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Dictionary




Although dictionaries are so numerous, so well known, and so much used, they vary so greatly in the nature and treatment of their subjects that any defini-tion must be very much modified in order to include some works so entitled and usually so called. In its proper and most usual meaning, a dictionary is a book containing a collection of the words of a language, dialect, or subject, arranged alphabetically or in some other definite order, and with explanations in the same or some other language. What is essential is, that the words given should be all or most of those belonging to the subject of the dictionary, or at least be very many in number, and that they should be arranged in definite order, and accompanied with interpretations. Many other characters may rightly and advantageously belong to a dictionary, but these are the essentials. When the words are few in number, being only a small part of those belonging to the subject, or when they are given without explanation, or some only are explained, or the explanations are partial, the work is called a vocabulary. An alphabetical arrangement of the words of some book or author with places where they occur is called an index. When under each word the phrases containing it are added to the references, the work is called a concordance. Sometimes, however, these names are given to true dictionaries; thus the great Italian dictionary of the Academy of La Crusca, iu six volumes folio, is called Vocabolario, and Ernesti's dictionary to Cicero is called Index. When the words are arranged according to a definite system of classification under heads and subdivisions, according to their nature or their meaning, the book is usually called a classed voca-bulary ; but when sufficient explanations are given, it is often accepted as a dictionary, like the Onomasticon cf Julius Pollux, or the native dictionaries of Sanskrit, Manchu, and many other languages. Dictionaries were originally books of reference explaining the words of a language or of some part of it. As the names of things, as well as those of persons and places, are words, and often require explanation even more than other classes of words, they were necessarily included in dictionaries, and often to a very great extent. In time, books were devoted to them alone, and were limited to special subjects, and these have so multiplied, that dictionaries [ of things now rival in number and variety those of words or of languages, while they often far surpass them in bulk. There are dictionaries of biography and history, real and fictitious, general and special, relating to men of all countries, characters, and professions; diction-aries of bibliography, relating to all books, or to those of some particular kind or country; dictionaries of geo-graphy, of the whole world, of particular countries, or of small districts, of towns and of villages, of castles, monasteries, and other buildings. There are dictionaries of philosophy; of mathematics; of natural history, zoology, botany; of birds, trees, plants, and flowers ; of chemistry, geology, and mineralogy; of architecture, painting, and music; of medicine, surgery, anatomy, pathology, and physiology; of diplomacy; of law, canon, civil, statutory, and criminal; of poli tical and social sciences; of agri-culture, rural economy, and gardening; of commerce, navigation, horsemanship, and the military art ; of mechanics, machines, and the manual arts. There are dictionaries of antiquities, of chronology, of dates, of genealogy, of heraldry, of diplomatics, of abbreviations, of useful receipts, of monograms, of adulterations, and of very many other subjects. And lastly, there are diction-aries of the arts and sciences, and their comprehensive offspring, encyclopaedias, which include in themselves every branch of knowledge. The tendency of dictionaries of language is to increase the vocabulary, to multiply articles ; the tendencies of dictionaries of things, and especially of encyclopaedias, is to diminish the number of articles, fusing subjects together as far as possible, and to develop the explanation, making it longer and more copious and cir-cumstantial. This does away with the necessity of turning to many articles scattered through all parts of the work for a complete view of a subject. On the other hand, as requiring an index, it is less convenient for frequent reference on minor points.

Dictionarium is a word of low or modern Latinity; dictio, from which it was formed, was used in mediaeval Latin to mean a word. Lexicon is a corresponding word of Greek origin, meaning a book of or for words—a dic-tionary. A glossary is properly a collection of unusual or foreign words requiring explanation. It is the name frequently given to English dictionaries of dialects, which the Germaus usually call idioticon, and the Italians vocabulario. Worterbuch, a book of words, was first used among the Germans according to Grimm, by Kramer (1719), imitated from the Dutch woordenboek. From the Germans the Swedes and Danes adopted ordbok, ordbog. The Icelandic ordabók, like the German, contains the genitive plural. The Slavonic nations use slovar, slovnik, and the Southern Slavs ryetshnik, from slovo, ryetsh, a word, formed, like dictionary and lexicon, with-out composition. Many other names have been given to dictionaries, as thesaurus, Sprackschatz, cornucopia, gazo-phylacium, comprehensorium, catholicon, to indicate their completeness ; manipulus predicantium, promptorium puerorum, liber memorialis, hortus vocabulorum, ionia (a violet bed), alveary (a beehive), kamoos (the sea), haft kulzum (the seven seas), tsze tien (a standard of character), onomasticou, nomenclátor, bibliotheca, elucidario, Mundart, Sammluug, clavis. scala, pharetra,2 La

Crusca from the great Italian dictionary, and Calepino (in Spanish and Italian) from the Latin dictionary of Calepinus.

A dictionary of language should contain all the words which may be reasonably looked for in it, so arranged as to be readily and surely found, and so explained as to make their meaning, and if possible their use, clear to those who have a competent knowledge of the language or languages in which the explanations are given. Some dictionaries may suppose a very considerable degree of knowledge in those who use them, but though one could not be written which would make every word clear to a young child, they should in general be as easy and simple as possible. A full and complete dictionary of a great literary language can be compiled only by great labour, patience, knowledge; and skill, employed for many years in collecting, correcting, adjusting, and completing the labours of many previous generations of workers. Such a dictionary should include all the words of the language As a great library cannot select books and publications, but must collect and preserve all without regard to their apparent value or worthlessness, for it is impossible to foretell what may be valued in future times, or what may be required by its readers for completing their researches, so a complete and standard dictionary should make no choice. Words obsolete and newly coined, barbarous, vulgar, and affected, ternporarj', provincial, and local, belonging to peculiar classes, professions, pursuits, and trades, should all find their place,—the only question being as to the evidence for their existence,—not indeed, all received with equal honour and regard, but with their characteristics and defects duly noted and pointed out. A complete dictionary should be the complete record and picture, or, as Archbishop Trench says, the inventory of language. It must contain all words ever in any way belonging to it, in writing or in speech, or it will not be a complete record, and will not satisfy those who consult it. Lexicographers have too often tried to exercise a choice, and not content with being recorders, have made them-selves judges of words, and refiners and improvers of language, and have attempted not only to reform the language, but to check it in that growth and development which is inherent in all living tongues, and to make their dictionaries standards and rules of language, rather than inventories and records. Unfortunately, this error is echoed by popular opinion; and a standard dictionary is too often supposed to be an arbitrator of words, rather than a standard of excellence among dictionaries. The intention of the author should be, as Bescherelle says, not to reform the language, but to present it with all its caprices, anomalies, irregularities, beauties, defects,—in a word, as the nation has made it. The precise value or worthlessness of a word can only be marked when it is admitted. If not found in the dictionary, it may be supposed to have been unknown to the author, as there is nothing to show that it has been condemned and rejected. The French Academy at first rejected all technical terms, but was compelled by popular clamour and the success of Furetiere's dictionary, in which very many were given, to admit them in increasing numbers in its second and all subsequent editions. It is the more necessary that they should not be excluded, as the meanings are difficult to learn, and are most often looked for; and a dictionary intended for general use, should, as Dr Johnson says, include the words belonging to every profession. Obsolete words are admitted by Johnson, Littre, and other first-rate lexicographers, only when they have remained in use after a certain period. Richardson gives only those useful for etymology, which is Littre's rule for patois. Grimm admits all words at any time belonging to High German or its dialects. The great German dictionaries generally admit dialects, and in this respect are more complete than the French and English. The Chinese give in their standard dictionaries every character known to exist, though many are erroneous, corrupt, vulgar, or local, or are merely improvements proposed by some eminent person. Of the ancient characters, sometimes the pro-nunciation, and occasionally the meaning, are unknown, while both one and the other are in some cases completely lost. Johnson omits all words relating to proper names, but they, as well as proper names, often as really belong to a language as any other words. The Philological Society propose that their new dictionary of English, begun in 1856, shall contain "every word occurring in the literature of the language," and " admit as authorities all English books," unwisely excepting " such as are devoted to purely scientific subjects, as treatises on electricity, mathe-matics," &c, beginning " with that definite appearance of an English type of language distinct from the preceding semi-Saxon," about the year 1250. Their vocabulary of words beginning with the letter B, printed in 1863, con-tains 17,729. The practice of universal admission of words is becoming more generally adopted in standard dictionaries of all languages.

Words can be most surely and quickly found when arranged alphabetically in a single series. Other arrange-ments, though sometimes more useful, are not so generally convenient. When it is thought desirable to separate any class of words, they should still be also inserted in their proper places in the general alphabet. In a large dic-tionary a small separate additional alphabet is almost lost, and is usually overlooked by searchers. According to Grimm, the alphabetical arrangement not only facilitates reference, but makes the author's work quicker and surer ; " for he who would insert rich contributions must have the places for them before his eyes, and not have to search about undecidedly to find whether the word is already there or not." The order of the alphabet should be that commonly used in the language. Any other makes re-ference more slow and uncertain. Grimm says that the order of the Sanskrit alphabet, adopted by Diefenbach and others, brings confusion rather than light to European languages. The etymological arrangement under roots has been generally condemned by experience. It places all words of the same origin together, so that they can be at once seen, which is often very useful and important, and is a great help in learning a language, as it assists the memory. But a word not belonging to the small number of roots cannot be found unless its root is known; other-wise it must be looked for in the index, or if there is none, sought for by guess-work in many places. And as ety-mologies will vary according to fancy or knowledge, no word, as Grimm says, will be sure of its place, and no arrangement is more destructive of the object and use of a dictionary. All its advantages may be secured by giving under each root a list of derivatives. Another system, more rarely adopted, though perhaps more useful, is that of arranging all words under their leading ideas, so that all those relating to a subject are seen together, and the proper word to express an idea may be found almost as easily as the idea expressed by a word may be found in an ordinary dictionary. It is, in fact, a classed vocabulary of all the words of the language, with the sections arranged alphabetically, and resembles in its purpose the classified index of a bibliographical dictionary, while it is quite as useful and necessary. Boissiere has chosen about 2000 common words, under each of which he gives all the French words evidently attached to it by community of ideas, or by relations of habitual use, cause, means, effect, or any analogy whatever. This part, he says, shows how to call things by their right names, and, as he remarks, great care is taken to teach children grammar, but none to teach them words. In the upper part of each page he gives all the words in alphabetical order, with a reference to the group in which each will be found. Boget, in his Thesaurus, gives under each head (1000 in number) not only the words belonging to the idea, but their opposites, and adds at the end of the book an index of all the words. This system, on account of its very great use and value, might well be made a subsidiary part of a standard dictionary, the groups being placed in the general alphabet, and a reference to each group being added to each word. The arrangement by terminations is of use grammatically and stenogra-phically, and for making out words of which the beginning is illegible or wanting. A dictionary of rhymes is similar, but not exactly the same, and is of little use except for making verses, and, when the rhymes are perfect, for showing the pronunciation. In the Semitic languages words are commonly placed under their roots, and in MS. lexicons the roots are often arranged alphabetically, accord-ing to the last radical. When Lane was making his great Arabic lexicon, he generally had before him eight or ten native lexicons, containing three different arrangements of roots. In Chinese dictionaries the characters are usually arranged under the 214 radicals, which now serve as an alphabet. In former times the number varied, and was much greater. The characters under each radical are further subdivided according to the number of strokes used in making each character, in addition to its radical, or the abbreviation of its radical which each character contains. But no arrangement is attempted of the charac-ters having the same number of strokes. Other systems are sometimes used, arranged by tones and endings, and by the characters (about 1040) called phonetics.

In the separate articles of a dictionary the arrangement must vary very much with the language, as well as with the word itself. When necessary, the orthography, pro-nunciation, and grammatical inflexions of the word should be given, and any variations of these at different times and places carefully pointed out, as well as the character of the word, such as obsolete, provincial, &c. ; and forms be-ginning with a different spelling should be placed in separate articles, with references to the main article. The etymology should be given, referring derivatives to their respective roots; and under each root giving, if not the derivation as far back as it can be traced, at least what Littre calls the secondary etymology—that is, deriving it from a word not belonging to the language, as when a French word is traced to a Latin or German word with-out proceeding farther; and cognate words should gene-rally be enumerated, often with their principal meanings. This gives a primary meaning, but care must be taken that the derivation is a real one, not a mere fancy or guess. The times when the word was introduced or became obsolete should be noted, and the mean-ing it bore at first, as well as those which prevailed at various periods. The meanings may be arranged in a series, not merely as they may be imagined to have been logically developed from each other, but as their connec-tion may be traced, and can be shown to have existed in actual use; and where this connection cannot be traced, the defect should be pointed out. Sometimes, too, the meanings are, as Johnson says, collateral. In some kinds of dictionaries the explanations may be merely sufficient to identify the word, as in Bilderdijk's Voordenboek voor de Nederduitsche Spelling, or, as in most small dictionaries, they may merely give the sense. They may also be full after a certain period. Richardson gives only those useful for etymology, which is Littre's rule for patois. Grimm admits all words at any time belonging to High German or its dialects. The great German dictionaries generally admit dialects, and in this respect are more complete than the French and English. The Chinese give in their standard dictionaries every character known to exist, though many are erroneous, corrupt, vulgar, or local, or are merely improvements proposed by some eminent person. Of the ancient characters, sometimes the pro-nunciation, and occasionally the meaning, are unknown, while both one and the other are in some cases completely lost. Johnson omits all words relating to proper names, but they, as well as proper names, often as really belong to a language as any other words. The Philological Society propose that their new dictionary of English, begun in 1856, shall contain "every word occurring in the literature of the language," and " admit as authorities all English books," unwisely excepting " such as are devoted to purely scientific subjects, as treatises on electricity, mathe-matics," &c, beginning " with that definite appearance of an English type of language distinct from the preceding semi-Saxon," about the year 1250. Their vocabulary of words beginning with the letter B, printed in 1863, con-tains 17,729. The practice of universal admission of words is becoming more generally adopted in standard dictionaries of all languages.

Words can be most surely and quickly found when arranged alphabetically in a single series. Other arrange-ments, though sometimes more useful, are not so generally convenient. When it is thought desirable to separate any class of words, they should still be also inserted in their proper places in the general alphabet. In a large dic-tionary a small separate additional alphabet is almost lost, and is usually overlooked by searchers. According to Grimm, the alphabetical arrangement not only facilitates reference, but makes the author's work quicker and surer ; " for he who would insert rich contributions must have the places for them before his eyes, and not have to search about undecidedly to find whether the word is already there or not." The order of the alphabet should be that commonly used in the language. Any other makes re-ference more slow and uncertain. Grimm says that the order of the Sanskrit alphabet, adopted by Diefenbach and others, brings confusion rather than light to European languages. The etymological arrangement under roots has been generally condemned by experience. It places all words of the same origin together, so that they can be at once seen, which is often very useful and important, and is a great help in learning a language, as it assists the memory. But a word not belonging to the small number of roots cannot be found unless its root is known; other-wise it must be looked for in the index, or if there is none, sought for by guess-work in many places. And as ety-mologies will vary according to fancy or knowledge, no word, as Grimm says, will be sure of its place, and no arrangement is more destructive of the object and use of a dictionary. All its advantages may be secured by giving under each root a list of derivatives. Another system, more rarely adopted, though perhaps more useful, is that of arranging all words under their leading ideas, so that all those relating to a subject are seen together, and the proper word to express an idea may be found almost as easily as the idea expressed by a word may be found in an ordinary dictionary. It is, in fact, a classed vocabulary of all the words of the language, with the sections arranged alphabetically, and resembles in its purpose the classified index of a bibliographical dictionary, while it is quite as useful and necessary. Boissiere has chosen about 2000 common words, under each of which he gives all the

French words evidently attached to it by community of ideas, or by relations of habitual use, cause, means, effect, or any analogy whatever. This part, he says, shows how to call things by their right names, and, as he remarks, great care is taken to teach children grammar, but none to teach them words. In the upper part of each page he gives all the words in alphabetical order, with a reference to the group in which each will be found. Boget, in his Thesaurus, gives under each head (1000 in number) not only the words belonging to the idea, but their opposites, and adds at the end of the book an index of all the words. This system, on account of its very great use and value, might well be made a subsidiary part of a standard dictionary, the groups being placed in the general alphabet, and a reference to each group being added to each word. The arrangement by terminations is of use grammatically and stenogra-phically, and for making out words of which the beginning is illegible or wanting. A dictionary of rhymes is similar, but not exactly the same, and is of little use except for making verses, and, when the rhymes are perfect, for showing the pronunciation. In the Semitic languages words are commonly placed under their roots, and in MS. lexicons the roots are often arranged alphabetically, accord-ing to the last radical. When Lane was making his great Arabic lexicon, he generally had before him eight or ten native lexicons, containing three different arrangements of roots. In Chinese dictionaries the characters are usually arranged under the 214 radicals, which now serve as an alphabet. In former times the number varied, and was much greater. The characters under each radical are further subdivided according to the number of strokes used in making each character, in addition to its radical, or the abbreviation of its radical which each character contains. But no arrangement is attempted of the charac-ters having the same number of strokes. Other systems are sometimes used, arranged by tones and endings, and by the characters (about 1040) called phonetics.

