ISAAC CASAUBON (1559-1614) was born at Geneva, 18th February 1559, of French refugee parents. On the publication of the edict of January 1561, the family returned to France and settled at Crest in Dauphiné, where Arnold Casaubon, Isaac's father, became minister of a Huguenot congregation. Till he was nineteen, Isaac had no other instruction than what could be given him by his father amid the distractions of those troubled years. Arnold was away from home whole years together, in the Calvinist camp, or the family were flying to the hills to hide from the fanatical bands of armed Catholics who patrolled the country. Thus it was in a cave in the mountains of Dauphiné that Isaac received his first lesson in Greek, the text-book being Isocrates ad Demonicum.
At nineteen Isaac was sent to the Academy of Geneva, where he read Greek under Francis Portus, a native of Crete. Portus died in 1581, having recommended Casaubon, then only twenty-two, as his successor. At Geneva he remained as professor of Greek till 1596. Here he married twice, his second wife being Florence, daughter of the celebrated scholar-printer, Henri Estienne. Here, without the stimulus of example or encouragement, with few books and no assistance, in a city peopled with religious refugees, and struggling for life against the troops of the Catholic dukes of Savoy, Casaubon made himself the consummate Greek scholar, and master of ancient learning, which he became. He gave himself up to a study of the classical remains with a zeal and persistency which were fed only by an innate love of acquisition. His great wants were books and the sympathy of learned associates, both of which were wanting at Geneva. He spent all he could save out of his small salary in buying books, and in having copies made of such classics as were not then in print. Henri Estienne, Beza, and Lect were, indeed, men of superior learning. But Henri, in those last years of his life, was no longer the Estienne of the Thesaurus; was, besides, never at home, and would not suffer his son-in-law to enter his library. "He guards his books," writes Casaubon, "as the griffins in India do their gold !" Beza was engrossed by the cares of administration, and retained, at most, an interest for theological reading. Lect, a lawyer, had left classics for the active business of the council. The sympathy and help which Casaubon's native city could not afford him, he endeavoured to supply by cultivating the acquaintance of the learned of other coun-tries. Geneva, as the metropolis of Calvinism, received a constant succession of visitors. The Continental tour of the young Englishman of birth was not complete without a visit to Geneva. It was there that Casaubon made the acquaintance of young Henry Wotton, who lodged in his house, and borrowed his money. Of more consequence to Isaac Casaubon was the acquaintance of Richard Thomson of Clare, for it was through Thomson that the attention of Scaliger, settled in 1593 at Leyden, was directed to Casaubon. Scaliger and Casaubon first exchanged letters in 1594. Their intercourse, which was wholly by letter, for they never met, passes through the stages of civility, admiration, esteem, regard, and culminates in a tone of the tenderest affection and mutual confidence. Influential French men of letters, the Protestant Bongars, the Catholic De Thou, and the Catholic convert Canaye de Fresne, aided him by presents of books and encouragement, and endeavoured to get him invited, in some capacity, to France.
This was effected in 1596, in which year Casaubon accepted an invitation to the university of Montpellier, with the title of "conseiller du roi" and " professeur stipendie' aux langues et bonnes lettres." In Montpellier he never took root. He held the professorship there only three years, with several prolonged absences. He was not, at any time, insensible to the attractions of teaching, and his lectures at Montpellier were followed not only by the students, but by men of mature age and position. But the love of knowledge was gradually growing upon him, and becoming a devouring passion which excluded all other ambition. He began to perceive that the editing Greek books was an employment more congenial to his peculiar powers than teaching. At Geneva he had first tried his hand in some notes on Diogenes Laertius and on Theocritus, of small account. His debut as an editor had been a complete Strabo (1587), of which he was so ashamed afterwards that he apologized for its crudity to Scaliger, calling it "a miscarriage." This was followed by the text of Polyaenus, an editio princeps, 1589 ; a text of Aristotle, 1590 ; and a few notes contributed to Estienne's editions of Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Pliny's Epistolce. It is not till we come to his edition of Theophrastus's Characteres, 1592, that we have a specimen of that peculiar style of illustrative commentary, at once apposite and profuse, which distinguishes Casaubon among annotators. At the time of his removal to Montpellier he was engaged upon what is the capital work of his life, his edition of, and commentary on, Athenaeus.
