being definitely abandoned. The carriages are double cheeked or bracketed like the Prussian. A box to hold case is fixed on the trail about halfway between the breech of the gun and the point of the trail, and adapted to form a seat. The projectiles are common shell, shrapnel, incen-diary shell, and case. As in the Prussian artillery, the percussion fuze is alone used with common shell, and time fuzes for shrapnel. The peace and war establishments of batteries and ammunition columns, and the number of rounds carried, are shown in the following tables :—
4-pr.
Batt.
Peace Establishment.
tSi w-l Ao„rn


Captains
Subalterns
Cadet
Artificers
Sergeants
Corporals
Trumpeters
Conductors of car-)
riages J
Gunners
Drivers
Servants
Shoeing - smiths
and farriers .. Saddler and Col
lar maker
Total
Horses:—
Officers'
Draught
Reserve

The 4-pounder batteries carry 156 rounds of ammunition per gun, the 8-pounder 128 rounds. The first ammunition reserve conveys in addition 74 rounds for each 4, and 82 for each 8-pounder. The total number of rounds for each gun is, therefore, 230 and 210 respectively.
In order to avoid dependence on foreign contractors attempts are being made to cast a hard bronze for field guns, and it is hoped that by employing this metal a portion of the new equipment may be furnished by the Austrian arsenals.
The war materiel necessary to place the batteries on a war

