CHARLES IX. (1550-1611), king of Sweden, was the fourth son of Gustavus Vasa. His nephew, Sigismund, king of Poland, who inherited the crown in 1592, being a Bomau Catholic, Charles was appointed to direct the govern-ment, till Sigismund signed a decree establishing Luther-anism as the religion of Sweden. There was also a general feeling against the occupation of the throne of Sweden by a Polish king, and, after several fruitless attempts at accommodation, Sigismund was deposed and Charles elected king in 1604. He carried on a vigorous war with Poland, Bussia, and Denmark with varying success ; and at the age of sixty he challenged (though without result) Christian IV., the king of the last-named country, to single combat. Many of his domestic measures were very beneficial. He founded the university of Gothenburg, and otherwise furthered the spread of education ; and he drew up a new code of laws. He left a rhymed chronicle, and a number of letters addressed to Henry IV. of France and others, on the subject of the war with Poland, which were printed in German at Amsterdam in 1608. He died in 1611.