CHARLES GUSTAVUS X. (1622-1660), king of Sweden, was the son of John Casimir, Elector Palatine of the Bhine, and of Catherine, daughter of Charles IX. of Sweden. He studied at Upsala, and travelled in France and Germany, took part in the Thirty Years' War, and fough L at Leipsic and elsewhere. On his return to Sweden he sought the hand of his eccentric cousin, Queen Christina, whom he professed to love sincerely. He was rejected ; but in 1654 she voluntarily abdicated the throne, and was succeeded by him. He had now an opportunity of gratifying his passion for war. In 1655 he overran Poland, on the pretext that the king had protested against his accession and desired to supplant him. The kingdom of Polaud, and after that the dukedom of Prussia, were com-pelled to swear allegiance to him, and Charles next seized the continental territory of Denmark. He proposed to Holland and England a plan for dividing Denmark among the three nations, but Cromwell scornfully refused to share in the robbery. Charles was still fighting against Denmark when he died at Gothenburg (16601 in his 38th year.