footing is kept under charge of the field artillery, store horses being apportioned for it in the barracks of each regiment. By this system mobilisation is more quickly effected, and the materiel is better looked after than when stored in arsenals. Including the depfit batteries the Austrian artillery numbers 209 batteries, or 1672 horsed guns.
Garrison The garrison artillery consists of 12 battalions of 5 corn-artillery, panies each (increased to 6 in war time), and one coast artillery regiment of three battalions. The garrison bat-talions further furnish 5 mountain batteries, increased to 6 in war time. The mountain batteries are armed with four 3-pounder rifled bronze guns, and carry 112 rounds per gun, viz., 72 common shell, 24 shrapnel, 16 case. For siege and garrison purposes the guns in use are B.L.B. 15 and 21-centimetre and 8-inch bronze guns; 8-inch and 6J-inch rifled mortars, breech-loading, have also been adopted.
Technical The technical artillery comprises a portion of the workmen artillery, charged with the construction and repair of guns in all arms, ammunition, artillery materiel, <fcc. The personnel, numbering 28 superior officers, 162 captains and lieutenants, and about 1600 men, is distributed in sixteen arsenals, established in the chief towns of the empire; in war time companies of artificers are detached from these to the parks of each army corps. Artillery officers have to serve by roster in the technical artillery.
The instruction of officers is conducted at the cadet school and at the Academy of Technical Artillery. On leaving this academy officers ordinarily pass into the garri-son artillery, and after a year in this enter one of the regiments of artillery. After a second year they may be admitted, on application, to the advanced course of artillery, and after passing successful examinations are nominated as first lieutenants. Schools also exist in each regiment for the instruction of non-commissioned officers, one-year volunteers, and artillery cadets; and an autumn course of equitation, the most proficient at which are sent to the central school of equitation at Vienna, to be from thence appointed as riding-masters to the artillery regiments. For further details of Austrian artillery organisation see article ARMY, p. 606.
Russia. The Bussian materiel is divided into mountain, field, siege and garrison, and coast artillery. The mountain gun is a 3-pounder bronze rifled gun of 224 lb weight,.firing a 9-B> projectile. For field artillery they use both cast steel and bronze B.L.R. guns, 4-pounder and 9-pounder, of 3-3-inch and 4-inch calibres, firing 12-B> and 24-B> shells (loaded). Mitrailleurs have also been introduced for field artillery, and with them the range-finder, invented by Captain Nolan, R.A. The siege and garrison guns are 12 and 24-pounders, throwing 30 and 63-lb shells, 8-inch bronze and steel guns, and 6 and 8-inch rifled mortars. For coast purposes guns from 6-inch to 11-inch calibre are used. The Russians have also introduced a 50-ton gun, or 1200-pounder, but the future will prove its efficiency. Krupp of Essen has been largely employed by the Russian Government for the supply of steel guns, but these are now furnished by Russian factories.
The field carriages are of wood and iron, that for the mountain gun of iron; but the former are now to be made of greater stability, and the carriages for siege and garrison artillery have also been improved. The projectiles used are the charokh and shrapnel for the mountain and field guns, chilled shot being used with the heavier ordnance.
The artillery of the active army consists of 48 brigades of field and 8 brigades of horse artillery, besides siege trains, parks, and mobile arsenals.
The horse artillery brigades (bodyguard excepted) con-sist of 4 batteries of 6 guns each. A brigade of field artillery consists of 5 field batteries (3 heavy and 2 light) and 1 mitrailleuse battery. There are four descriptions of batteries,—(a.) 9-pounder field batteries, (p.) 4-pounder field and horse batteries, (c.) 3-pounder mountain batteries, (d.) mitrailleuse batteries. Each battery has eight guns, drawn by six horses in time of war.
The two-wheel ammunition carts formerly in use are being gradually replaced by four-wheeled waggons. The mitrailleuse batteries carry 6290 rounds. In the 9-pounder battery there are 24, and in the 4-pounder 16 ammunition waggons.
The great increase and development of the Russian army, which began in 1873, was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the artillery, each brigade being raised from 4 batteries, its former strength, to 6, and a further increase of 2 batteries is probable. When the changes in progress are completed, the Russian field artillery will number 300 batteries, or 2400 guns.
Tactics.
The tactics of artillery, combined with the other arms, will be dealt with in another place (see WAR). The present article treats only of drills, and the simpler or uncom-bined tactics of artillery. Drill, though commonly in-cluded under the head of tactics, is rather the elementary training and education required for the higher development, and varies according to the nature of the artillery. The drills and instruction for horse artillery are as follows :—(1.) Horse Equitation or riding drill. (2.) Foot drills, as for cavalry, artillery. (3.) Sword drill. (4.) Field gun drills. This includes the actual service of the gun, the loading, laying, and firing, &c, positions of gunners and detachments under various conditions, limbering up, unlimbering, exercise with drag ropes, &c. ; also, such exercises as dismounting gun and carriage, mounting gun and carriage, replacing a damaged wheel, exchanging gun and limber wheels, shifting shafts from double to single draught, and vice versa, moving dis-abled ordnance, ore. For details the reader is referred to the Manual of Artillery Exercises. (5.) Battery exercise (sometimes called by the horse artillery " gun drill "). In the horse artillery each subdivision consists of gun and waggon, with two non-commissioned officers, and six or eight gunners, besides drivers. Two gunners are carried on the limbers. The rest are mounted, and are called the . detachment, which is placed in front, rear, or on a flank of the gun, according to circumstances. Ammunition waggons of horse artillery do not manoeuvre usually, but merely conform to the movements of the guns at a safe distance. A battery of six guns in line occupies 95 yards, each gun being 19 yards from the next. When a battery comes into action, each detachment dismounts, the limber gunners get off the gun-limber to the rear, the trail is unkeyed, the limbers drive on, and the gun is placed in position, and the Nos. 1 lay them during the loading. They are then fired independently, unless the commanding officer gives orders to the contrary. " Limbering up " is the converse operation. The details of drill will be found in the Manual of Field Artillery Exercises.
Field Artillery.—The drill of a field battery is almost Field the same as that of a battery of horse artillery. The space artillery, occupied by a battery and the intervals are the same. There are, however, no mounted detachments, and the waggons usually accompany the guns in manoeuvring, though on the battle-field they are supposed to be kept at a safe distance, and if possible under cover. The gunnels are carried on the limbers and waggons when the battery moves faster than a walk. The provision of gun axletree seats now enables a sufficient number of men fos the service of the gun to be kept with it under all circumstances. The drill for mountain batteries is not laid down anywhere,