In 1598 we find Casaubon at Lyons, superintending the passage of his Athenosus through the press. Here he lived in the house of De Vic, "surintendant de la justice," a Catholic, but a man of acquirements, whose connections were with the circle of liberal Catholics in Paris. In the suite of De Vic, Casaubon made a flying visit to Pans, and was presented to Henry IV. The king was very gracious, and said something about employing Casaubon's services in the "restoration" of the fallen university of Paris.
With the hopes thus excited he returned to Montpellier. In January 1599 he received a summons to repair to Paris. But the terms of the letter missive were so vague, that, though it bore the sign manual, Casaubon hesitated to act upon it. However, he resigned his chair at Montpellier, but instead of hastening to Paris, he lingered more than a year at Lyons, in De Vic's house, waiting for the appoint-ment to a Paris professorship. None came, but instead there came a summons from De Vic, who was in Paris, to come to him in all haste on an affair of importance. The business proved to be the Fontainebleau Conference. Casaubon allowed himself to be persuaded to sit as one of the referees who were to adjudicate on the challenge sent to Du Plessis Mornay by Cardinal Duperron. By so doing he placed himself in a false position, as Scaliger said : " Non debebat Casaubon interesse colloquio Plessiseano; erat asinus inter simias, doctus inter imperitos " (Scali-gerana 2"). The issue was so contrived that the Protestant party could not but be pronounced to be in the wrong. By concurring in the decision, which was unfavourable to Du Plessis Mornay, Casaubon lent the prestige of his name to a court whose verdict would without him have been worthless, and confirmed the suspicions already current among the Reformed churches that, like his friend and patron Canaye de Fresne, he was meditating abjuration. From this time forward he became the object of the hopes and fears of the two religious parties; the Catholics lavishing promises, and plying him with arguments ; the Reformed ministers insinuating that he was preparing to forsake a losing cause, and only higgling about his price. We now know enough of Casaubon's mental history to know how erroneous were these computations of his motives. But, at the time, it was not possible for the immediate parties to the bitter controversy to understand the intermediate position between Genevan Calvinism and Ultramontanism to which Casaubon's reading of the fathers had conducted him.
Meantime the efforts of De Thou and the liberal Catholics to retain him in Paris were successful. The king repeated his invitation to Casaubon to settle in the capital, and assigned him a pension. No more was said about the university. The recent reform of the university of Paris had closed its doors to all but Catholics ; and though the chairs of the College de France were not governed by the statutes of the university, public opinion ran so violently against heresy, that Henry IV. dared not appoint a Calvinist to a chair, even if he had desired to do so. But it was designed that Casaubon should succeed to the post of sub-librarian of the royal library when it should become vacant, and a patent of the reversion was made out in his favour. In November 1604, Jean Gosselin died in extreme old age ; and Casaubon succeeded him as sub-librarian, with a salary of 400 livres in addition to his pension.
In Paris Casaubon remained till 1610. These ten years were the brightest period of his life. He had attained the reputation of being, after Scaliger, the most learned man of the age,an age in which learning formed the sole standard of literary merit. He was placed above penury, though not in easy circumstances. He had such facilities for religious worship as a Huguenot could have, though he had to go out of the city to Hablon, and afterwards to Charenton, for them. He enjoyed the society of men of learning, or who took an interest in learned publications. He had the best opportunities of seeing men of letters from foreign countries as they passed through Paris. Above all, he had wealth of Greek books, both printed and in MS., the want of which he had felt painfully at Geneva and Montpellier, and which no other place but Paris could at that period have supplied.