In the separate articles of a dictionary the arrangement must vary very much with the language, as well as with the word itself. When necessary, the orthography, pro-nunciation, and grammatical inflexions of the word should be given, and any variations of these at different times and places carefully pointed out, as well as the character of the word, such as obsolete, provincial, &c. ; and forms be-ginning with a different spelling should be placed in separate articles, with references to the main article. The etymology should be given, referring derivatives to their respective roots; and under each root giving, if not the derivation as far back as it can be traced, at least what Littre calls the secondary etymology—that is, deriving it from a word not belonging to the language, as when a French word is traced to a Latin or German word with-out proceeding farther; and cognate words should gene-rally be enumerated, often with their principal meanings. This gives a primary meaning, but care must be taken that the derivation is a real one, not a mere fancy or guess. The times when the word was introduced or became obsolete should be noted, and the mean-ing it bore at first, as well as those which prevailed at various periods. The meanings may be arranged in a series, not merely as they may be imagined to have been logically developed from each other, but as their connec-tion may be traced, and can be shown to have existed in actual use; and where this connection cannot be traced, the defect should be pointed out. Sometimes, too, the meanings are, as Johnson says, collateral. In some kinds of dictionaries the explanations may be merely sufficient to identify the word, as in Bilderdijk's Voordenboek voor de Nederduitsche Spelling, or, as in most small dictionaries, they may merely give the sense. They may also be full and complete explanations of all the meanings, and again, as is necessary in a complete dictionary, may include usage. The explanations of the meanings should be precise and not vague, real definitions and not a mere reference of one word to another of the same meaning, as when the French Academy explains fier by hautain, altier, and hautain by fier, orgueilleux. But when one language is explained by another, nothing conveys the meaning so well as a perfectly equivalent word. The interpretation of a language by itself is, as Dr Johnson says, very difficult, for there is no other word to express the idea, and simple ideas cannot be described. Therefore, in Grimm's dictionary Latin and other languages are used when necessary. Synonyms and homonyms should be given, as well as words of opposite meaning, and their similarities and differences explained. Bemarks should be made on difficulties, faults to be avoided, peculiar constructions, figurative, idiomatic, and proverbial expressions, and the origin of these given when possible. All this should be done in the fewest and plainest words. Eloquence is out of place in a dictionary; but the author must not fear fulness when it is necessary, and must not allow brevity to make him obscure. A complete dictionary of a copious language must necessarily be a very large book, but much space may be saved by the use of well-selected terms and abbreviations, and by typo-graphical arrangements.

Examples form a very important part of a dictionary, but one which is generally omitted, often neglected, and seldom so carefully attended to as it deserves. When no quotations are given, the whole language depends on the authority of the author of the dictionary. The French Academy have always claimed the right of making their own examples. Voltaire says they seem to have made a law not to quote, but, he adds, a dictionary without quotations is a skeleton. Examples may be arranged either under the meanings they illustrate, which is the usual and most useful plan, or, in languages possessing an extensive literature of long duration, chrono-logically in one series, as the Philological Society formerly proposed. Littr6 has adopted a medium, and gives examples from authors of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries under the meanings to which the}' belong, and those from previous authors in a chronological series. Each quotation should give a complete sense, and not be a mere fragment of a sentence. It should, if possible, be instructive and interesting in itself, but should not on this account be made too long. Those containing etymologies, definitions, or explanations of a word, as well as those in which it is joined to words of the same or opposite meaning, and those which mark its intro-duction or disuse, and those in which it is used as a foreign word not yet naturalized, should be especially sought for. Each should have as exact a reference as pos-sible. The common practice of giving only the author's name makes it sometimes impossible to verify a quotation without searching through his entire works, which may fill many volumes. In the case of some rare words, when the quotation would add nothing to the information other-wise given, the mere reference may suffice. The value of a dictionary and the richness of its vocabulary depend very much on the carefulness and extent of the search for examples, which can only be complete when it has ex-tended to the whole literature of the language. If con-cordances and full indexes were more universal, the search for examples would be much facilitated. The foundation of the Philological Society's intended dictionary was to have been the reading of all English books not purely scientific for examples by volunteers. In October 1861, 1149 had been read, and 360 were in hand.

Though complete dictionaries of a language are very few, and none as yet exists in English, large dictionaries are many. The tendency of great dictionaries is to unite in themselves all the peculiar features of special dictionaries. A large dictionary is most useful when a word is to be thoroughly studied, or when there is difficulty in making out the meaning of a word or phrase. Special diction-aries are more useful for special purposes; for instance, synonyms are best studied in a dictionary of synonyms. And small dictionaries are more convenient for frequent use as in translating from an unfamiliar language, for words may be found more quickly, and they present the words and their meanings in a concentrated and compact form, instead of being scattered over a large space, and separated by other matter. Dictionaries of several languages, called polyglots, are of different kinds. Some are polyglot in the vocabulary, but not in the explanation, like Johnson's dictionary of Persian and Arabic explained in English; some in the interpretation, but not in the vocabulary or explanation, like Calepini Octoglotton, a Latin dictionary of Latin, with the meanings in seven languages. Many great dictionaries are now polyglot in this sense. Some are polyglot in the vocabulary and interpretation, but are explained in one language, like Jal's Glossaire Nautique, a glossary of sea terms in many languages, giving the equi-valents of each word in the other languages, but the ex-planation in French. Pauthier's Annamese Dictionary is polyglot in a peculiar way. It gives the Chinese characters with their pronunciation in Chinese and Annamese. Special dictionaries are various, and many kinds will be found in the following list. There are dictionaries of etymology, foreign words, dialects, secret languages, slang, neology, barbarous words, faults of expression, choice words, prosody, pronunciation, spelling, orators, poets, law, music, proper names, particular authors, nouns, verbs, participles, particles, double forms, difficulties, and many others. Fick's dictionary (Gottingen, 1868, 8vo ; 1874-76, 8vo, 4 vols.) is a remarkable attempt to ascertain the common language of the Indo-European nations before each of their great separations. In the second edition of his Etymologische Forschungen (Lemgo and Detmoldt, 1859-73, 8vo, 7217 pages) Pott gives a comparative lexicon of Indo-European roots, 2226 in number, occupy-ing 5140 pages.

Comparatively few languages possess dictionaries, and they are few in number compared to other books, probably much under 2 per cent.; and 5000, not counting different editions, might be considered a very large collection. More than half belong to European languages, of which five surpass the rest in the number and variety of their dictionaries, namely, Greek, Latin, French, English, and German. In Asia, those excelling in this respect are Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindustani, Malay, Chinese, and Japanese; in Africa, Egyptian, Ethiopic, and Kaffre; in America, Otomi, Aztec, Guarani, Tupi, and Quichua.
The following list of dictionaries is arranged geographi-cally by families of languages, or by regions. In each group the order, when not alphabetical, is usually from north to south, extinct languages generally coming first, and dialects being placed under their language. Diction-aries forming parts of other works, such as travels, histories, transactions, periodicals, reading-books, etc., are generally excluded. When a selection has to be made, the earliest, largest, latest, and best dictionaries are preferred. This system seemed on the whole best calculated to keep together dictionaries naturally associated. The languages to be considered are too many for an alphabetical arrange-ment, which ignores all relations both natural and geo-graphical, and too few to require a strict classification by affinities, by which the European languages, which for many reasons should be kept together, would be dispersed.





Under either system, Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, whose dictionaries are so closely connected, would be widely separated. A wholly geographical arrangement would be inconvenient, especially in Europe. Any system, however, which attempts to arrange in a consecutive series the great network of languages by which the whole world is enclosed, must be open to some objections; and the arrangement adopted in this list has produced some anomalies and dispersions which might cause inconveni-ence if not pointed out. The old Italic languages are placed under Latin, all dialects of France under French (but Provencal as a distinct language), and Wallachian among Romanic languages. Low German and its dialects are not separated from High German. Basque is placed after Celtic; Albanian, Gipsy, and Turkish at the end of Europe, the last being thus separated from its dialects and congeners in Northern and Central Asia, among which are placed the Kazan dialect of Tartar, Samoy^ed, and Ostiak. Accadian is placed after Assyrian among the Semitic languages, and Maltese as a dialect of Arabic; while the Ethiopic is among African languages, as it seemed undesirable to separate it from the other Abys-sinian languages, or these from their neighbours to the north and south. Circassian and Ossetic are joined to the first group of Aryan languages lying to the north-west of Persia, and containing Armenian, Georgian, and Kurd. The following is the order of the groups, some of the more important languages, that is, of those best provided with dictionaries, standing alone :—

EUROPE : Greek, Latin, French, Bomance, Scandinavian, Teutonic (including English and German), Celtic, Lithu-anic, Slavonic, Ugrian, Turkish.

ASIA : Semitic, Armenian, Persian, Sanskrit, Indian, Indo-Chinese, Indian Archipelago, Philippines, Chinese, Japanese, Northern and Central Asia.

AFRICA: Egypt and Abyssinia, Eastern Africa, Southern, "Western, Central, Berber.
Australia and Polynesia.

AMERICA : North, Central (with Mexico), South.

EUROPE.

Greek.—Athenseus quotes 35 writers of works, known or sup-posed to be dictionaries, for, as they are all lost, it is often difficult to decide on their nature. Of these, Anticlides, who lived after the reign of Alexander the Great, wrote 'E|?j7T)Ti/t(is, which seems to have been a sort of dictionary, perhaps explaining the words and phrases occurring in ancient stories. Zenodotus, the first super-intendent of the great library of Alexandria, who lived in the reigns of Ptolemy I. and Ptolemy II., wrote r\&<r<rat, and also Aeréis idviicaí, a dictionary of barbarous or foreign phrases. Aristo-phanes of Byzantium, son of Apelles the painter, who lived in the reigns of Ptolemy II. and Ptolemy III., and had the supreme man-agement of the Alexandrian library, wrote a number of works, as 'ATTÍKOI Ae'|eis, AaKoi/iKal TAwcrcTai, which, from the titles, should be dictionaries, but a fragment of his Aéje¿s, printed by Boissonade, in his edition of Herodian (London, 1869, 8vo, pp. 181-9), is not alphabetical, Artemidorus, a pupil of Aristophanes, wrote a dictionary of technical terms used in cookery. Nicander Colophonius, hereditary priest of Apollo Clarius, bom at Claros, near Colophon, in Ionia, probably in reputation for 50 years, from 181 to 135, wrote rxwo-acu in at least three books Parthenius, a pupil of the Alexandrian grammarian Dionysius (who lived in the 1st century before Christ), wrote on choice words used by historians. Didymus, called xa^líéyTeP0S> who, according to Athenreus, wrote 3500 books, and, according to Seneca, 4000, wrote lexicons of the tragic poets (of wdiich book 28 is quoted), of the comic poets, of ambiguous words, and of corrupt expressions. Glossaries of Attic words were written by Crates, Philemon, Philetas, and Theodorus ; of Cretan, by Hermon or Hermonax; of Phrygian, by Neoptolemus; of Rhodian, by Moschus ; of Italian, by Diodorus of Tarsus ; of foreign words, by Silenus; of synonyms, by Simaristus; of cookery, by Heracleon ; and of drinking vessels, by Apollodorus of Cyrene. According to Suidas, the most ancient Greek lexicographer was Apollonius the sophist, son of Archibiu3. According to the common opinion, he lived in the time of Augustus at Alexandria. He com-posed a lexicon of words used by Homer, Aé£eis 'OuTipucaí, a very valuable and useful work, though much interpolated, edited by Villoison. from an MS. of the 10th century, Paris, 1773, 4to, 2 vols.; and by Tollius, Leyden, 1788, 8vo ; ed. Bekker, Berlin, 1833, 8vo. Erotian or Herodian, physician to Nero, wrote a lexicon on Hippocrates, arranged in alphabetical order, probably by some copyist, whom Klein calls for "homo sciolus." It was first published in Greek in H. Stephani Dictionarium Medicum, Paris, 1564, 8vo ; ed. Klein, Lipsioe, 1865, 8vo, with additional fragments. TimaDus the sophist, who, according to Ruhnken, lived in the 3d century, wrote a very short lexicon to Plato, which, though much interpolated, is of great value, 1st ed. Ruhnken, Leyden, 1754 ; ed. locupletior, Lugd. Bat. 1789, 8vo. jElius Mceris, called the Atticist, lived about A.n. 190, and wrote an Attic and Greek lexicon, 1st ed. Hudson, Oxf. 1712, 8vo. Julius Pollux {'lovAios Ylo\uSevKvs) of Naucratis, in Egypt, died, aged 58, in the reign of Commodus (180-192), who made him professor of rhetoric at Athens. He wrote, besides other lost works, an Onomasticon in ten books, being a classed vocabulary, intended to supply all the words required by each subject with the usage of the best authors. It is of the greatest value for the knowledge both of language and antiquities. First printed by Aldus, Venice, 1500, fol.; often afterwards ; ed. Lederlinus and Hemsterhuis, Amst. 1706, fol. 2 vols.; ed. Dindorf, Leip. 1824, 8vo, 5 vols. Harpocration of Alexandria, who lived in the 4th century, wrote a lexicon on the ten Attic orators, first printed by Aldus, Ven. 1503, fol.; ed. Dindorf, Oxford, 1853, 8vo, 2 vols, from 14 MSS. Orion, a grammarian of Thebes, in Egypt, who lived between 390 and 460, wrote an etymological dictionary, printed by Sturz, Leipzig, 1820, 4to. Helladius, a priest of Jupiter at Alexandria, when the heathen temples there were destroyed by Theophilus in 389 or 391 escaped to Constantinople, where he was living in 408. He wrote an alphabetical lexicon, now lost, chiefly of prose, called by Photius the largest (TroXvaTix<irarov) which he knew. Ammonius, professor of grammar at Alexandria, and priest of the Egyptian ape, fled to Constantinople with Helladius, and wrote a dictionary of words similar in sound but different in meaning, which has been often printed in Greek lexicons, as Aldus, 1497, Stephanus, and separately by Valckenaer, Lugd. Bat. 1739, 4to, 2 vols., and by others. Zenodotus wrote on the cries of animals, printed in Valckenaer's Ammonius; with this may be com-pared the work of Yincentio Caralucci, Lexicon rocuin qxue a brutis animalibus emittuntur, Perusia, 1779, 12mo. Hesychius of Alex-andria, probably a heathen, wdio lived before 389, wrote a lexicon, important for the knowledge of the language and literature, con-taining many dialectic and local expressions and quotations from other authors, 1st ed. Aldus, Ven. 1514, fol.; the best is Alberti and Ruhnken, Lugd. Bat. 1746-66, fol. 2 vols.; collated with the MS. in St Mark's Library, Venice, the only MS., existing, by Niels Iversen Sehow, Leipzig, 1792, 8vo; ed. Schmidt, Jena, 1867, 8vo. The foundation of this lexicon is supposed to have been that of Pamphilus, an Alexandrian grammarian, quoted by Athenseus, which, according to Suidas, was in 95 books from E to fi; A to A had been compiled by Zopirion. Photius, consecrated patriarch of Constantinople, 25th Dec. 857, living in 886, left a lexicon, partly extant, and printed with Zonaras, Lips. 1808, 4to, 3 vols., being vol. iii.; ed. Naber, Leidae, 1864-5, 8vo, 2 vols. The most cele-brated of the Greek glossaries is that of Suidas, of whom nothing is known. He probably lived in the 10th century. His lexicon is an alphabetical dictionary of v:ords, including the names of per-sons and places,—a compilation of extracts from Greek writers, grammarians, scholiasts, and lexicographers, very carelessly and unequally executed. It was first printed by Demetrius Chalcon-dylas, Milan, 1499, fol.; the best edition, Bernhardy, Halle, 1853, 4to, 2 vols. John Zonai'as, a celebrated Byzantine historian and theologian, who lived in the 12th century, compiled a lexicon, first printed by Tittmann, Lips. 1808, 4to, 2 vols. An anonymous Greek glossary, entitled'ETi/jtioAoYi/cij'jUeya, Etymologicum magnum, has been frequently printed. The first edition is b}' Musurus, Venitia, 1499, fol; the best by Gaisford, Oxonii, 1848, fol. It contains many grammatical remarks by famous authorities, many passages of authors, and mythological and historical notices. The MSS. vary so much that they look like the works of different authors. Eudoeia Augusta of Makrembolis, wife of the emperors Constantine XI. and Ronianus IV. (1059 to 1071), compiled a dictionary of history and mythology, called 'laind (bed of violets), first printed by D'Ansse de Villoison, Anccdota Graca, Venetiis, 1781, 4to, vol. i. pp. 1-442. It was supposed to have been of much value before it was published. Thomas, Magister Officiorum under Andronicus Palfeologus, afterward called as a monk Theodulus, wrote'E«:Xo7a!oi'oiuaTa>i' 'KTTIK&V, printed by Calliergus, Ronife, 1817, 8vo. Papias, Vocabularium, Mediolani, 1476, fol.: Craston, an Italian Carmelite monk of Piacenza, compiled a Greek and Latin lexicon, edited by Bonus Accursius, printed at Milan, 1478, fol.; Aldus, Venetiis, 1497, fol.: Guarino born about 1450 at Favora, near Camarino, who called himself both Phavorinus and Camers, published his Thesaurus in 1504. These three lexicons were frequently reprinted. Estienne, TJiesaunts, Genevse, 1572 fol. 4 vols; ed. Valpy, Lond. 1816-26, 8 vols, fol.; Paris, 1831-65