but is conducted on the same general principles as that of a field battery. Ease and celerity in coming into action is the great object in that as in all field artillery drills. At the word " halt, action, front," (" rear," " right," " left "), as the case may be, the carriage is taken off the carriage-mules, the wheels taken off the wheel-mule, and run up to the carriage and put on. The gun has by this time been lifted off by gunners by means of a handspike in the muzzle and one under the cascable, and is put on to the carriage. The movements of a mountain battery in " column of route," i.e., single file, in " columns of subdivisions," the ammunition mules being alongside the gun and carriage mules, or in " columns of divisions," subdivisions being side by side, two and two, are merely adaptations of the manoeuvres of field artillery. I Siege artil- Siege Artillery.—The drills for the service of siege guns lery. are numerous. Travelling carriages being used, the drill employed is a medium between field and garrison gun drills, and comprises unliinbering, limbering up, shirting from travelling to firing trunnion holes and, vice versa, the load-ing, laying, firing, &c, the mode of " taking post " under cover and at the gun.
Mortar drill would also come into this section, and embraces the manner in which the travelling mortar-beds are unlimbered and placed on the ground, and the converse operations, the detachment taking post at the mortar, the preparation for action, the mode of laying the mortar, load-ing, firing, <fcc. The laying of platforms also forms an important part of the duties of siege artillery. " Knotting " and the use of ropes and tackles is an essential branch of the drill. A siege artilleryman must be instructed in all the materials and appliances used in moving ordnance. Chains, levers, handspikes, fulcrums, skids, planks, rollers, crab capstans, lifting jacks, &c, all enter into his work. He must also be acquainted with the numberless operations by which siege guns are moved when dismounted, the mode of mounting and dismounting them, while the drills for gyns, sling waggons, sling carts,.sheers, &c, are particularly his province.
Garrison Garrison Artillery.—The drills for garrison artillery
artillery, embrace all those which come under the head of siege, but,
further, comprise all the drills and exercises' with heavy
ordnance, such as (trills with heavy guns on standing
carriages, traversing platforms, and Moncrieff carriages,
and with the enormous 10-inch, 11-inch, and 12-inch guns,
fitted with special mechanical contrivances for loading,
traversing ; mounting and dismounting of heavy ordnance;
and all kinds of work with sheers and derricks. The
garrison artillery are also trained in the ordinary duties of
infantry, viz., carbine, company, and battalion drill. All
artillerymen are further instructed in the laying of ordnance,
judging distance, and in the various laboratory operations
which gunners are required to know, the handling of all
kinds of projectiles, fuzes, <fcc.
Tne uncom- Field Artillery Manœuvres.—In manceuvring batteries,
bined tac- no fixed right or left is acknowledged, but only the front
tics of tQ ^hjgjj the guns point when in action, or the horse's face
ar 1 when limbered up. The paces used are the walk, trot,
and gallop, and, according to Taubert, the " trot " is the most important. With us field batteries are strictly enjoined not to move beyond a trot, but there are occasions on which it is necessary for a battery to move at its quickest possible pace ; and in Germany this is recognised and acted upon. Field artillery has increased in mobility by the recent change in matériel and the provision of axletree seats, so that there is no longer danger of a gun coming into action without a sufficient number of gunners to work it. Batteries should, therefore, be exercised to manoeuvre with waggons at a safe distance, taking advantage of cover, but conforming to the movements of the guns.
Columns of artillery are composed of batteries, half bat-teries, divisions, subdivisions, and columns of route. Tau-bert divides artillery columns into ( 1 ) the column of march, (o2), the rendezvous column, (3) the column of manœuvre. 1. With us the first is usually the " column of route " or single file, each waggon following its own gun in a long string. In the German army the guns come first, and then the waggons. This has the great advantage of not hampering the line of march, and is peculiarly adapted to the use of artillery with a large advanced guard. Columns of divi-sions may be used on a very broad road 2. Rendezvous columns are open columns with the guns at full interval, so as to admit of guns, &c, reversing or taking ground to right or left. 3. The column of manœuvre may, when cover exists, be formed at close interval, but never so under fire. A close formation enables batteries to get near an enemy unseen, and the commander has the force well in hand, but this advantage should not weigh with the necessity for opening out for fire at the earliest moment. The best formation on the battle-field is that which admits of the easiest deploy-ment for action. The position of guns is always governed by the nature of the ground, and " every possible advantage should be taken of this without paying too much attention either to intervals or dressing." The construction of gun-pits and epaulements for the waggons should be an im-portant part of drill.
Positions for artillery must naturally be dependent on the Artillery character of the ground, and the objects to be executed positions, by the guns. But where a choice exists, we must be guided by principles which secure us the vantage ground A flat trajectory for our guns is highly important in diminishing the safe space for the enemy, and with this view a very elevated position is to be avoided Such position is also bad if percussion fuzes are used, and the soil which the enemy occupies is soft. On the other hand, artillery do not now change their positions so frequently as in times past, and are more constantly required to fire over the heads of their own infantry ; and a position sufficiently elevated to give a good command of the country and search out the enemy's position is therefore more required than formerly. Shell firing against troops under cover will also enter largely into the use of artillery in future, and for this command is of im-portance. A point of first importance in selecting a position is the absence of cover for the enemy within range of infantry rifle fire ; and the position should be such that advance or retreat is easy. The brow of a hill, where the guns can be partly, and the limbers and waggons entirely covered by being withdrawn, is generally advantageous. The ground should be neither heavy nor stony. A good deal of con-troversy has taken place about the dispersion or concen-tration of guns for fire. Ji the object, i.e., concentration of fire, can be attained by dispersion of batteries, it may be better under certain circumstances of ground to separate than to collect the artillery in large masses ; on the other hand, dispersed batteries are much more out of control, and unable to receive the directing impress of one mind, and usually the employment of large masses of artillery will have a greater moral effect. The one object, concentration of fire, must be attained
The most powerful and effective position in which artil-lery can be placed is that in which, acting on a flank, it enfilades or takes in flank the enemy's troops. A remark-able illustration of this was given by Frederick the Great at Rossbach. At the battle of Talavera, July 28, 1809, the British guns changed position to the right, advancing from the left flank, and brought a destructive fire to bear on the French columns attacking from the centre of their line. At the battle of Bautzen, May 21, 1813, Napoleon's great manœuvre, in sending Ney to attack the right rear of the allied position, was frustrated by the fire of 20 Prussian