In spite of all these advantages we find Casaubon restless, and ever framing schemes for leaving Paris, and settling elsewhere. It was known that he was open to offers, and offers came to him from various quarters,from Nimes, from Heidelberg, from Sedan. His friends Lect and Diodati wished, rather than hoped, to get him back to Geneva. The causes of Casaubon's discomfort in Paris were various, but the principal source of uneasiness lay in his religion. The life of any Huguenot in Paris was hardly secure in these years, for it was doubtful if the police of the city was strong enough to protect them against any sudden uprising of the fanatical mob, always ready to re-enact the St Bartholomew. But Casaubon was exposed to persecution of another sort. Ever since the Fontainebleau Conference an impression prevailed that he was wavering. It was known that he rejected the outre anti-popery opinions current in the Reformed churches ; that he read the fathers, and wished for a church after the pattern of the primitive ages. He was given to understand that he could have a professorship only by recantation. When it was found that he could not be bought, he was plied by con-troversy. Henry IV., who liked Casaubon personally, made a point of getting him to follow his own example. By the king's orders Duperron was untiring in his efforts to convert him. Casaubon's knowledge of the fathers was that of a scholar; Duperron's that of an adroit polemist; and the scholar was driven to admit that the polemist was often too hard for him. These encounters mostly took place in the king's library, over which the cardinal, in his capacity of aumonier, exercised some kind of authority ; and it was therefore impossible for Casaubon to avoid them. On the other hand, the Huguenot theologians, and especially Du Moulin, chief pastor of the church of Paris, accused him of conceding too much, and of having departed already from the lines of strict Calvimstic orthodoxy.
When the assassination of Henry IV. gave full rein to the Ultramontane party at court, the obsessions of Duperron became more importunate, and even menacing. It was now that Casaubon began to listen to overtures which had been faintly made before, from the bishops and the court of England. In October 1610 he came to this country in the suite of the ambassador, Lord Wotton of Marley. He had the most flattering reception from James I., who was perpetually sending for him, to have theological talk. The English bishops were equally delighted to find that the great French scholar was an Anglican ready made, and had arrived, by independent study of the fathers, at the very via media between Puritanism and Romanism, which was becoming the fashion in the English Church. Casaubon, though a layman, was collated to a prebendal stall in Canter-bury, and had a pension of £300 a year assigned him from the exchequer. Nor were these merely paper figures. When Sir Julius Caesar made a difficulty about payment, James sent a note in his own hand : "Chanceler of my excheker, I will have Mr Casaubon paid before me, my wife, and my barnes." He still retained his appointments in France, and his office as librarian. He had obtained leave of absence for a visit to England, and his permanent settle-ment here was not contemplated. In order to retain their hold upon him, the Government of the queen regent refused to allow his library to be sent over. It required a special request from James himself to get leave for Madame Casaubon to bring him a part of his most necessary books. Casaubon continued to speak of himself as the servant of the regent, and to declare his readiness to return when summoned to do so.
Meanwhile his situation in London gradually developed unforeseen sources of discomfort. Not that he had any reason to complain of his patrons, the king and the bishops. James continued to the last to delight in his company, and to be as liberal as the state of his finances allowed. Overal had received him and his whole family into the deanery of St Paul's, and entertained him there for a year. Overal and Andrewes, then bishop of Ely, were the most learned men of a generation in which extensive reading was more general among the higher clergy than it has ever been since. These two were attracted to Casaubon by congenial studies and opinions. With the witty and learned bishop of Ely, in particular, Casaubon was always happy to spend such hours as he had to spare from the labours of the study. Andrewes took him to Cambridge, where he met the most gratifying reception from the notabilities of the university. They went on together to Downham, where Casaubon spent six weeks of the summer of 1611. In 1613 he was taken to Oxford by Sir H. Savile, where, amid the homage and feasting of which he was the object, his principal interest is for the MSS. treasures of the Bodleian. The honorary degree which was offered him he declined.