9 vols. fol. 9902 pages: KI/3COTOS, the ark, was intended to give the whole language, ancient and modern, hut vol. i., Constantinople, 1819, fol. 763 pages A to A, only appeared, as the publication was put an end to by the events of 1821. ENGLISH.—Jones, London, 1823, 8vo: Dunbar, Edin. 3d ed. 1850, 4to: Liddell and Scott, 6th ed. Oxford, 1867, 4to. FRENCH.—Alexandre, 12th ed. Pans, 1863, 8vo; 1869-71, 2 vols. : Chassang, ib. 1872, 8vo. ITALIAN.—Canmi, Torino, 1865, Svo, 972 pages: Müller, ib. 1871, 8vo. SPANISH.—Diccionario manual, por los padres Esculapios, Madrid, 1S59, 8vo. GERMAN.—Passow, 5th ed. Leipzig, 1841-57, 4to: Jacobitz and Seiler, 4th ed. ib. 1856, 8vo: Benseler, ib. 1859, 8vo: Pape, Braunschweig, 1870-74, 8vo, 4 vols. DIALECTS.—Attic: Moeris, ed. Pierson, Lugd. Bat. 1759, 8vo. Attic Orators: Reiskius, Oxon. 1828, 8vo, 2 vols. Doric: Portus, Franckof. 1605, Svo. Ionic: Id. ib. 1603, 8vo ; 1817 ; 1825. PKOSODT.—Morell, Etonse, 1762, 4to; ed. Maltby, Lond. 1830, 4to: Brasse, Lond. 1850, 8vo. RHETORIC.—Ernesti, Lips. 1795, 8vo. Music.—Drieberg, Berlin, 1855. ETYMOLOGY.—Curtius, Leipzig, 1858-62: Lancelot, Paris, 1863, 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Peucer, Dresden, 1766, 8vo: Pillon, Paris, 1847, 8vo. PROPER NAMES.—Pape, ed. Sengebusch, 1866, 8vo, 969 pages. VERBS.—Veitch, 2d ed. Oxf. 1866. TERMINATIONS.—Hoogeveen, Cantab. 1810, 4to: Pape, Berlin, 1836, 8vo. PARTICULAR AUTHORS.—JEschylus: "Wellauer, 2 vols. Lips. 1830-31, 8vo. Aristophanes: Caravella, Oxonii, 1822, Svo. Demosthenes: Reiske, Lips. 1775, 8vo. Euripides: Beck, Cantab. 1829, 8vo. Herodotus: Schweighäuser, Strasburg, 1824, 8vo, 2 vols. Ilesiod: Osoruis, Neapol. 1791, 8vo. Homer: Apollonius Sophista, ed. Tollius, Lugd. Bat. 1788, 8vo : Schaufelberger, Zürich, 1761-8, 8vo, 8 vols.: Crusius, Hannover, 1836, 8vo : Wittich, London, 1843, 8vo : Döderlein, Erlangen, 8vo, 3 vols.: Eberling, Lipsiae, 1875, 8vo : Autenrieth, Leipzig, 1873, 8vo ; London, 1877, 8vo. Isocrates: Mitchell, Oxon. 1828, 8vo. Pindar: Portus, Hannov. 1606, 8vo. Plato: Timreus, ed. Koch, Lips. 1828, 8vo: Mitchell, Oxon. 1832, 8vo : Ast, Lips. 1835-38, 8vo, 3 vols. Plutarch: Wyttenbach, Lips. 1835, 8vo, 2 vols. Sophocles: Ellendt, Regio-monti Prussor. 1834 -35, 8vo ed. ; Genthe, Berlin, 1872, 8vo. Thucydidcs: Bétant, Gen. 1843-47, 8vo, 2 vols. Xenophon: Sturtz, Lips. 1801-4, 8vo, 4 vols.: Cannesin (Anabasis, Gr.-Fin-nish), Helsingissft, 1868, 8vo: Sauppe, Lipsice, 1869, 8vo. Septuagint: Hutter, Noribergse, 1598, 4to: Biel, Haga;, 1779-80, 8vo. New Testament: Lithocomus, Colon. 1552, 8vo : Parkhurst, ed. Major, London, 1845, 8vo: Schleusner (juxta ed. Lips, quartam), Glasgure, 1824, 4to.
Modern Greek, Romaic.—Meursius, Lugd. Bat. 1614, 4to : Critopulos, Stendaliaj, 1787, 8vo: Fortius, Par. 1635, 4to : Du Fresne du Cange, Paris, 1682, fol. 2 vols.; Lugd. 1688, fol. ENG-LISH.—Polymera, Hermopolis, 1854, 8vo: Sophocles, Cambr. Mass. 1860, 4to: Contopoulos, Athens, 1867, 8vo ; Smyrna, 1868-70, Svo, 2 parts, 1042 pages. FRENCH.—Skarlatos, Athens, 1852, 4to : Byzantius, ib. 1856, 8vo, 2 vols.: Varvati, 4th ed. ib. 1860, 8vo. ITALIAN.—Germano, Romse, 1622, 8vo : Somavera, Parigi, 1709, fol., 2 vols.: Pericles, Hermopolis, 1857, 8vo. GERMAN.— Schmidt, Lipz. 1825-27, 12mo, 2 vols.: Kind, ib. 1842, 12mo. POLYGLOTS. — Koniaz (Russian and Fr.), Moscou, 1811, 4to : Schmidt (Fr.-Germ.), Leipzig, 1837-40, 12mo, 3 vols.: Theocharo-pulas de Patras (Fr.-Eng.), Munich, 1840, 12mo.
Latin.—Johannes de Janua, Catholicon or Summa, finished in 1286, printed Moguntiae 1460, fol.; Venice, 1487; and about 20 editions before 1500 : Johannes, Cmnprehensorium, Valentía, 1475, fol.: Nestor Dionysius, Onomasticon, Milan, 1477, fob: Stephanus, Paris, 1531, fcl. 2 vols,: Gesner, Leips., 1749, fol. 4 vols.: For-cellini, Patavii, 1771, fol. 4 vols. POLYGLOT.-—Calepinus, Reggio, 1502, fol. (Aldus printed 16 editions, with the Greek equivalents of the Latin words; Venetiis, 1375, fob, added Italian, French, and Spanish; Basileoe, 1590, fol., is in 11 languages; several editions, from 1609, are called Octolingue; many of the latter 2 vol. editions were edited by John Facciolati): Verantius (Ital., Germ., Dalma-tian, Hungarian), Venetiis, 1595, 4to: Lodereckerus (Ital., Germ., Dahn., Hungar., Bohem., Polish), Pragae, 1605, 4to. ENGLISH.— Promptorium Parvulormn, compiled in 1440 by Gaifridus Gram-matieus, a Dominican monk of Lynn Episcopi. iu Norfolk, was printed by Pynson, 1499; 8 editions, 1508-28, ed. Way, Camden Society, 1843-65, 3 vols. 4to: Medulla Grammaticis, probably by the same author, MS. written 1483 ; printed as Ortus Vocabulorum, by Wynkyn de Wörde, 1500 ; 13 editions 1509-23: Sir Thomas Elyot, London,1538, fob; 2d ed. 1543; Bibliolheca Eliotcc, ed.Cooper, ib. 1545, fol. : Huloet, Abecedarium, London, 1552, fol. ; Die-tionarie, 1572, fob: Cooper, London, 1565, fob; 4th edition, 1584, fol.: Baret, Alvearie, ib. 1575, fol.; 1580, fol.: Fleming, ib. 1683, fob: Ainsworth, London, 1736, 4to; ed. Morell, London, 1796, 4to, 2 vols.; ed. Beatson and Ellis, ib. 1860, 8vo: Schüller, translated by Riddle, Oxford, 1835, fob: Smith, London, 1855, 8vo; 1870. ENG. LATIN.—Levins, Manipulus puerorum, Loud. 1570, 4to: Riddle, ib. 1838, Svo: Smith, ib. 1855, 8vo. FRENCH.—Catholicon parvum, Geneva, 1487: Estienne, Dielionnaire, Paris, 1539, fol.
675 pages; enlarged 1549; ed. Huggins, Lond. 1572: Id., Diction-arium Latino-Gallicum, Lutetiae, 1546, fob; Paris, 1552; 1560. Id., Dictionariolumpucrorum, Paris, 1542, 4to: Les mots Francais, Paris, 1544, 4to; the copy in the British Museum has the autograph of Queen Catherine Parr: Thierry (Fr.-Lat.), Paris, 1564, fol.: Danet, Ad usum Delphini, Pari3, 1700, 4to, 2 vols.; and frequently: Quicherat, 9th ed. Paris, 1857, 8vo: Theil, 3d ed. Paris, 1863, 8vo: Freund, ib. 1835-65, 4to, 3 vols. GERMAN.—Job. Melber, of Lierolz-hofen, Vocabulariiis Prceclicaniium, of which 26 editions are de-scribed by Hain {licpertorium, No. 11,022, &c.), 15 undated, 7 dated 1480-95, 4to, and 3 after 1504 : Vocabulariiis Gemma Gem-marum, Antwerp, 1484, 4to; 1487; 12 editions 1505-18 : Herman Torentinus, ElucidariusCarminum, Daventri, 1501, 4to; 22 editions, 1504-36: Binnart, Ant. 1649, 8vo: Id., Biglotton, ib. 1661; 4th ed. 1688: Faber, ed. Gesner, Hagoe Com. 1735, fob, 2 vols.: Hederick, Leips. 1766, 8vo, 2 vols.: Ingerslev, Braunschweig, 1835-55, 8vo, 2 vols. ITALIAN.—Seebar (Sicilian translation of Lebrixa), Venet. 1525, 8vo : Venuti, Venet. 1589, 8vo: Galesini, Venez. 1605, 8vo : Bazzarini and Bellini, Torino, 1864, 4to, 2 vols. 3100 pages. SPANISH.—Salmanticrc, 1494, fob; Antonio de Lebrixa, Nebris-sensis, Compluti, 1520, fol. 2 vols.: Sanchez de la Ballesta, Salamanca, 1587, 4to : Valbuena, Madrid, 1826, fol. PORTUGUESE.— Bluteau, Lisboa, 1712-28, fol. 10 vols.: Fonseca, ib. 1771, fob: Fer-reira, Paris, 1834, 4to; 1852. ROMANSCII.—Promptuarío di voci volgari, Valgrisii, 1565, 4to. WALLACK.—Divalitu, Bucuresci, 1852, 8vo. SWEDISH.—Vocabula, Rostock, 1574, 8vo; Stockholm, 1579: Lindblom, (Jpsala, 1790, 4to. DUTCH.—Binnart, Antw. 1649, 8vo: Scheller, Lugd. Bat. 1799, 4to, 2 vols. FLEMISH.— Paludanus, Gandavi, 1544, 4to. POLISH. — Macinius, Königsberg, 1564, fol.: Garszynski, Breslau, 1823, 8vo, 2 vols. BOHEMIAN.— Johannes Aquensis, Pilsnse, 1511, 4to: Reschel, Olmucii, 1560-62, 4to, 2 vols.: Cnapius, Cracovia, 1661, fol. 3 vols. ILLYRIAN.— Bellosztenecz, Zagrab, 1740, 4to: Jambresich (also Germ, and Hun-gar.), Zagrab, 1742, 4to. SERVIAN. —Swotlik, Budoe, 1721, 8vo. HUNGARIAN.—Molnar, Frankf. a. M. 1645, 8vo: Pariz-Papai, Leut-schen, 1708, 8vo; 1767. FINNISH.—Rothsen, Helsingissä, 1864, 8vo. POETIC.—Fpithetorum ct Synonyviorum Thesaurus, Paris, 1662, 8vo, attributed to Chatillon; reprinted by Paul Aler, a German Jesuit, as Gracilis ad Parnassum, Paris, 1687, 8vo; many subsequent editions: Schirach, Hal. 1768, 8vo: Noel, Paris, 1810, 8vo; 1826: Quicherat, Paris, 1852, 8vo: Young, London, 1856, 8vo. EROTIC.— Rambach, Stuttgard, 1836, 8vo. RHETORICAL.—Ernesti, Leips. 1797, 8vo. CIVIL LAW.—Dirksen, Berolini, 1S37, 4to. SYNO-NYMS.—Hill, Edinb. 1804, 4to: Döderlein, Leips. 1826-8, 8vo, 6 vols. ETYMOLOGY.—Danet, Paris, 1677, 8vo: Vossius, Neap. 1762, fol. 2 vols.: Salmon, London, 1796, 8vo, 2 vols.: Nagel, Berlin, 1869, 8vo; Latin roots, with their French and English derivatives, explained in German: Zehetmayr, Vindobona;, 1873, 8vo: Vanicek, Leip. 1874,8vo. BARBAROUS.—Marchellus, Mediol. 1753, 4to; Krebs, Frankf. a. M. 1834, 8vo ; 1837. PARTICULAR AUTHORS.—Ccesar: Crusius, Hannov. 1838, 8vo. Cicero : Nizzoli, Brescia, 1535, fol.; ed. Facciolati, Patavii, 1734, fol.; London, 1820, 8vo, 3 vols: Ernesti, Lips. 1739, 8vo; Halle, 1831. CorneliusNepos: Schmieder, Halle, 1798, 8vo; 1816: Billerbeck, Hannover, 1825, 8vo. Curtius Itufus: Crusius, Hannov. 1844, 8vo. Horace: Ernesti, Ber-lin, 1802-4, 8vo, 3 vols.: Döring, Leips. 1829, 8vo. Justin: Meinecke, Lemgo, 1793, 8vo ; 2d ed., 1818. Liny: Ernesti, Lips. 1784, 8vo ; ed. Schäfer, 1804. Ovid: Gierig, Leips.1814: (Metamorphoses) Mein-ecke, 2d ed., Lemgo, 1S25, Svo: Billerbeck (Do.), Hannover, 1831, 8vo. Phcedrus: Oertel, Nürnberg, 1798, 8vo : Hörstel, Leips. 1803, 8vo: Billerbeck, Hannover, 1828, 8vo. Plautus: Parsaus, Frankf. 1614, Svo. Pliny: Denso, Rostock, 1766, 8vo. Pliny, jun. Wcnsch, Wittenberg, 1837-39, 4to. Quintilian: Bonnellus, Leips. 1834, 8-vo. Sallust: Schneider, Leipz. 1834, 8vo: Crusius, Han-nover, 1840, 8vo. Tacitus: Bütticher, Berlin, 1830, 8vo. Vellerns Paterculus: Koch, Leipz. 1857, 8vo. Virgil: Clavis, London, 1742, 8vo: Brauniard, Coburg, 1834, 8vo. Vitruvius: Rode, Leipz. 1679, 4to, 2 vols.: Orsini, Perugia, 1801, 8vo.
OLD ITALIAN LANGUAGES.—Fabretti, Torini, 1858, 4to. Urn-brian: Huschke, Leipz. 1S60, Svo. Osean and Sabeliian 1 Id. Elberfeld, 1856, 8vo.
MEDIEVAL LATIN.—Dufresne du Cange, Paris, 1733-36, fob 6 vols.; Carpentier, Suppb, Paris, 1766, fob 4 vols.; ed. Adelung, Hake, 1772-84, 8vo, 6 vols.; cd. Henschel, Paris, 1840-50, 4to, 7 vols. (vol. vii. contains a glossary of Old French): Brinckmeier, Gotha, 1350-63, 8vo, 2 vols.; Hildebrand (Glossarium sozc. ix.), Gotting. 1854, 4to: Diefenbach, Glossarium, Frankf. 1857, 4to: Id. Gloss, novum, ib. 1867, 4to. ECCLESIASTICAL.—Magri, Messina, 1644, 4to; 8th ed. Venezia, 1732; Latin translation, Magri Hiero-lexicon, Roma;, 1677, fob; 6th ed. Bologna, 1765, 4to, 2 vols.
Romance Langtiages.
Romance Languages generally.—Diez, Bonn, 1S53, 8vo , 2d ed. ib. 1861-62, Svo, 2 vols; 3d ed. ib. 1869-70, 8vo, 2 vols.; transí, by Donkin, 1S64, 8vo.
French. —Ranconct, Thresor, ed. Nicot, Paris 1606, fob; ib.