guns taking Key's columns in flank on the march. The battle of the Alma, September 20, 1854, gives an example of the effect produced by the enfilade fire of a few guns. Two guns of Turner's battery boldly advanced to a knoll which had been left unguarded almost in the centre of the Russian position, took the Russian columns in flank, and with such effect as almost to decide the fortunes of the day.
It has been explained that, in the early days of artillery tactics, guns had occasionally been massed, but usually with no clear aims as to their functions ; nor was this state of things altered until far into the Napoleonic era. It was at the camp of Boulogne in 1805 that a truer system of tactics was first practised, and it was at the battle of Friedland, on the 14th June 1807, that the first striking example of the effect of artillery when employed in masses was given. The Russians had crossed the river Alle and taken up position in front of the town of Friedland. Ney had been ordered by Napoleon to drive back the Russian left and occupy Friedland, but had met with a severe check, when the French artillery general Senarmont collected the divisional artillery of the 1st corps, and, dividing it into two batteries of 15 guns each, with a reserve of 6 guns, placed a battery on each side of the road from Eylau, and by a converging and destructive fire of case broke the Russian columns, defeated all attempts on their part to resume the offensive, and finally drove the Russian left into the narrow defile and re-entering bend of the river.
At the battle of Wagram, 6th June 1809, Napoleon, pivoting on his left, advanced his right, turning the Austrian left, and attacked the centre with a mass of 100 guns. This imposing display of artillery power covered the French centre, and fixed the attention of the Austrian commander to the point, while the left was enabled to execute its turning movement. The French artillery, however, suffered excessively, the range being too short, and the want of mobility of the field batteries conspicuous.
The battle of Lutzen or Gross-Gorschen was fought between the allied Russians and Prussians and the French in May 1812. The former had 438 guns, the latter only 236. The allied artillery was not well handled, the fire being kept up in a dispersed and thriftless manner, the guns scattered between the infantry columns, and no powerful reserve being formed. Napoleon, reserving the artillery power he possessed, brought up a mass of 80 guns at the decisive moment, and with such effect that the allies gave ground and ultimately retreated.
The battle of Hanau, October 30, 1813, is a striking instance of an artillery fight. Napoleon was retreating from Erfurt after his defeat at Leipsic. Wrede barred his retreat, holding the issues of the forest of Hanau. Wrede had formed a battery of 60 guns, which for some time defeated all efforts of Napoleon to break out from the forest; and it was only Drouet's skilful concentration of fire, from three gradually reinforced masses of artillery upon Wrede's large battery, that enabled Napoleon ultimately to win his way out.
For other illustrations of the use of artillery on the battle-field, the reader is referred to Taubert's work On the Use of Field Artillery, translated by Col. H. H. Maxwell, R.A., and Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen's treatise On the Employ-ment of Field Artillery, translated by Capt Clarke, R.A.
In the Italian campaign of 1859 a close country prevented much use being made of artillery, but at Solferino both Austrians and French massed considerable numbers of guns, and a brilliant example of the use of artillery was presented on the plain of Medole. M'Mahon having inclined to his left to support the attack on the Solferino heights, while Niel was fully engaged with a superior Austrian force on his right, a gap was created between these two corps. To fill this a mass of 42 guns, supported by cavalry, formed on the plain of Medole, and their fire frustrated all offensive attempts of the Austrians at this point. Rifled guns were employed by the French in this campaign, and without doubt contributed largely to their success.
