CHARLES EMMANUEL I., The Great (1562-1630), duke of Savoy, succeeded his father Philibert Emmanuel in 1580. After having fought in alliance with Spain, France, and Germany, he laid claim to the throne of France on the death of Henry III. He became involved in war with Henry IV. and also with the Swiss, and was defeated at St Joire in 1589. But the peace to which his defeat com-pelled him was soon broken, and he joined the Catholic league. He gained several successes, and obtained posses-sion of Saluzzo, for which he had fought both with Henry III. and Henry IV. He next attacked Geneva, but without success ; and his alliance with France against Spain was equally unfortunate, for Henry IV. dying, the regent made peace with Spain, and Charles was compelled to follow her example. After this he conquered Montferrat, which, however, he was unable to retain; and in 1619 he laid claim to the imperial crown without success. New leagues against Spain and against the Genoese followed. But finally the French conquered Savoy and part of Piedmont, and Charles died overwhelmed with misfortune.