1618, 4to: Eichelet, Geneve, 1680, fol. 2 vols.; ed. Gattel, Paris, 1840, 8vo, 2 vols.
The French Academy, after five years' consideration, began their dictionary, 7th February 1639, by examining the letter A, which took them nine months to go through. The word Académie was for some time omitted by oversight. They decided, 8th March 1638, not to cite authorities, and they have since always claimed the right of making their own examples. Ollivier justifies them by saying that for eighty years all the best writers belonged to their body, and they could not be expected to cite each other. Their design was to raise the language to its last perfection, and to open a road to reach tho highest eloquence. Antoine Furetière, ene of their members, compiled a dictionary which he says cost him forty years' labour for ten hours a day, and the manuscript filled fifteen chests. He gave words of all kinds, especially technical, names of persons and places, and phrases. As a specimen, he pub-lished his Essai, Paris, 1684, 4to; Amst. 1685, 12mo. The Aca-demy charged him with using the materials they had prepared for their dictionary, and expelled him, 22d January 1685, for plagiarism. He died 14th May 1688, in the midst of the consequent controversy and law suit. His complete work was published, with a preface by Bayle, La Haye and Rotterdam, 1690, fob 3 vols.; again edited by Basnage de Beauval, 1701 ; La Haye, 1707, fol. 4 vols. From the edition of 1701 the so-called very popular Dictionnaire de Trévoux, Trévoux, 1704, fol. 2 vols., was made by the Jesuits, who excluded everything that seemed to favour the Calvinism of Basnage. Tho last of its many editions is Paris, 1771, fob 8 vols. The Academy's dictionary was first printed Paris, 1694, fob 2 vols. They began the revision in 1700; second edition 1718, fob 2 vols.; 3d, 1740, fol. 2 vols. ; 6th, 1835, 2 vols. 4to, reprinted 1855 ; Supplement, by F. Raymond, 1836, 4to ; Complément, 1842, 4to, reprinted 1856 ; Dictionnaire Historique, Paris, 1858-65, 4to, 2 parts (A to Actu), 795 pages, published by the Institut : Dochez, Paris, 1859, 4to: Beseherelle, ib. 1844, 4to, 2 vols.; 5th ed. Paris, 1857, 4to, 2 vols.; 1865: Landais, Paris, 1835; 12th ed. ib. 1854, 4to, 2 vols.: Littré, Paris, 1863-73, 4to, 4 vols. 7118 pages; Supplément, Paris, 1877, 4to, to be in about 12 parts (parts i.-v. 200 pages). ENGLISH.— Palsgrave,Lesclaircissement de la langueFrancoysc,h<mdon,l530,ito, 2 parts; 1852: Hollyband, London, 1533, 4to: Cotgrave, ib.. 1611, fob: Boyer, La Haye, 1702, 4to, 2 vols.; 37th ed. Paris, 1851, 8vo, 2 vols.: Fleming and'fibbins, Paris, 1846-49, 4to, 2 vols.; ib. 1854, 4to, 2 vols. ; ib. 1870-72, 4to, 2 vols. : Tarver, London, 1853-54, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1867-72: Bellows, Gloucester, 1873, 16mo; ib. 1876. IDEO-LOGICAL, or ANALOGICAL.—Robertson, Paris, 1859, 8vo ; Boissiere, Paris, 1862, 8vo. ETYMOLOGY.—Lebon, Paris, 1571, 8vo: Ménage, ib. 1650, 4to. Pougens projected a Tresor des orígenes, his extracts for which, filling nearly 100 volumes folio, are in the library of the Institut. He published a specimen, Paris, 1819, 4to. After his death, Archceologie Française, Paris, 1821, 8vo, 2 vols., was com-piled from his MSS., which were much used by, Littré: Scheler, Bruxelles, 1862, 8vo; 1873: Brächet, 2d ed., Paris, 1870,12mo; Eng-lish trans. Kitchin, Oxf. 1866, 8vo. GREEK "WORDS.—Trippault, Orleans, 1580, 8vo: Morin, Paris, 1S09, 8vo. GERMAN WORDS.— Atzler, Cothen, 1867, 8vo. ORIENTAL WORDS.—Pihan, Paris, 1847, 8vo ; 1866 : Devic, ib. 1876, 8vo. NEOLOGY.—Desfontaines, 3d ed. Amst. 1728, 12mo : Mercier, Paris, 1801, 8vo, 2 vols.: Richard, ib. 1842, Svo- 2d ed. 1845. POETIC.—Diet, des Eimes (by La Noue), Geneve, i 596, 8vo ; Cologny, 1624, 8vo : Carpentier, Le Gradas Français, Paris, 1825, 8vo, 2 vols. EROTIC.—De Landes, Brux-elles, 1861, 12mo. ORATORY.—Demandreand Fontenai, Paris, 1802, 8vo: Planche, ib. 1819-20, 8vo, 3 vols. PRONUNCIATION.—Feline, ib. 1857, 8vo. DOUBLE FORMS.—Brächet, ib. 1871, 8vo. EPITHETS. —Daire, ib. 1817, 8vo. VERBS.—Beseherelle, ib. 1855, 8vo, vols. ; 3d ed. 1858. PARTICIPLES.—Id., ib. 1861, 12mo. DIF-FICULTIES.—Boiste, London, 1828, 12mo : Laveaux, Paris, 1872, 8vo, 843 pages. SYNONYMS. — Boinvilliers, Paris, 1826, 8vo: Lafaye, ib. 1S58, 8vo; 1861 ; 1869 : Guizot, ib. 1809, 8vo ; 0th ed. 1863 ; 1873. HOMONYMS.—Zlatagorski (Germ. Russian, Eng.), Leipzig, 1862, 8vo, 664 pages. IMITATIVE WORDS.—Nodier, Onomatopées, ib. 1828, 8vo. TECHNOLOGY.—D'Hautel, ib. 1S08, 8vo, 2 vols. : Desgranges, ib. 1821, 8vo : Tolhausen (Fr. Eng. Germ.), Leipzig, 1873, 8vo, 3 vols. FAULTS OF EXPRESSION.— Roland, Gap, 1823, 8vo: Blondín, Paris, 1S23, 8vo. PARTICULAR AUTHORS.—Corneille: Godefroy, ib. 1862, 8vo, 2 vols.; Marty-Laveaux, ib. 1868, 8vo, 2 vols. La Fontaine: Lorin, ib. 1852, 8vo. Malherbe: Régnier, ib. 1869, 8vo. Molière: Genin, ib. 1846, 8vo: Marty-Laveaux, ib. 8vo. Racine: Marty-Laveaux, ib. 1873, 8vo, 2 vols. Mme- de Sévigné: Sommer, ib. 1867, 8vo, 2 vols. OLD FRENCH.—La Curne de St Palaye prepared a dictionary, of which he only published Projet d'un Glossaire, Paris, 1756, 4to. His MSS. in many volumes are in the National Library, and were much used by Littré. They are now being printed by L. Favre, and fasciculi 21-30 (torn, iii.), Niort, 4to, 484 pages, were published in February 1877. Lacombe (vieux langage), Paris, 1766, 2 vols. 4to: Kelham (Norman and old French), London, 1779, 8YO: Roquefort (langue romane), Paris, 1808, 8vo; Supplement, ib. 1820, 8vo: Pougens, Archceologie, ib. 1821, Svo, 2 vols. : Burguy, Berlin,
1851-56, 8vo, 3 vols.: Laborde (Notice des émaux . . . du Louvre, Part ii.), Paris, 1853, 8vo, 564pages:1 Gachet (rhymedchronicles), Bruxelles, 1859, 4to: Le Héricher (Norman, English, and French), Paris, 1862, 3 vols. 8vo : Hippeau (12th and 13th centuries), Paris,
1875, 8vo. DIALECTS.—Jaubert (central), Paris, 1856-57, 8vo, 2
vols.: Baurngarten (north and centre), Coblentz, 1870, 8vo : Azais,
Idiomes Romans du midi, Montpellier, 1877, 8vo, livraison i., to be
in 6 livraisons of about 250 pages each, forming 3 vols. Austrasian:
François, Metz, 1773, 8vo. Auvergne: Mège, Riom, 1861, 12mo.
Beam: Lespi, Pau, 1858, 8vo. Beaucaire: Bonnet (Bouguirén),
Nismes, 1840, 8vo. Pays de Bray: Decorde, Neufchâtel, 1852,
8vo. Burgundy : Mignard, Dijon, 1870, 8vo. Pays de Castres: Cou-
zinié, Castres, 1850, 4to. Dauphiné : Champollion-Figeac, Paris,
1S09, 8vo : Jules, Valence, 1835, 8vo ; Paris, 1840, 4to. Dep. of
Doubs: Tissot (Patois des Fourg, arr. de Pontarlier) Besançon,
1865, 8vo. Forez: Gras, Paris, 1864, 8vo ; Neolas, Lyon, 1865,
8vo. Franche Comté: Maisonforte, 2d ed. Besançon, 1753, 8vo.
Gascony : Desgrouais (Gasconismes corrigés), Toulouse, 1766, 8vo ;
1769 ; 1812, 12mo, 2 vols.; 1825, 8vo, 2 vols. Dep. of Gers : Cenac-
Montaut, Paris, 1863, 8vo. Geneva: Humbert, Geneve, 1820,
8vo. Languedoc: Odde, Tolose, 1578, 8vo : Doujat, Toulouse,
1638, 8vo : De S.fauvages], Nismes, 1756, 8vo, 2 vols ; 1785 ;
Alais, 1820 : Azais, Beziers, 1876, &c., 8vo : Hombres, Alais, 1872,
4to : Thomas (Greek words), Montpellier,, 1843, ito. Liege:
Forir, Liege, 1866, 8vo, vol. i. 455 pages. Lille : Vermesse,
Lille, 1861, 12mo : Debuire du Bue, _'_. 1867, 8vo. Limousin:
Beronie, ed. Vialle (Corrèze), Tulle, 1823, 4to. Lyonnais, Forez,
Beaujolais: Onofrio, Lyon, 1864, Svo. Haut Maine: R.[aoul"|
de M.[ontesson], Paris, 1857; 1859, 503 pages. Mentone: Andrews,
Nice, 1877, 12mo. Dep. de la Meuse : Cordier, Paris, 1853, 8vo. Nor-
man : Edélestand and Alfred Duméril, Caen, 1849, 8vo : Dubois,
ib. 1857, 8vo : Le Héricher [Philologie topographique), Caen,
1863, 4to : Id. (éléments Scandinaves), Avranches, 1861, 12mo :
Motivier (Guernsey), London, 1870, 8vo : Vasnier (arrond. de Pont
Audemer), Rouen, 1861, 8vo: Delboulle (Vallée d'Yères), Le Havre,
1876. Picardy: Corblet, Amiens, 1851, 8vo. Poitou, Saintonge,
Aunis: Favre, Niort, 1867, Svo. Poitou: Beauchet-Filleau, Paris,
1864, 8vo: Lévrier, Niort, 1867, 8vo : Lalanne, Poitiers, 1868, 8vo.
Saintonge : Boucherie, Angoulême, 1865, 8vo : Jonain, Royan,
1867, 8vo. Savoy: Pont (Terratzu de la Tarantaise), Chambery,
1869, 8vo. La Suisse Romande: Bridel, Lausanne, 1866, Svo.
Dep. of Tarn: Gary, Castre, 1845, 8vo. Dep. of Vaucluse: Bar-
javel, Carpentras, 1849, 8vo. Walloon (Rouchi) : Cambresier, Liège,
1787, 8vo : Grandgagnage, ib. 1845-50, 8vo, 2 vols. : Chavée, Paris,
1857, 18mo : Vermesse, Doudi, 1867, 8vo : Sigart (Montois),
Bruxelles, 1870, 8vo. SLANG.—Oudin, Curiositcz Françaises, Paris,
1640, 8vo : Baudeau de Saumaise (Précieuses, Langue de Ruelles),
Paris, 1660, 12mo; ed. Livet, ib. 1856: Le Roux, Diet. Comique,
Amst. 1788, and 6 other editions : Carême Prenant [i.e., Tau-
niaise], (argot réforme), Paris, 1829, 8vo : Larchey (excentricitées
du langage), Paris, 1860, 12mo; 5th ed. 1865: Delvau (langue verte,
Parisian), Paris, 1867, 8vo: Larchey, Paris, 1873, 4to, 236 pages.
Provencal.—Pallas, Avignon, 1723, 4to : Bastero, La Crusca Provenzale, noma, 1724, fol. vobi. only : Raynouard, Paris, 1836-44, 8vo, 6 vols.: Garein, Draguignand, 1841, 8vo, 2 vols.: Honnorat, Digne, 1846-49, 4to, 4 vols. 107,201 words : Id., Vocab. fr. p,iro., ib. 1848, 12mo, 1174 pages.
Spanish.—Covamivias Orosco, Madrid, 1611, fol.; ib. 1673-4 fol. 2 vols.: Academia Espanola, Madrid, 1726-39, fol. 6 vols.; 8th ed. 1837 : Caballero, Madrid, 1849, fol. ; 8th ed. ib. 1860, 4to, 2 vols. : Cuesta, ib. 1872, fol. 2 vols. : Campano, Paris, 1876, 18mo, 1015 pages. ENGLISH.—Percivall, London, 1591, 4to: Pineda, London, 1740, fob: Connelly and Higgins, Madrid, 1797-98, 4to, 4 vols. : Neuman and Baretti, 9th ed. London, 1831, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1874. FRENCH.—Oudin, Paris, 1607, 4to, 1660: Gattel, Lyon, 1803, 4to, 2 vols.: Dominguez, Madrid, 1846, 8vo, 6 vols. : Blanc, Paris, 1862, 8vo, 2 vols. GERMAN.—Wagener, Hamb. 1801-5, 8vo, 4 vols. : Seckendorp, ib. 1823, 8vo, 3 vols. : Franceson, 3d ed. Leipzig, 1862, Svo, 2 vols. ITALIAN.—Fran-ciosini, Venezia, 1735, 8vo, 2 vols.; Cormon y Manni, Leon, 1843, 16mo, 2 vols. : Romero, Madrid, 1844, 4to. SYNONYMS.—Die-donatio de Sinonimos, Paris, 1853, 4to. ETYMOLOGY.—Aldrete, Madrid, 1682, fol. : Monlau y Roca, ib. 1856, 12mo. ARABIC WORDS.—Hammer Purgstall, Wien, 1855, 8vo: Dozy and Engel-mann, 2d ed., Leyden, 1869, 8vo. ANCIENT.—Sanchez, Paris, 1842, 8vo. RHYMING.—Garcia de Rengifo (eonsonaneias) Sal-mantiea, 1592, 4to ; 1876. DON QUIXOTE.— Beneke (German), Leipzig, 1800, 16mo ; 4th ed. Berlin, 1841, 16mo. DIALECTS.— Aragonese: Peralta, Zaragoza, 1836, Svo: Borao, ib. 1859, 4to. Catalan: Rocha de Girona (Latin), Barcinone, 1561, fob: Dictionari Catala (Lat. Fr. Span.), Barcelona, 1642, Svo: Lacavalleria (Cat.-Lat.), ib. 1696, fob: Esteve, ed. Belvitges, &c. (Catal.-Sp. Lat.), Barcelona, 1805-35, fob 2 vols.: Saura (Cat.-Span.), ib. 1851, 16mo; 2d ed. (Span.-Cat.), ib. 1854; 3d ed. (id.) ib. 1862, 8vo :
1 This volume has been issued with a new title page as Glossaire du moyen âge, Paris, 1872.