In the struggle for supremacy of the two great German powers in 1866, both combatants were armed with the new weapons, but their proper applications seem to have been totally misapprehended. The Prussian batteries were kept too much in rear of the other troops while on the march, and came into action at ranges which only a very exaggerated view of the powers of rifled guns could justify. At Trautenau, Nachod, and Skalitz their artillery played an unimportant part; at Sadowa comparatively few of the vast number of their batteries came into effective action. The Austrian artillery had but little opportunity of dis-playing superiority of management or tactical training, though its heroism and self-sacrifice in covering the retreat on the eve of Sadowa is worthy of mention.
Till the campaign of 1870-71, the proper management and powerful effect of modern artillery was never thoroughly realised. The pungent criticism of certain anonymous writers on the 1866 campaign bore its fruits, and revolu-tionised the system of artillery tactics. From the storming of the Spichern heights up to the capture of Le Mans the same tactical features were prominent on the victorious side. A battle was preluded by the bold advance of all available guns. The attack commenced with a concen-trated fire of artillery, the moral, if not actual, effect of which enabled an offensive movement of infantry to be made with success, or at least kept the enemy in check till the flanking movements, so conspicuous in this war, were carried out. At Worth more than 100 guns were massed on the heights opposite Froschwiller, and enabled a frontal attack to be made across the open valley of the Sauer. In the battles about Metz the massing of batteries was espe-cially prominent. At Rezonville groups of 6 to 10 batteries acted in effective concert; at St Privat more than 200 guns cannonaded the French position for some hours. At Sedan the German guns were pushed forward regardless of escort, even in front of the advanced guards, and enclosed the ill-fated French army in what has been aptly described as a circle of fire.
In the Napoleonic wars guns were massed at the crisis of an engagement in order to strike a decisive blow, now they are assembled much earlier in order to render ai¡ attack possible. Modern artillery tactics may be summed up in a few words. The artillery of advanced guards is considerably increased, and the greater proportion of the corps and divisional guns march close to the head of the main columns. At the commencement of an engagement batteries are pushed to the front with great boldness, massed as much as possible, and concentrate their fire. Frequent change of position is deprecated, but guns must be kept within effective range, and their safety subordi-nated to the success of the other troops. The contem-poraneous action of the three arms is more common than it used to be.
In future wars it is doubtful whether the independent action of artillery will not be somewhat restrained. Mechanical contrivances may make the accurate finding of ranges possible, and the employment of shrapnel shell, with an efficient time-fuze, render artillery fire more destructive than it has hitherto been. The action of mitrailleurs will probably be important when their efficacy and sphere of employment are thoroughly comprehended. No great improvement in the range and accuracy of fire of guns can be expected, as the practical limits of both have already been nearly reached. A few years may, however, witness the advent of a projectile power superior to gunpowder, and a shell more destructive than any at present in use. (See GUNS AND GUNNERY.) (K H. H. O.)









Footnotes

Cheaney's Observations on Fvre-Arms, 1852.

Owen's Modem Artillery.
s Battles and Principal Combats of the Seven years' War.

The term field artillery has a general and a particular sense. In the former it applies to all kinds of artillery which accompany an army on the field of battle ; in the latter it is confined to that branch (in some armies called foot artillery) which is supposed ordinarily to move with infantry, as distinguished from the lighter horse artillery and the heavier position artillery.

In India a few batteries are still armed with guns of old patterns,








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