But these distinctions were far from compensating the serious inconveniences of his position. Having been taken up by the king and the bishops, he had to share in their rising unpopularity. The courtiers looked with a jealous eye on a pensioner who enjoyed frequent opportunities of taking James I. on his weak sidehis love of book talk,opportunities which they would have known how to use. Casaubon was especially mortified by Sir H. Wottou's persistent avoidance of him, so inconsistent with their former intimacy. His windows were broken by the roughs at night, his children pelted in the streets by day. On one occasion he himself appeared at Theobald's with a black eye, having received a blow trom some ruffian's fist in the street. Mr Hallam thinks that he had "become personally unpopular ; "but these outrages from the vulgar seem to have arisen solely from the Cockney's antipathy to the Frenchman. Casaubon, though he could make shift to read an English book, could not speak English, any more than Mme. Casaubon. This deficiency not only exposed him to insult and fraud, but restricted his social intercourse. It excluded him altogether from the circle of the "wits ; ''either this or some other cause prevented him from being acceptable in the circle of the lay learnedthe "antiquaries."
Camden he saw but once or twice. Casaubon had been imprudent enough to correct Camden's Greek, and it is possible that the ex-headmaster of Westminster kept him-self aloof in silent resentment of Casaubon's superior learning. With Cotton and Spelman he was slightly acquainted. Of Selden we find no mention. Though Sir Henry Savile ostensibly patronized him, yet Casaubon could not help suspecting that it was Savile who secretly prompted an attempt by Montagu to forestal Casaubon's book on Baronius. Besides the jealousy of the natives, Casaubon had now to suffer the open attacks of the Jesuit pamphleteers. They had spared him as long as there were hopes of getting him over. The prohibition was taken off, now that he was committed to Anglicanism. Not only Eudsemon-Joannes, Rosweyd, and Scioppius, but a respect-able writer, friendly to Casaubon, Schott of Antwerp, gave currency to the insinuation that Casaubon had sold his conscience for English gold.
But the most serious cause of discomfort in his English residence was that his time was no longer his own. He was perpetually being summoned out of town to one or other of James's hunting residences that the king might enjoy his talk. He had come over from Paris in search of leisure, and found that a new claim on his time was established. The king and the bishops wanted to employ his pen in their literary warfare against Rome. They compelled him to write first one, then a second, pamphlet on the subject of the day,the royal supremacy. At last, ashamed of thus misappropriating Casaubon's stores of learning, they set him upon a refutation of the Annals of Baronius, then in the full tide of its credit and success. Upon this task Casaubon spent his remaining strength and life. He died in great suffering, 1st July 1614. His complaint was an organic and congenital malformation of the bladder; but his end was hastened by an unhealthy life of over-study, and latterly by his anxiety to acquit himself creditably in his criticism on Baronius. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. The monument, by which his name is there commemorated, was erected many years later by his friend Thomas Morton, then (1632) become bishop of Durham.
Besides the editions of ancient authors which have been mentioned, Casaubon published with commentaries Persius, Suetonius, the Scriptores Historian Augustce. Polybius, on which he had spent vast labour, he left unfinished. His most ambitious work was his revision of the text of Athenaeus, with commentary. The Theophrastus perhaps exhibits his most characteristic excellencies as a com-mentator. The Exercitationes in Baronium are but a fragment of the massive criticism which he contemplated, and failed in bringing before the reader the uncritical character of Baronius's history. His correspondence (in Latin) was finally collected by D' Almeloveen (Rotterdam, 1709), who prefixed to the letters a careful life of Isaac Casaubon. But this learned Dutch editor was only acquainted with Casaubon's diary in extract. This diary Ephemerides, of which the MS. is preserved in the chapter library of Canterbury, was printed in 1850, by the Clarendon Press. It forms the most valuable record we possess of the daily life of a scholar, or man of letters, of the 16th century.
For a characteristic of Casaubon's labours as a commentator and critic, a detailed account of his life, and a chronological list of his publications, the reader is referred to a work by the writer of the present article, Isaac Casaubon (1559-1614), 8vo, Lond., 1875. (M. P.)