Labernia, ib. 1844-48, Svo, 2 vols., 1864. Gallegan: Rodriguez, Coruna, 1863, 4to: Cuveira y Pifiol, Madrid, 1877, 8vo. Majorca: Figuera, Palma, 1840, 4to : Amengual, ib. 1845, 4to. Minorca: Piccionarìo, Madrid, 1848, 8vo. Valencian: Palmyreno, Valentia?, 1569 : Ros, Valencia, 1764, 8vo : Fuster, ib. 1827, 8vo : Lamarca, 2d ed. ib. 1842, 16mo. Cuba: Glossary of Creole Words, London, 1840, 8vo: Picliardo, 1836 ; 2d ed. Havana, 1849, 8vo ; 3d ed. ib. 1862, 8vo ; Madrid, 1860, 4to.
Portuguese.—Lima, Lisboa, 1783, 4to : Moraes da Silva, ib. 1789, 4to, 2 vols.; 6th ed. 1858 : Academia real das Sciencias, ib. 1793, torn, i., covi, and 544 pages (A to Azurrar): Faria, ib. 1849, fol. 2 vols. ; 3d ed. ib. 1850-57, fol. 2 vols. 2220 pages. ENGLISH. —Vieyra, London, 1773, 2 vols. 4to : Lacerda, Lisboa, 1866-71, 4to, 2 vols. FRENCH.—Marquez, Lisboa, 1756-61, fol. 2 vols.: Roquette, Paris, 1841, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 4th ed. 1860 : Marques, Lis-bonne, 1875, fob 2 vols. : Souza Pinto, Paris, 1877, 32mo, 1024 pages. GERMAN.—Wagener, Leipzig, 1811-12, 8vo, 2 vols. : Woll-heim, ib. 1844, 12mo, 2 vols.: Bosche, Hamburg, 1858, 8vo, 2 vols. 1660 pages. ITALIAN.—Costa e Sa, Lisboa, 1773-4, fol. 2 vols. 1652 pages : Prefumo, Lisboa, 1853, 8vo, 1162 pages. ANCIENT.—Joaquim de Sancta Rosa de Viterbo, ib. 1798, fol. 2 vols. ; 1824, 8vo. ARAEIO WORDS.—Souza, ib. 1789, 4to ; 2d ed. by S. Antonio Moura, ib. 1830, 224 pages. ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN WORDS, NOT ARABIC. — Sao Luiz, ib. 1837, 4to, 123 pages. FRENCH WORDS.—Id., ib. 1827, 4to; 2d ed. Rio de Janeiro, 1835, 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Id., ib. 1821, 4to; 2d ed. ib. 1824-8, 8vo. Fonseca, Paris, 1833, 8vo; 1859, ISmo, 863 pages. HOMONYMS. —De Conto, Lisboa, 1842, fol. POETIC.—Luzitano (i.e., Freire), ib. 1765, 8vo, 2 vols.; 3d ed. ib. 1820, 4to, 2 vols. RHYMING.— Couto Guerreiro, Lisboa, 1763, 4to. NAVAL.—Tiberghien, Rio de Janeiro, 1870, 8vo. CEYLON-PORTUGUESE.—Fox, Colombo, 1819, 8vo: Callaway, ib. 1823, 8vo.
Italian.—Accarigi, Vocabulario, Cento, 1543, 4to: Alunno, La fabrica del mundo, Vinezia, 1548, fol. : Porceachi, Venetia, 1588, fol.: Accademici della Crusca, Vocabulario, Venez. 1612, fol.; 4th ed. Firenze, 1729-3S, fol. 6 vols. : Costa and Cardinali, Bologna, 1819-26, 4to, 7 vols.: Tommaseo and Bellini, Torino, 1861, &c, 4to, 4 vols. ENGLISH.—Thomas, London, 1598, 4to: Florio, Lon-don, 1598, 4to; 1611: Baretti, London, 1794, 2 vols.; 1854, 8vo, 2 vols.: Petronj and Davenport, Londra, 1828, 8vo, 3 vols.: Grassi, Leipz. 1854, 12mo: Millhouse, Lond., 1868, 8vo, 2 vols. 1348 pages. FRENCH.—Alberti, Paris, 1771, 4to, 2 vols. ; Milan, 1862 : Barberi, Paris, 1S38, 4to, 2 vols. : Benzi, Paris, 1850, 8vo. GERMAN. —Libro utilissimo, Venetiis, 1199, 4to: Valentini, Leipzig, 1834-36, 4to, 4 vols. ETYMOLOGY.—Menage, Geneva, 1685, fob: Bolza, Vienna, 1852, 4to. PROVENÇAL WORDS.—Nannucci, Firenze, 1840, 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Rabbi, Venezia, 1774, 4to; 10th ed. 1817: Tommaseo, Firenze, 1839-40, 4to, 2vols.; Milano, 1856, 8vo; 1S67. VERBS.— Mastrofini, Roma, 1814, 4to, 2 vols. SELECT WORDS AND PHRASES.—Redi, Brescia, 1769, 8vo. INCORRECT WORDS AND PHRASES.—Molassi, Parma, 1830-41, 8vo, 854 pages. SUPPOSED GALLICISMS.—Viani, Firenze, 1858-60, 8vo, 2 vols. ADDITIONS TO THE DICTIONARIES.—Gherardini, Milano, 1819-21, 8vo, 2 vols. ; ib. 1852-57, 8vo, 6 vols. RHYMING.—Falco, Napoli, 1535, 4to: Ruscelli, Venetia, 1563, 8vo ; 1S27 : Stigliarli, Roma, 1658, 8vo : Rosasco, Padova, 1763, 4to ; Palermo, 1840, 8vo. TECHNI-CAL.— Bonavilla-Aquilino, Mil. 1819-21, 8vo, 5 vols.; 2d ed. 1829-31, 4to, 2 vols. : Vogtberg (Germ.), Wein, 1831, 8vo. PARTICULAR AUTHORS. — Boccaccio: Aluno, Le ricchezze della lingua volgare, Vinegia, 1543, fol. Dante: Blanc, Leipzig, 1852, 8vo; Firenze, 1859, 8vo. DIALECTS.—Bergamo: Gasparini, Mediol. 1565 : Zappetini, Bergamo, 1859, 8vo : Tiraboschi (anc. and mod.), Turin, 1873, 8vo. Bologna: Bumaldi, Bologna, 1660, 12ino : Ferrari, ib. 1820, 8vo ; 1838, 4to. Brescia : Gagliardi, Brescia, 1759, 8vo : Melchiori, ib. 1817-20, 8vo : Vocabularietto, ib. 1872, 4to. Como : Monti, Milano, 1845, 8vo. Ferrara: Manini, Ferrara, 1805, 8vo: Azzi, ib. 1857, 8vo. Friuli : Scala, Pordenone, 1870, 8vo. Genoa : Casaccia, Gen. 1842-51, 8vo; 1873, &c. : Paganini, ib. 1857, 8vo. Lombardi] : Margharini, Tuderti, 1870, 8vo. Mantua : Cherubini, Milano, 1827, 4to. Milan: Varon, ib. 1606, 8vo : Cherubini, ib. 1814, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 1841-44, 8vo, 4 vols.; 1851-61, 8vo, 5 vols.: Banfi, ib. 1857, 8vo ; 1870, 8vo. Modena: Galvani, Modena, 1868, 8vo. Naples: Galiani, Napoli, 1789, 12mo, 2 vols. Parma: Peschieri, Parma, 1828-31, 8vo, 3 vols.; 1840: Males-pina, ¿6. 1856, 8vo, 2 vols. Pavia : Dizionario domestico pavese, Pavia, 1829, 8vo : Gambini, ib. 1850, 4to, 346 pages. Piacenza: Nicolli, Piacenza, 1832: Foresti, ib. 1837-38, 8vo, 2 pts. Piedmont: Pino, Torino, 1784, 4to : Capello (Fr.), Turin, 1814, 8vo, 2 pts. : Zalli (Ital. Lat. Fr.), Carmagnola, 1815, 8vo, 2 vols : Sant'Albino, Torino, 1860, 4to. Seggio: Vocabulario Reggiano, 1832. Romagna : Moni, Fienza, 1840. Rome: Raccolto di voci Romani e Marchiani, Osimo, 1769, 8vo. Roventano and Trentino : Azzolini, Venezia, 1856, 8vo. Sardinia : Porru, Casteddu, 1832, fol. : Spano, Cagliari, 1851-52, fol. 3 vols. Sicily : Bono (It. Lat.), Palermo, 1751-54, 4to, 3 vols.; 1783-85, 4to,' 5 vols.: Pasqualino, ib. 1785-95, 4to, 5 vols.: Mortillaro, ib. 1853,
4to, 956 pages : Biundi, ib. 1857, 12mo, 578 pages : Traina, ib.
1870, 8vo, Siena: Barbagli, Siena, 1602,4to. Taranto: Vincentiis, Taranto, 1872, 8vo. Turin: Somis di Chavrie, Torino, 1843, 8vo. Tuscany: Luna, Napoli, 1536,4to: Politi, Roma, 1604, 8vo; Venezia, 1615; 1628; 1665 : Paulo, ib. 1740, 4to. Vaudois : Callet, Lausanne, 1862, 12mo. Venetian: Patriarchi (Venezianoepcalovano), Padova, 1755, 4to; 1796, 1821 : Boerio, Venezia, 1829, 4to; 1858-59; 1861. Verona: Angeli, Verona, 1821, 8vo. Vicenza: Conti, Vicenza,
1871, 8vo. LINGUA FRANCA.—Dictionnaire de la lauguc Frauque, ou Petit Mauresque, Marseille, 1830, 16mo, 107 pages. SLANG.— Sabio (lingua Zerga), Venetia, 1556, 8vo ; 1575 : Trattato degli bianti, Pisa, 1828, 8vo.
Romansch.—Promptuario de voci volgari e Latine, Valgrisii, 1565, 4to : Der, die, das, oder Nomenclatura (German nouns ex-plained in Rom.), Scuoi, 1744, 8vo : Conradi, Zurich, 1820, Svo; 1826, 12mo, 2 vols. : Cariseli, Chur, 1821, 8vo ; 1852, 16mo.
Wallachian —Lcsicon Rumanesc (Lat. Hung. Germ.), Buda?, 1825, 4to: Bobb (Lat. Hung.), Clus, 1822-23, 4to, 2 vols. FRENCH.—Vaillant, Boucoureshti, 1840, 8vo : Poyenar, Aaron and Hill, Boucourest, 1840-41, 4to, 2 vols.; Jassi, 1852, 16mo, 2 vols.: De Pontbriant, Bucuresci, 1862, 8vo: Cihac, Frankf. 1870, 8vo : Costinescu, Bucuresci, 1870, 8vo, 724 pages: Antonescu, Bucharest, 1874, 16mo, 2 vols. 919 pages. GERMAN.—Clemens, Hermanstadt, 1823, 8vo: Isser, Kronstadt, 1850: Polyzu, ib. 1857, Svo.
Scandinavian.
Icelandic—LATIN.—Andrea?, Havnia?, 1683, 8vo : Halderson (Lat. Danish), ib. 1814, 4to, 2 vols. ENGLISH.—Cleasby, Oxford, 1874, 4to. GERMAN.—Dieterieh, Stockholm, 1844, 8vo : Mobius, Leipzig, 1866, 8vo. DANISH.—Jonssen, Kjobenhavn, 1863, 8vo. NORWEGIAN.—Kraft, Christiania, 1863, 8vo: Fritzner, Kristiania, 1867, 8vo. POETIC—Egilsson (Latin), Hafniie, 1860, 8vo; 1864.
Swedish. —Kindblad, Stockholm, 1840, 4to : Almqvist, Cre-bro, 1842-44, 8vo : Dalin, Ordbog, Stockholm, 1850-53, 8vo, 2 vols. 1668 pages ; 1867, &c. 4to (vol. i. ii., A to Fjermare, 928 pages): Id., Ilandordbog, ib. 1868, 12mo, 804 pages: Svenska Academien,Stockholm, 1870,4to(A) pp. 187. LATIN.—Stjernhjelm, Holm. 1643,4to: Verelius, Upsala, 1691, 8vo: Ihre (Sueo-Gothicum), Upsala, 1769, fob 2 vols. ENGLISH.—Serenius, Nykoping, 1757, 4to : Brisnon, Upsala, 1784, 4to : Widegren, Stockholm, 1788, 4to : Brisman, Upsala, 1801, 4to; 3d ed. 1815, 2 vobs. : Deleen. Òrebro, 1829, 8vo : Granberg, ib. 1832, 12mo : Nilssen, Widmark, &c, Stockholm, 1875, 8vo. FRENCH.—Moller, Stockholm, 1745, 4to : Bjorkengren, ib. 1795, 2 vols. : Nordforss, ib. 1805, 8vo, 2 vols.; 2d ed. Orebro, 1827, 12mo : West, Stockh. 1807, 8vo : Dalin, ib. 1842-43, 4to, 2 vols.; 1872. GERMAN. — Dahnert, Holmioe, 1746, 4to : Heinrich, Christiansund, 1814, 4to, 2 vols.; 4th ed. Crebro, 1841, 12mo : Helms, Leipzig, 1858, 8vo ; 1872. DANISH.—Host, Kjobenhavn, 1799, 4to : Welander, Stockholm, 1844, 8vo: Dalin, ib. 1869, 16mo: Kaper, Kjobenhavn, 1876, 16mo. ETYMOLOGY.—Tamm, Upsala, 1874, &c., 8vo (A and B), 200 pages. FOREIGN WORDS.—Sahlstedt, Wasteràs, 1769, 8vo : Andersson (20,000), Stockholm, 1857, 16mo: Tullberg, ib. 1868, 8vo: Ekbohrn, ib. 1870, 12mo: Dalin, ib. 1870, &c., 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Id., ib. 1870, 12mo. NAVAL. — Ramsten, ib. 1866, 8vo. TECHNICAL.— Jungberg, ib. 1873, 8vo. DIALECTS.—Ihre, Upsala, 1766, 4to : Rietz, Lund, 1862-67, 4to, 859 pages. Bohusldn : Idioticon Bohu-dense, Gotaborg, 1776, 4to. Dalecarlia: Arborelius, Upsala, 1813, 4to. Gothland : Hof (Sven), StockholmiiB, 1772, 8vo: Raaf ( Ydre), Orebro, 1859, 8vo. Halland : Moller, Lund, 158, 8vo. Helsing land: Lenstrom, ib. 1841, 8vo : Fomminnessallskap, Hudikswall, 1870, 8vo.
Norwegian.—Jenssen, Kjobenhavn, 1646, 8vo : Pontoppidan, Bergen, 1749, 8vo : Hanson (German), Christiania, 1840, 8vo : Aascn, ib. 1873, 8vo, 992 pages.
Danish.—Aphelen, Kopenh. 1764, 4to, 2 vols. ; 1775, 4to, 3 vols.: Molbeeh, Kjobenhavn, 1833, 8vo, 2 vols.; ib. 1859, 2 vols.: Videnskabernes Selskab, ib. 1793-1865, 4to, 7 vols. (A to T). ENGLISH.—Berthelson (Eng. Dan.), 1754, 4to : Wolff, London, 1779, 4to. Bay, ib. 1807, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1824, 8vo : Hornbeck, ib. 1863, 8vo: Ferrali and Repp, ib. 1814, 16mo; 1873, 8vo. : Rosing, Copenhagen, 1869, 8vo: Ancker, ib. 1874, 8vo. FRENCH.— Aphelen, ib. 1754, 8vo : Id., ib. 1759, 4to, 2 vols.; 2d ed. 1772-77, vol. i. ii. GERMAN.—Id., ib. 1764, 4to, 2 vols.: Gronberg, 2d ed. Kopenh. 1836-39, 12mo, 2 vols. ; 1851: Helms, Leipzig, 1858, 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Mtiller, Kjobenhavn, 1853, 8vo. FOREIGK WORDS.—Hansen, Christiania, 1842, 12mo. NAVAL.—Wilsoet, Copenhagen, 1830, 8vo: Fisker (French), Kjobenhavn, 1839, 8vo. OLD DANISH.—Molbeeh, ib. 1857-68, 8vo, 2 vols. DIALECTS.-Id., ib. 1841, 8vo. Bornholm: Adler, ib. 1856, 8vo. South Jutland : Eok, 1867, Svo. SLANG.—Kristiansen (Gadesproget), ib. 1866. 8vo, p. 452.
Teutonic.
Teutonic.—COMPARATIVE.—Meidinger, Frankf. a. M. 1833, 8vo ; 2d ed. 1836, 8vo.
Gothic—Junius, Dortrecht, 1665, 4to; 1671; 1684 : Diefen-

bach (comparative), Franekf. a. M. 1846-51, 2 vols. 8vo: Schulze, Magdeburg, 1848, 4to; 1867, 8vo: Skeat, London, 1868, 4to. ULPHILAS (editions with dictionaries).—Castilionseus, Mediol. 1829, 4to: Gabeleutz and Lobe, Altenburg, 1836-43, 4to, 2 vols.: Gaugen-gigl, Passau, 1848, 8vo : Stamm, Paderborn, 1857: Stamm and Heyne, ib. 1866, 8vo.
Anglo-Saxon.—LATIN.—Somner(Lat.Eng.), Oxonii, 1659, fob : Benson, ib. 1701, 8vo : Lye (A.-S. and Gothic), London, 1772, fob 2 vols.: Ettmüller, Quedlinburg, 1851, 8vo, 838 pages. ENGLISH. —Bosworth, London, 1S33, 8vo, 721 pages : Id. (Compendious), 1848, 278 pages. Corson (A.-S. and Early English), New York, 1871,8vo, 587 pages : GERMAN.—Bouterwek, Gütersloh, 1850, 8vo, 418 pages: Grein (Poets), Göttingen, 1861-63, 8vo, 2 vols.: Leo, Halle, "1872, 8vo.
English.—Cockeram, London, 1623, 8vo; 9th ed 1650: Blount, ib. 1656, 8vo: Phi'ps, The new World of Words, London, 1658, fob: Bailey, London, 1721, 8vo ; 2d ed. ib. 1736, fob; 24th ed. ib. 1782, 8vo : Johnson, ib. 1755, fob 2 vols.; ed. Todd, London, 1818, 4to, 4 vols.; ib. 1827, 4to, 3 vols.; ed. Latham, ib. 1866-74, 4to, 4 vols. (2 in 4 parts) : Barclay, London, 1774, 4to; ed. Woodward, ib. 1848 : Sheridan, ib. 1780, 4to, 2 vols.: Webster, New York, 1828, 4to. 2 vols.; London, 1832, 4to, 2 vols.; ed. Goodrich and Porter, 1865, 4to: Richardson, ib. 1836, 4to, 2 vols.; Supplement, 1856: Ogilvie, Imperial Dictionary, Glasgow, 1850-55, 8vo, 3 vols. : Boag, Do., Edinburgh, 1852-53, 8vo, 2 vols.: Craik, ib. 1856, 8vo : Worcester, Boston, 1863, 4to. ETYMOLOGY.—Skinner, Londini, 1671, fob : Junius, Oxonii, 1743, fob : Wedgewood, London, 1859-65, 8vo, 3 vols. ; ib. 1872, 8vo PRONOUNCING.—Walker, London, 1774, 4to ; by Smart, 2d ed. ib. 1846, 8vo. PRONOUNCING IN GERMAN.—Hausner, Frankf. 1793, 8vo, 3d ed. 1807: Winkelmann, Berlin, 1818, 8vo : Voigtmann, Coburg, 1835, 8vo : Albert, Leipz. 1839, 8vo : Bassler, ib. 1840, 16mo. ANALYTICAL.—Booth, Bath, 1836, 4to : Roget, Thesaurus, London, 1852, 8vo; 6th ed. 1857 ; Boston, 1874. SYNONYMS.— Piozzi, London, 1794, 8vo, 2 vols.: L.[abarthe], Paris, 1803, 8vo, 2 vols.: Crabb, London, 1823,8vo; 11th ed. 1859: C. J. Smith, ¿6.1871, 8vo, 610 pages. REDUPLICATED VrORDs.—Wheatley, ib. 1866, 8vo. SURNAMES.—Arthur, New York, 1857, 12mo, aboui 2600 names : Lower, ib. 1860, 4to. PARTICLES.—Le Febure de Ville-brune, Paris, 1774, 8vo. RHVMING.—Levins,ManipulusPueroram, London, 1570, 4to ; ed. Wheatley, ib. 1867, 8vo : Walker, London, 1775, 8vo; 1865, 8vo. SHAKESPEARE.—Nares, Berlin, 1S22, 4to; ed. Halliwell and Wright, London, 1859, 8vo: Schmidt, Berlin, 1874. OLD ENGLISH.—Spelman, London [1626], fob (A to I only); 1664 (completed); 1687 (best ed.): Coleridge (1250-1300), ib. 1859, 8vo : Stratmann (Early Eng.), Krefeld, 1867, 8vo ; 2d ed. 1873, 4to. OLD AND PROVINCIAL.—Halliwell, London, 1844-46, 8vo; 2d ed. ib. 1850, 8vo, 2 vols.: Wright, ib. 1857, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1862. DIALECTS.—Pay, ib. 1674, 12mo : Grose, ib. 1787, 8vo ; 1790 : Holloway, Lewes, 1840, 8vo. Scotch: Jamieson, Edin. 1806, 4to, 2 vols.; Supplement, 1826, 2 vols.; abridged by John-stone, ib. 1846, 8vo: Brown, Edin. 1845, 8vo : Motherby (German), Königsberg, 1826-28, 8vo : (Shetland and Orkney), Edmonston, London, 1866, 8vo : (Banffshire), Gregor, ib. 1866, 8vo. North Country: Brockett, London, 1839, 8vo, 2 vols. Berkshire: [Lousley] ib. 1852, 8vo. Cheshire: Wrilbraham, ib, 1817, 4to; 1826, 12mo: Leigh, Chester, 1877, Svo. Cumberland: Glossary, ib. 1851, 12mo : Dickenson, Whitehaven, 1854, 12mo; Supplement, 1867 : Ferguson (Scandinavian Words), London, 1856, 8vo. Derbyshire.- Hooson (mining), Wrexham, 1747, 8vo : Sleigh, London, 1865, 8vo. Dorset: Barnes, Berlin, 1863, 8vo. Durham: [Dinsdale] (Teesdale), London, 1849, 12mo. Gloucestershire: Huntley (Cotswold), ib. 1868, 8vo. Herefordshire: [Sir George Cornewall Lewis], London, 1839, 12mo. Lancashire: Nodal and Milner, Manchester Literary Club, 1875, 8vo, in progress : Morris (Furness), London, 1869, 8vo: R. B. Peacock (Lonsdale, North and South of the Sands), ib. 1869, 8vo. Leicestershire : A. B. Evans, ib. 1848, 8vo. Lincolnshire: Brogden, ib. 1866, 12mo : Peacock (Manley & Corringham), ib. 1877, 8vo. Norfolk and Suffolk: Forby, London, 1830, 8vo, 2 vols. Northamptonshire: Sternberg, ib. 1851, 8vo : Miss Anne E. Baker, ib. 1866, 8vo, 2 vols., 868 pages. Somersetshire: Jennings, ib. 1869, 8vo : W. P. Williams and W. A. Jones, Taunton, 1873, 8vo. Suffolk: Moor, Wood-bridge, 1823, 12mo : Bowditch (Surnames), Boston, U.S., 1851, 8vo ; 1858 ; 3d ed. London, 1861, 8vo, 784 pages. Sussex: Cooper, Brighton, 1836, 8vo : Parish, Famcombe, 1875, 8vo. Wiltshire: Akerman, London, 1842,12mo. Yorkshire (North and East), Toone, ib. 1832, 8vo: (Craven), Carr, 2d ed. London, 1828, 8ro, 2 vols.: (Swaledale), Hariand, ib. 1873, 8vo: (Cleveland), Atkinson, ib. 1868, 4to, 653 pages: (Whitby) [F. K. Robinson], ib., 1876, 8vo : (Mid-Yorkshire and Loioer Niddersdale), C. Clough Robinson, ib. 1876, 8vo : (Leeds), Id., ib. 1861, 12mo : (Wakefield), Banks, ib. 1865, 16mo: (Ilallamshire), Hunter, London, 1829, 8vo. Ireland: (Forth and Bargy, Co. Wexford), Poole, London, 1867, 8vo. America: Pickering, Boston, 1816, 8vo: Bartlett, New York, 1848, 8vo; 3d ed. Boston, 1860, 8vo; Dutch transl. by Keijzer, Gorinehcn, 1854, 12mo; Germ, transl. by Köhler, Leipz. 1868,
ONAEY 187
8vo Elwyn, Philadelphia, 1859, 8vo. Negro English: Kingos, St Croix, 1770, 8vo : Focke (Dutch), Leiden, 1855, 8vo : Wull-scblaegel, Löbau, 1856, 8vo, 350 pages. SLANG.—Grose, London, 1785, 8vo; 1796 : Hotten, ib. 1864, 8vo ; 1866.
Frisic.—Wassenbergh, Leeuwardcn, 1802, Svo: Franeker, 1806, 8vo: Outzen, Kopenh. 1837, 4to: Hettema (Dutch), Leuwarden, 1832, Svo; 1874, 8vo, 607 pages: Winkler (Nederdeutsch eD Friesch Dialectikon), 's Gravenhage, 1874, 8vo, 2 vols. 1025 pages. OLD FRISIO.—Wiarda (Genn.), Aurich, 1786, 8vo: Richthofen, Göttingen, 1840, 4to. NORTH FRISIC.—Bendson (Genn.), Leiden, 1860, 8vo: Johansen (Föhringer und Amrumer Mundart), Kiel,
1862, 8vo. EAST FRISIC.—Stürenburg, Aurich, 1857, 8vo. HELI-
GOLAND.—Oelrichs, s. I., 1836, 16mo.
Dutch.—Kok, 2d ed. Amst. 1785-98, 8vo, 38 vols.: Weiland, Amst. 1790-1811, 8vo, 11 vols.: Harrebomee, Utrecht, 1857, 4to; 1S62-70, 8vo, 3 vols.: De Vries and Te Winkel, Gravenh. 1864, &e., 4to. ENGLISH.—Hexham, ed. Manley, Rotterdam, 1675-78, 4to : Holtrop, Dortrecht, 1823-24, 8vo, vols.: Bomhoff, Nimeguen, 1S59, 8vo, 2 vols. 2323 images: Jaeger, Gouda, 1862, 16mo: Calisch, Tiel, 1871, &c, 8vo. FRENCH.—Halma, Amst. 1710, 4to; 4th ed. 1761: Marin, ib. 1793, 4to, 2 vols.: Winkelman, ib. 1793, 4to, 2 vols.: Mook, Zutphen, 1824-25, 8vo, 4 vols.; Gouda, 1857, Svo, 2 vols. 2818 pages: Kramers, ib. 1859-62, 2 vols. 16mo. GERMAN.—Kramer, Nürnb. 1719, fol.; 1759, 4to, 2 vols.; ed. Titius, 1784: Weiland, Haag, 1812, 8vo: Terwen, Amst. 1844, Svo. ORIENTAL WORDS. — Dozy, 's Gravenhage, 1867, 8vo. GENDERS OF NOUNS.—Bilderdijk, Amst. 1822, 8vo, 2 vols. SPELLING.—Id., 's Gravenhage, 1829, Svo. FREQUENTATIVES.— De Jager, Gouda, 1875, 8vo, vol. i. OLD DUTCH.—Suringer, Leyden, 1865, 8vo. MIDDLE DUTCH.—De Vries, 's Gravenhage, 1864, &c, 4to.
Flemish.—Kilian, Autw. 1511, 8vo; ed. Hasselt, Utrecht, 1777, 4to, 2 vols. FRENCH.—Beriemont, Anvers, 1511, 4to: Meurier, ib. 1557, 8vo: Rouxell and Halma, Amst. 1708, 4to; 6th ed. 1821: Van de Velde and Sleeckx, Brüx. 1848-51, 8vo, 2440 pages; ib. 1860, 8vo, 2 vols. ANCIENT NAMES OF PLACES.— Grandgagnage (East Belgium), Bruxelles, 1859, 8vo.
German.—Josua Pictorius (Maaler), Die teiitsch Spraach, Tiguri, 1561, 8vo: Stieler, Nürnb. 1691, 4to: Adelung, Leipz. 1774-86, 4to, 5 vols.; 1793-1818, 5 vols.: Campe, Braunschweig, 1807-11, 4to, 5 vols.: Grimm, Leipzig, 1854, &c. 4to, in progress: Sanders, ib. 1860-65, 4to, 3 vols : Diefenbach and WiUcker (High and Low German, to supplement Grimm), Frankf. a. M. 1874, &c, 8vo. ENGLISH.—Adelung, 1783-96, 8vo, 3 vols.: Hilpert, Karls-ruhe, 1828-29, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1845-46, 4to, 2 vols.: Flügel, Leipz. 1830, 8vo, 2 vols.; London, 1S57, Svo; Leipzig, 1S70 : Müller, Cöthen, 1867, 8vo, 2 vols. FRENCH.—Laveaux, Strasburg, 1812. 4to: Mozin, Stuttgard, 1811-12, 4to, 4vols.; 1842-46, 8vo, 4 vols., 3ded. 1850-51, 8vo: Schuster, Strasb. 1859, 8vo: Daniel, Paris, 1877, 16mo. OLD HIGH GERMAN.—Haltteus, Lipsia?, 1758, fol/2 vols.: Graff, Berlin, 1834-46, 4to, 7 vols.: Brinckmeier, Gotha, 1850-63, 4to, 2 vols.: Keinem (from Latin records), Nordhausen,
1863, 8vo. MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN.—Ziemann, Quedlinburg,
1838, 8vo: Benecke, Müller and Zarncha, Leipz,, 1854 66, 8vo, 3 vols.: Lexer, Leipzig, 1870, Svo. MIDDLE LOW GERMAN.—Schiller and Lübben, Bremen, 1872, &c. Svo, in progress. Low GERMAN.—Vollbeding, Zerbst, 1806, 8vo: Kosegarten, Greifswald,
1839, 4to; 1856, &c. 4to, in progress. ETYMOLOGY.—Helvigius. Hanov. 1620, 8vo: Wächter, Lipsiaä, 1737, fol. 2 vols.: Kaindl, Salzbach, 1815-30, 8vo, 7 vols.: Heyse, Magdeburg, 1843-49, 8vq 3 vols : Kehrein, Wiesbaden, 1847-52, 2 vols. SYNONYMS.— Eberhard, Maas, and 'Grüber, 4th ed. Leipzig, 1852-63, 8vo, 4 vols.: Aue (Engl.), Edinb. 1836, 8vo: Eberhard, 11th ed. Berlin, 1854, 12mo : Sanders, Hamburg, 1872, 8vo, 743 pages. FOREIGN WORDS.—Campe, Braunschweig, 1813, 4to: Heyse, Fremdwörter-buch, Hannover, 1848, 8vo. NAMES.—Pott, Leipz. 1853, 8vo: Michaelis (Taufnamen), Berlin, 1856, 8vo : Förstemann (Old Germ.) Nordhausen, 1S56-59, 4to, 2 vols, 1573 pages, 12,000 names: Steub (Oberdeutschen), München, 1871, Svo. LUTHER.—Dietz, Leipzig, 1869-72, 8vo, 2 vols. DIALECTS.—Popowitseh, Wien, 1780, 8vo: Fulda, Berlin, 1788, 8vo: Klein, Frankf. 1792, 8vo, 2 vols.: Kalt-schmidt, Nordlingen, 1851, 4to; 1854; 5th ed. 1865. Aix-la-Chapelle, Müller and Weitz, Aachen, 1836, 12mo. Appenzell: Tobler, Zurich, 1837, 8vo. Austria: Höfer, Linz, 1815, 8vo; Castelli, Wien, 1847, 12mo : Scheuchenstul (mining), ib. 1856, 8vo. Bavaria: Zaupser, München, 1789, 8vo: Deling, ib. 1820, 2 vols.: Schmeller, Stuttg. 1827-37, 8vo, 4 vols.; 2d ed. München, 1872, 4to, vol. i. 1799 pages. Berlin: Trachsel, Berlin, 1873, 8vo. Bremen: Bremisch Deutsch Gesellschaft, Bremen, 1767-71, 1869, 8vo, 6 vols.. Oelrich (anc, statutes), Frankf. a. M. 1767, 8vo. Carinthia: Ueberfelder, Klagenfurt, 1862, 8vo : LexeJ, Leipzig, 1862, 8vo. Cleves: De Schlieren, Teuthonista, Colon, 1477, fol.; Leiden, 1804, ito. Göttingen: Schambach, Hannover, 1838, 8vo. Hamburg: Richey, Hamb. 1873, 4to; 1755, 8vo. Henneberg. Reinwald, Berlin and Stettin, 1793, 1801, Svo, 2 vols.: Brückner, Meiningen, 1843, 4to. Hesse: Vilmar, Marburg, 1868, 8vo, 488 pages. Holstein: Schütze, Hamb. 1800-6, 8vc, 4 vols. Hungary

Schoer, "Wien, 1853. Livonia' Bergmann, Salisburg, 1785, 8vo: Gutzeit, Riga, 1859-64, 8vo, 2 parts. Upper Lusatia: Anton, Görlitz, 1825-39, 13 parts. Luxembourg: Gangler, Lux. 1847, 8vo, 406 pages. Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania: 11., Leipzig, 1876, 8vo, 114 pages. Nassau: Kehrein, "Weilburg, 1S60, 8vo. Osna-burg: Strodtmann, Leipz. 1756, 8vo. Pomerania. and Rügen: Dähnert, Stralsund, 1781, 4to. Posen: Bernd, Bonn, 1820, 8vo. Prussia: Bock, Königsb. 1759, 8vo: Hennig, ib. 1785, 8vo. Saxony: Sclimeller (from Heliand, &c.), Stuttg. 1840, 4to. Silesia: Berndt, Stendal, 1787, 8vo. Swabia: Scbmid, Berlin, 1795, 8vo; Stuttg. 1831, 8vo. Switzerland: Stalder, Aarau, 1807-13, 8vo, 2 vols. Thuringia: Keller, Jena, 1819, 8vo. Transylvania: Schuller, Prag, 1S65, Svo. Tyrol: Schöpf, Inn-spruck, 1866, 8vo. Venetian Alps: Schmeller, Wien, 1854 8vo. Vienna: Hügel, ib. 1873, 8vo. HUNTING.—Westerwald: Schmidt, Hadamar, 1800, 8vo : Kehrein, Wiesbaden, 1871, 12mo. SLANG.—Gauner Sprache: Schott, Erlangen, 1821, 8vo: Grol-mann, Giessen, 1822, 8vo: Train, Meissen, 1833, 8vo: Anton, 2d ed. Magdeburg, 1843, 8vo ; 1859 : Ave-Lallemant, Das Deutsche Gaunerthnm, Leipzig, 1858-62, 8vo, vol. iv., pp. 515-623. Student Slang: Vollmann (Burschicoses), Ragaz, 1846, 16mo, 562 pages.
Celtic.
Celtic generally.—Lluyd, Archreologia Britannica, Oxford, 1707, folio : Bullet, Besancon, 1754-60, fob 2 vols.
Irish.—Cormac, Bishop of Cashel, born 831, slain in battle 903, wrote a Glossary, Sanas Cormaic, printed by Dr Whitley Stokes, London, 1862, 8vo, with another, finished in 1569, by O'Davoren, a schoolmaster at Burren Castle, Co. Clare : O'Clery, Lovanii, 1643, 8vo : Mac Cuirtin (Eng.-Irish), Paris, 1732, 4to: O'Brien, ib. 1768. 4to; Dublin, 1832, 8vo : O'Reilly, 1817, 4to; 1821; ed. ODonovan; ib. 1864, 4to, 725 pages: Foley (Eng.-Irish), -ib. 1855, 8vo: Connellan (do.), 1863, 8vo.
Gaelic— Macdonald, Edin. 1741, 8vo : Shaw, London, 1780, 4to, 2 vols.: Allan, Edin. 1804, 4to : Armstrong, London, 1825, 4to : Highland Society, ib. 1828, 4to, 2 vols : Macleod and Dewar, Glasgow, 1853, 8vo.
Manx.—Cregeen, Douglas, 1835, 8vo: Kelly, ib. 1866, 8vo, 2 vols.
"Welsh.—LATIN.—Davies, London, 1632, fob : Boxhornius, Amstelcdami, 1654, 4to. ENGLISH.—Salesbury, London, 1547, 4to; 1551: Richards, Bristol, 1759, 8vo: Owen (W.), London, 1793-94, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 1803, 4to, 3 vols.: Walters, ib. 1794, 4to: Owen-Pughe, Denbigh, 1832, 8vo; 3d ed. Pryse, ib. 1866, 8vo : D. S. Evans (Eng.-Welsh), ib. 1852-3, Svo.
Cornish..—Pryce, Archceologia, Sherborne, 1770, 4to : Williams, Llandovery, 1862-65, 4to. NAMES.—Bannister (20,000), Truro, 1869-71, 8vo.
Breton.—Legadeuo, Le Catholicon breton, finished 1464, printed at Lantrequier, 1499, fob 210 pages; 15C1, 4to ; L'Orient, 1868, 8vo : Quicquer do Roskoif, Moiiaix, 1633, 8vo : Rostrenen, Rennes, 1732, 4to, 978 pages ; ed. Jolivet, Guingamps, 1834, 8vo, 2 vols : l'A. [rmerie], Leyde, 1744, 8vo; La flaye, 1756 : Lepelletier, Paris, 1752, fob : Legonidec, Angouleme, 1821, 8vo ; St Brieue, 1847-50, 4to, 924 pages. DIALECT OF LEON.—Troude (Fr.-Bret), Brest, 1870, 8vo; Id. (Bret.-Fr.), ib. 1876,8vo, 845 pages. DIOCESE ov VANNES.—Armerie, Leyde, 1774, 8vo.
Basque.—Larramendi, St Sebastian, 1745, fob 2 vols.; ed. Zuazua, ib. 1854, fob: Chaho, Bavonne, 1856, 4to, 1867 : Fahre, ib. 1870, 8vo : Van Eys (French), Paris, 1873, 8vo : Egiiren, Madrid, 1877. LOWER NAVARRE.—Salaberry, Bayonne, 1857, 8vo. DEPARTMENT DE GENS.—Cenac-Mancaut, Paris, 1863, 8vo.
Lithuanian.—Szyrwid, 3d ed., Vilnse, 1642, 8vo ; 5th ed. 1713 : Haack, Halle, 1730, 8vo : Ruhig, Königsberg, 1747, 8vo, 616 pages; ed. Mieleke, ib. 1800, 8vo, 929 pages: Nesselmann, ¿6. 1851, 8vo : Schleicher, Prag, 1856-57, Svo, 2 vols. : Kurmin, Wilno, 185S, 8vo : Kurschat, Halle, 1870, &c. 8vo.
Lettish.—Mancelius, Riga, 1638, 4to : Elvers, ib. 1748, 8vo : Lange, Mitau, 1777, 4to: Sjögren, Petersburg, 1861, 4to: Ulmann, ed. Bielenstein, Riga, 1872, &c, 8vo.
Prussian.—Bock, Königsberg, 1759, 8vo : Hennig, ib. 1785, 8vo : Nesselmann, Berlin, 1S73, 8vo : Pierson, ib. 1S75, 8vo.
Slavonic.
Slavonic generally.—Franta-Sumavski (Russ. Bulg. Old Slav. Boh. Polish), Praga, 1857, Svo, in progress.
Old Slavonic—Bermuda, Kiev, 1627, 8vo ; Kuteinsk, 1653, 4to : Polycarpi (Slav. Greek, Latin), Mosquse, 1704, 4to : Alexyeev, St Petersb. 1773, Svo; 4th ed. ib. 1S17-19, 8vo, 5 vols.: Russian Imp. Academy, ib. 1847, 4to, 4 vols.: Miklosich, Vindobonae, 1850, 4to ; 1862-65, 8vo : Mikhailovski, St Petersb. 1875, 8vo : Charkovski, WTarschaw, 1873, 8vo.
Russian.—Russian Academy, St Petersburg, 17S9-94, 4to, 6 vols. ; 1806-22 ; ib. 1869, 8vo, 3 vols : Dahl, Moskva, 1S62-66, fob 4 vols; d., ib. 1873, &c. 4to, in progress. FRENCH-GERM.-ENG.- Reiff>'J. 1S52-54, 4to. GERMAN, LATIN.—Hölterhof, Mosk-va, 1778, 8vo, 2 vols.; 3d ed. 1853-55, 8vo, 2 vols.: Weismann, ib. 1731, 4to ; 1782, and frequently. FRENCH, GERMAN.—Nordstet, ib. 1780-S2, 4to, 2 vols.: Heym, Moskau, 1796-1805, 4to, 4 vols: Booch-Arkossi and Frey, Leipzig, 1871, &c, 8vo. ENGLISH.— Nordstet, London, 1780, 4to : Grammatin and Parenogo, Moskva, 1808-17, 4to, 4 vols. FRENCH.—Tatischeff, 2d ed. St Petersb. 1798, 8vo, 2 vols.; Moskau, 1816, 4to, 2 vols.: Reiff, St Petersb. 1835-36, 8vo, 2 vols : Makaroff, ib. 1872, 8vo, 2 vols. 1110 pages ; 1873-4, 12mo, 2 vols. GERMAN.—Pawlowski, Riga, 1859, 8vo : Lenström, Mitau, 1871, 8vo. SWEDISH.—Geitlin, Helsingfors, 1833, 12mo : Meurmann, ib. 1846, 8vo. POLISH.—Jakubowicz, Warszawa, 1825-28, 8vo, 2 vols. : Amszejewicz, ib. 1866, 8vo: Szlezigier, ib. 1867, 8vo. TECHNICAL.—Grakov (Germ.), St Petersb. 1872, 8vo. NAVAL. — Butakov, ib. 1837. DIALECTS. — North-west Russia: Gorbachevski (old language, in Russian), Vilna, 1874, 8vo, 418 pages. White Russia: Nosovich (Russian;, St Petersburg, 1870, 4to, 760 pages. Red Russia: Patritzkii (German), Lemberg. 1867, 8vo, 2 vols. S42 pages. Ukraine: Piskanov (Russian), Odessa, 1873, 4to, 156 pages.
Polish.—Linde (explained in Lat. Germ, and 13 Slav, dialects), Warszawie, 1807-14, 4to, 6 vols. 4574 pages. ENGLISH.—[Rykaczew-ski], Complete Dictionary, Berlin, 1849-51, 8vo, 2 vols.: Ryka-czewski, Berlin, 1866, 16mo, 1161 pages. FRENCH AND GERMAN. —Troc, Leipz. 1742-64, 8vo, 4 vols.; 4th ed. ib. 1806-22, 4to, 4 vols.: Bandtke, Breslau, 1806, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 1833-39, 8vo. FRENCH.—Schmidt, Leipzig, 1870, 16mo. RUSSIAN AND GERMAN. —Schmidt (J. A. E.), Breslau, 1834, 8vo. GERMAN.—Mrongovius, Königsberg, 1765 ; 1835, 4to; 1837 : Troianski, Berlin, 1835-38, 8vo, 2 vols: Booch-Arkossi, Leipzig, 1864-68, 8vo, 2 vols: Jordan, ib. 1866, 8vo. ITALIAN.—Plazowski, Warszawa, 1860, 8vo, 2 vols, 730 pages. RUSSIAN.—Potocki, Lipsk, 1873, &c., 12mo.
Wendish.—Matthiii, Budissen, 1721, 8vo: Bose, Grimma, 1840, 8vo: Pfuhl, w Budzsinje, 1866, 8vo, 1210 pages. UPPER LUSATIAN.—Pfuhl and Jordan, Leipz. 1844, 8vo. LOWER LUSA-TIAN.—Zwahr, Spremberg, 1847, 8vo.
Bohemian.—Röhn (Germ. Lat.), Prag, 1780, 4to, 4 vols.: Dobrowski and Hanka, ib. 1802-21, 4to, 2 vols. LAT. GERM. HUNGAR.—Jungmann, Piaze, 1835-39, 6 vols. 4to, 5316 pages. GERMAN.—Tlnim, Prag. 1805-7, 8vo, 2 vols.: Sumavski, ib. 1844-46, Svo, 2 vols.: Koneney, ib. 1855, 18mo, 2 vols.: Rank (Germ. Boh.), ib. I860, 16mo, 775 pages. TECHNICAL.—Spatny, ib. 1864, Svo: Kheil (names of goods, Germ. Boh.), ib. 1864, 8vo, 432 pages. HUNTING.—Spatny, ib. 1870, 8vo, 137 pages.
South Slavic—Richter and Ballman, Wien, 1839-40, 8vo, 2 vols. SERVIAN.—Karajic (Germ. Lat.), ib. 1818, 8vo ; 1852 : Lavrovski (Russian), St Petersb. 1870, Svo, 814 pages. BOSNIAN.— Micalia, Laureti, 1649, 8vo. SLOVAK.- Bernolak (Lat. Germ. Hung.), Budaj, 1825-27, 8vo, 6 vols.: Loos (Hung, and Germ.), Pest, 1869, &c, 3 vols. SLOVENE.—Gutsmann, Kiagenfurt, 1789, 4to: Relkovich, Wien, 1796, 4to, 2 vols.: Murko, Grätz, 1838, 8vo, 2 vols. : Janezic, Klagenfurt, 1851, 12mo. DALMATIAN.— Ardelio della Bella, Venezia, 1728, 8vo ; 2d ed. Ragusas, 1785, 4to : Stulli, ib. 1801-10, 4to, 2 vols. CROATIAN.—Habdelich, Grätz, 1670, Svo : Sulek, Agram, 1854-60, 8vo, 2 vols. 1716 pages. CARINTHIAN.—Lexer, Leipzig, 1862, 8vo. OLD SERVIAN.— Danitziye (Servian), Belgrad, 1864, 8vo, 3 vols.
Bulgarian.—Daniel (Romaic, Albanian, Wallach, and Bulgarian), Moschopolis, 1770; Venice, 1802, 4to. ENGLISH.—Morse and Vas-siliev, Constantinople, 1860, 8vo. RUSSIAN.—Borogoff, Vienna, 1872, &c, Svo.
Ugrian.
TJgrian, Comparative.—Donner, Helsingfors, 1874, 8vo, in progress : Budenz (Ugrian-Magyar), Budapest, 1872-75, 8vo.
Lappish.—Manuale, Holmiae, 1648, 8vo : Fjellström, ib. 1738, 8vo: Leem and Sandberg, Havn. 1768-81, 4to, 2 parts : Lindahl and Oehrling, Holm. 1780, 8vo. NORTH LAPPISH.—Stockfleht, Christiania, 1852, Svo.
Finnish.—Juslenius, Holmiae, 1745, 4to, 567 pages : Renvall, Abote, 1826, 4to, 2 vols.: Europoeus, Helsiugissä, 1852-53, 16mo, 2 vols., 742 pages: Lunin, Derpt, 1853, 8vo : Euren, Tavashuus, 1860, Svo : Ahlman, ib. 1864, 8vo: Wiedemann, St Petersb. 1869, 4to : Godenhjelm (Germ.), Helsingfors, 1871 : Lönnrot, Helsiu-gissä, 1874 (A to M). NAVAL.—Stjerncreutz, ib. 1863, 8vo.
Esthonian.—Hupel, Mitau, 1818, 8vo, 832 pages: Körber, Dorpat, 1860, 8vo : Wiedemann, Petersb. 1869, 4to, 1002 pages : Aminoff (Esth.-Finnish), Helsingissä, 1869, 8vo : Meves (Russian), Riga, 1876, 12mo.
Permian.—Rogord (Russian), St Petersb. 1869, 8vo, 420 pages.
Votiak Wiedemann, Reval, 1847, 8vo: Ahlquist, Helsiuglbrs,
1856, 4to.
Cheremiss.—Budenz, Pest, 1866, 8vo.
Ersa-Mordvine.—Wiedemann, St. Petersb. 1865, 4to. MOK. SHA-MORDVINE.—Ahlquist, ib. 1862, 8vo.
Hungarian.—Szabo, Kassan, 1792, 8vo : Guczor and Fogarazi (Hung. Academy), Pesth, 1862, 8vo, in progress. ENGLISH.— Dallos, Pesth, 1860, Svo. FRENCH.—Kiss, ib. 1844, 12mo, 2 vols.:

Karady, Leipz. 1848, 12mo: Mole, Pest. 1865, 8vo, 2 vols. GERMAN.—Schuster, Wien, 1838, 8vo: Bloch, Pesth, 1857, 4to, 2 vols.: Ballagi, ib. 1857, 8vo; 1862-64, 8vo, 2 vols : Loos, ib. 1870, 8vo, 914 pages. ETYMOLOGICAL.—Dankovsky (Lat.-Germ.), Press-burg, 1853, Svo : Kreszneries (under roots, in Hung.), Budan, 1831-32,4to, 2 vols: Podhorsky (from Chinese roots, in Germ.), Buda-pest, 1877, 8vo. NEW WORDS.—Kunoss, Pesth, 1836, 8vo; 1844.
Gipsy.—Bischoff, Ilmenau, 1827, 8vo : Truxillo, Madrid, 1844, 8vo: Jimenes, Sevilla, 1846, 16mo: Baudrimont, Bordeaux, 1862, 8vo: Vaillaut, Paris, 1868, 8vo: Paspati, Constantinople, 1870, 4to: Borrow, Romany Lavo Lil, London, 1874, 8vo: Smart and Crofton, London, 1875, 8vo.
Albanian.—Blanchus, Roma?, 1635, 8vo: Kaballioti (Romaic, Wallach. Alb.), Venice, 1770, 8vo: Xylander, Frankfurt a. M. 1835, 8w>: Hahn, Jena, 1854, 4to: Rossi da Montalto, Roma, 1866, 8vo.
Turkish.—ARAB. PERS.—Esaad Effendi, Constantinople, 1802, fob ROMAIC.—Alexandrides, Vienna, 1812, 4to. POLYGLOTTS.— Pianzola (Itab, Grec. volgare, e Turca), Padova, 1789, 4to: Ciakciak (Itab, Armeno, Tureo), Venezia, 1804, 4to; 2d ed. 1829: Azarian (Ellenico, Itab, Arm., Turco), Vienna, 1848, 8vo: Mecbi-tarist Congregation (Itab, Francese, Arm., Turco), ib. 1846, Svo. LATIN.—Mesgnien-Meninski, Vienna?, 1680, fob 3 vols.; ed. Jenisch and Klezl, ib. 1780-1802, fob 4 vols. ENGLISH.—Sauer-wein, London, 1855, 12mo: Redhouse, ib. 1856, 8vo, 1176 pages: Id., Eng. Turkish, ib. 1860, 8vo. FRENCH.—Kieffer and Bianchi (Turk.-Fr.), Paris, 1835-37, 2 vol. 2118 pages : Bianchi (Fr.-Turk.) Paris, 1843-46, 8vo, 2 vols. 2287 pages; 1850, Svo, 2 vols.: Mallouf, ib. 1863-67, 8vo, 2 vols. FRENCH AND GERMAN.— Zenker (Arab., Pers.), Leipz. 1862-76, 4to, 2 vols, 982 pages. GERMAN.—Korabinsky, Pressburg, 1788, Svo: Vambery, Con-stantinople, 1858, 8vo. ITALIAN.—Molina, Roma, 1641, 8vo : Masais, Firenze, 1677, 8vo: Ciadyrgy, Milano, 1832-4, 4to, 2 vols. RUSSIAN.—Budagov (Comparative lexicon of the Turkish-Tartar dialects), St Petersburg, 1869, 8vo, 2 vols.





ASIA.
Semitic.
Semitic. — POLYGLOTTS. — Thurneissius, Berolini, 1585, fob: Thorndike, London, 1635, fob: Schindler, Pentaglotton, Frankf. ad M. 1653, fob: Hottinger, Heptaglotton, ib. 1661, fob: Castellus, London, 1669, fob 2 vols. (Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syriac, Samaritan, iEthiopic, and Arabic in one alphabet; Persian separately. It occupied him for seventeen years, during which he worked sixteen to eighteen hours a day): Otho, Fraukf. a. M. 1702, 4to (the same languages with Rabbinical).
Hebrew.—About 875, Zemacb, head of the school of Pum-beditha, wrote a Talmudical dictionary of words and things, arranged in alphabetical order, which is lost. About 880, Jehu-dah ben 'Alan, of Tiberias, and Jehudah ibn Koreish, of Tahurt, in Morocco, wrote Hebrew dictionaries. Saadia ben Joseph (born 892 > died 942), of Fayyum, in Upper Egypt, wrote pijx ngp, probably a Hebrew-Arabic dictionary. Menachem ben Jacob Ibn Sariik (born 910, died about 970), of Tortosa and Cordova, wrote a copious Hebrew dictionary, first printed by Herschell F. Filipowski, Edin-burgh, 1855, 8vo, from five MSS. David ben Abraham, of Fas, wrote, in Arabic, a large Hebrew dictionary, the MS. of which, a quarto of 313 leaves on cotton paper, was found about 1830 by A. Firko-witz, of Eupatoria, in the cellar of a Karaite synagogue in Jeru-salem. The age of this work cannot be ascertained. About 1050, Ali ben Suleiman wrote a dictionary in Arabic, on the plan of that of David ben Abraham. The MS. of 429 leaves belongs to Firko-witz. Haja ben Sherira, the famous teacher of the Academy of Pumbeditha, wrote a Hebrew dictionary in Arabic, called El Chdvi (The Gathering), arranged alphabetically in the order of the last radical letter. This dictionary is lost, as well as that of the Span-iard Isaac ben Saul, of Lucena. Iona ibn Ganach, of Cordova, bom about 985, wrote a Hebrew dictionary in Arabic called Kitdb el Azul (Book of Roots). This, as well as a Hebrew translation by Samuel ibn Tabon, is extant in MS., and was used by Gesenius in his Thesaurus. Rabbi David ben Joseph Kimchi died soon after 1232. His lexicon of roots, called wena, was printed at Naples 1490, fob; Constantinople, 1513, fob; Naplef,, 1491, 8vo ; Venice, 1552 ; Beroliui, 1838, 4to. Tishbi (The Tishbite), by Elijah ben Asher, the Levite, so called because it contained 712 roots, was printed at Isny 1541, 8vo and 4to, and often afterwards. LATIN.—Munster, Basilea?, 1523, 8vo; 5 editions to 1564 : Zamora, Compluti, 1526, fob : Pellicanus, Argentorati, 1540, fob : Reuchlin, Basil. 1556, fob: Avenarius. Wittebergoe, 1568, fob; auctus, 1589: Pagnini, Lugd. Bat. 1575,'fob; 1577; Geneva?, 1614: Buxtorf, Basil. 1607, Svo; 1615; and many other editions: Frey (Lat.-Eng.), 2d ed. London, 1815, 8vo: Gesenius, Thesaurus, Leips. 1829-5S, 4to, 3 vols. ENGLISH.—Bale, London, 1767, 4to: Parkhurst, ib. 1792, 4to: Lee, ib. 1840, 8vo: Gesenius, translated by Robinson, ib. 1844, 8vo; by Tregelles, ib. 1846, 4to: Fuerst, 4th ed. transl. by Davidson, ib. 1866, 8vo; 1871, 8vo, 1547 pages. FRENCH.—
Leigh, Amst. 1703, 4to : Glaire, Paris, 1830, 8vo; 1843. GERMAN.—Gesenius, Leipzig, 1810-12, 8vo, 2 vols : Fuerst, ib. 1842, 16mo ; ib. 1876, 8vo, 2 vols. ITALIAN.—Modena, Veneria, 1612, 4to ; 1640 : Coen, Reggio, 1811, 8vo : Fontaneila, Venezia. 1824, 8vo. DUTCH.—Waterman, Rotterdam, 1859, &c, 8vo. HUN-GARIAN.—Ehrentheil (Pentateuch), Pest, 1868, Svo. ROMAIC— Loundes, Melite, 1845, 8vo, 987 pages.
Rabbinical and Chaldee.—Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome wrote in the beginning of the 12th century a Talmudic dictionary, Aruch, printed 1480 (?), s.l., fob ; Pesaro, 1517, fob; Venico, 1531 ; and often : Isaiah ben Loeb, Berlin, wrote a supplement to Aruch, vol. i., Bresslau, 1830, 8vo ; vol. ii. (? to fl), Wien, 1859, 8vo : Munster, Basil, 1527, 4to ; 1530, fob : Elijah ben Asher, the Levite, transl. by Fagius, Isme, 1541, fob; Venet. 1560: David ben Isaac de Pomis, Zamach David, Venet. 1587, fob: Buxtorf, Basilea?, 1639, fob; ed. Fischer, Leips. 1866-75, 4to: Otho, Geneva, 1675, 8vo; Altona, 1757, Svo: Zanolini, Patavii, 1747, 8vo: Homheim, Halle, 1807, Svo : Landau, Prag, 1819-24, 8vo, 5 vols.: Dessauer, Erlangen, 1838, 8vo: Nork (i.e., Korn), Grimma, 1842, 4to : Sehönhak, Warschau, 185S, 8vo, 2 vols. TARGUMS.—Levy, Leip-zig, 1866-68, 4to, 2 vols.; 1S75 : Id. (Eng.), London, 1869, 8vo, 2 vols. TALMUD.—Löwy (in Heb.), Wien, 1863, 8vo: Levy, Leip-zig, 1876, &c, 4to. PRAYER-BOOK.—Hecht, Kreuznach, 1860, 8vo: Nathan, Berlin, 1854, 12mo. SYNONYMS.—Pantavitius, Lodeva?, 1640, fob FOREIGN WORDS.—Rabeini, Lemberg, 1857, 8vo, &c. JEWISH-GERMAN.—Callenberg, Halle, 1736, 8vo : Voll-beding, Hamburg, 1808, 8vo: Stern, München, 1833, 8vo, 2 vols.: Theile, Berlin, 1842-43, 8vo, 2 vols : Ave-Lallemant, Das Deutsche Gaunerthum, Leipzic, 1858, 8vo, 4 vols; vol. iv. pp. 321-512.
Phoenician.—M. A. Levy, Breslau, 1864, Svo.
Samaritan.—Crinesius, Altdorphi, 1613, 4to: Morini, Parisiis, 1657, 12mo: Hilligerus, Witteberga?, 1679, 4to : Cellarius, Cizse, 1682, 4to ; Frankof. 1705 : Uhlemann, Leipsia?, 1837, 8vo: Nicholls, London, 1859, 8vo.
Assyrian.—Norris, London, 1868, Svo, 3 vols. PROPER NAMES. —Menant, Paris, 1861, 8vo.
Accadian.—Lenormant, Paris, 1875, 8vo.
Syriac.—Joshua ben Ali, a physician, who lived about 885, made a Syro-Arabic lexicon, of which there is an MS. in the Vatican. Hoffmann printed this lexicon from Alif to Mini, from a Gotha MS., Kiel, 1874, 4to. Joshua bar Bahlul, living 963, wrote another, great part of which Castelli put into his lexicon. His MS. is now at Cam-bridge, and, with those at Florence and Oxford, was used by Bern-stein. Elias bar Shinaya, born 975, metropolitan of Nisibis, 1009, wrote a Syriac and Arabic lexicon, entitled Kitdb üt Tarjuman fi Taalem Loghat es SAriän (Book called the Interpreter for teaching the Language of the Syrians), of which there is a MS. in the British Museum. It was translated into Latin by Thomas ä Novaria, a Minorite friar, edited by Germanus, and published at Rome by Obicinus, 1636, 8vo. It is a classified vocabulary, divided in 30 chapters, each containing several sections. Crinesius, Witteberga?, 1612, 4to : Buxtorf, Basilea?, 1622, 4to : Ferrarius, Romce, 1622, 4to: Trost, Cotheuis Anhalter. 1643, 4to : Gutbir, Hamburgi, 1667, 8vo : Schaaf, Lugd. Bat. 1708, 4to : Zanolini, Patavii, 1742, 4to : Castellus, ed. Michaiiis, Göttingen, 1788, 4to, 2 vols.: Bernstein, Berlin, 1857, &c. fob: Smith (Robt. Paine), Dean of Canterbury, Oxonii, 1868, &c. fob; fasc. 1-3 contain 538 pages: Zingerie, Romne, 1873, 8vo, 148 pages.
Arabic.—The native lexicons are very many, voluminous, and copious. In the preface to his great Arabic-English lexicon, Lane describes 33, the most remarkable of which are—the Eyn, so called from the letter which begins its alphabet, commonly ascribed to El Khaleel, (who died before A.n. 175 [A.D. 791], aged 74: the Sihah of El Jowharee (died 398 [1003] ): the Mohkam of Ibn Seedah the Andalusian, who was blind, and died A.H. 458 [A.D. 1066], aged about 60: the Asas of Ez Zamakhsharee (born 467 [1075], died 538 [1144]), "a most excellent repertory of choice words and phrases ": the Lisdn el 'Arab of Ibu Mukarram (born 630 [1232], died 711 [1311] ); Lane's copy is in 28 vols. 4to: the Kamoos (The Sea) of El Feroozabadee(born 729 [1328], died 816 [1413] ): the Taj el Aroos, by MurtadaEz Zebadee (born A.D. 1732, died 1791)—the copy made for Lane is in 24 vols, thick 4to. The Sihah was printed Hardervici Getorum, 1774, 4to; Bulak, 1865, fob 2 vols. : Kamoos, Calcutta, 1817, fob 2 vols.; Bombay, 1855, fob 920 pages : Sirr el Lagal, by Farish esh Shidiac, Tunis, fob 609 pages: Muheet al Muhect, by Beitrus AI Bustänee, Beyrout, 1867-70, 2 vols. 4to, 2358 pages (abridged as Katr Al Muheet, ib. 1867-69, 2 vols. 8vo, 2352 pages), is excellent for spoken Arabic. PERSIAN.—The Soorah, by Jumal, Calcutta, 1S12-15, 2 vols. 4to: Samachsharii Lexicon, ed. Wetzstein, Leipz. 1845, 4to; 1850: Muntakhal al Loghat, Calcutta, 1808 ; ib. 1836 ; Lucknow, 1845 ; Bombay, 1862, 8vo, 2 vols.: Muntaha l'Arabi, i vols, fob 1840 : Shams al Loghat, Bombay, 1860, fob 2 vols. 509 pages. TURKISH.— Achtcri Kabir, Constantinople, 1827, fob: El Kamoos, ib. 1816, fob 3 vols.; translated by Acan Effendi, Boulac, 1835, fob 3 vols.: El Sihah, translated by Al Vani, Constantinople, 1728, fob 2 vols.; 1755-56 ; Scutari, 1802, fob 2 vols. LATIN.—Rapholengius,

Leiden, 1613, fol.: Giggeius, Mediolani, 1632, fol. 4 vols.: Golius, Lugd. Bat. 1653, fol. (the best except Lane's): Jahn, Vindobona?, 1802, 8vo: Freytag, Halle, 1830-38, 4 vols. 4to ; abridged, ib. 1837, 4to. ENGLISH.—Catafago (Arab.-Eng. and Eng.-Arab.), London, 1858, 8vo, 2 vols.; 2d ed. 1873, 8vo: Lane, London, 1863-74, fol. book i. parts i.-v. 2218 pages. The Arabic title is Medd el Kamoos, meaning either The Flow of the Sea, or The Extension of the Kamoos. It was undertaken in 1842, at the sug-gestion and at the cost of the late duke of Northumberland, then Lord Prudhoe, by Mr Lane, who returned to Egj'pt for the purpose, and lived in Cairo for seven years to study, and obtain copies of, the great MS. lexicons in the libraries of the mosques, few of which had ever been seen by a European, and which were so quickly dis-appearing through decay, carelessness, and theft, that the means of composing such a work would not long have existed. His work is divided into two books, the first, to be completed in 8 parts, con-taining words and meanings commonly known to learned Arabs; the second, those that are of rare occurrence, and not commonly known. It does not contain proper names or modern words. The publication, interrupted by his death, will be carried on by his nephew, Mr Stanley Lane Poole. The preface to Part vi., now in the press, will state fully how far Mr Lane had advanced in this work, and what materials he has left for continuing it. Dr Badger is pre-paring an English-Arabic dictionary of at least 1000 pages 4to, which will be very useful when finished. Newman (modem), ib. 1872, 8vo, 2 vols. 856 pages. FRENCH.— Buphy (Fr.-Ar.), Paris, 1802, 4to: Bochtor (do.), Paris, 1828, 4to, 2 vols.; 2d ed. ib. 1850: Kolandde Bussy(Algiers, Fr.-Ar.)Alger, 1835, 16mo: Id., 1836, 8vo; 1839: Berggren (Fr.-vulg. Ar., Syria and Egypt), Upsala, 1844, 4to: Farhat (Germanos), revu par Rochaid ed Dahdah, Mar-seille, 1849, 4to: Biberstein Kasimirski, Paris, 1846, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1853-56 ; 1860, 2 vols. 3032 pages: Marcel (vulgar dialects of Africa), Paris, 1830; 1835, 8vo; 1837; enlarged, 1869, 8vo: Paulmier (Algeria), 2d ed. Paris, 1860, 8vo, 931 pages ; 1872 : Bernard (Egypt), Lyon, 1864, 18mo: Cuche, Beyrouth, 1862, 8vo; 1867: Nar'Bey (A. Calfa), 2d ed. Paris, 1872, 12mo, 1042 pages: Cherbonneau (written language), Paris, 1876, 2 vols. 8vo: Id. (Fr.-Ar.), Paris, 1872, 8vo : Beausier (Algiers, Tunis, legal, epis-tolary), Alger, 1871, 4to, 764 pages; 1873. GERMAN.—Sey-farth (Algeria), Grimma, 1849, 16mo: Wolff (Mod. Ar.), Leipzig, 1867, 8vo: Wahrmund (do.), Giessen, 1870-75, 8vo, 4 vols. ITALIAN.—Germano, Eoma, 1636, 8vo; (Ar. Lat. It.), Roma?, 1639, fol.: Dizionario, Boulak, 1824, 4to : Schiaparelli, Firenze, 1871, 4to, 641 pages. SPANISH.—Alcala, Grenada, 1505, 4to : Canes, Madrid, 1787, fol. 3 vols. SUFI TECHNICAL TERMS.—AbdErrahin, ed. Sprenger, Calcutta, 1845, 8vo. TECHNICAL TERMS OF THE MUSSULMAN SCIENCES.—Abd al Hagg and Gholam Kadir, Calcutta, 1853-62, 4to, 1593 pages. MEDICAL TERMS.—Pharaon and Ber-therand, Paris, 1860, 12mo. MATERIA MEDICA.—MuhammedAbd Allah Shirazi, Ulfaz Udwiyeh, translated by Gladwin (Eng. Pers. Hindi), Calcutta, 1793, 4to, 1441 words. NOMS DES VETEMENTS. —Dozy, