BRISBANE, a town of Australia, capital of the colony of Queensland, is situated in Stanley county, on both banks of the River Brisbane, about 25 miles from its entrance into Moreton Bay. It consists of four parts,North and South Brisbane, Kangaroo Point, and Fortitude Valley. Among its public buildings are courts of justice, houses of parliament, a governor's residence, a literary institute, a concert-room, a school of arts, and from twenty to thirty churches. It has also an excellent botanical garden. The river, which is about a quarter of a mile broad opposite the town, is navigable for vessels of considerable burden, and has been made more accessible by the partial removal of the bar at its mouth. Regular steam communication is kept up with Sydney and other Australian ports, and a very flourishing trade is carried on in the export of wool, cotton, tallow, and hides, and the import of European manufactures. The town is the centre of a considerable railway and telegraphic system. Brisbane was founded as a penai settlement in 1825, and was named in honour of Sir Thomas M. Brisbane. In 1842 the establishment was abolished, and general colonization set in. The town was politically a part of New South Wales till 1859, when it was made the capital of Queensland. It is the seat of an Anglican and also of a Roman Catholic bishop. Its population was only 5225 by the census of 1861; but in 1871 it amounted to 15,029, of whom 7204 were males and 7825 females. The number of inhabited houses at the latter date was 2931.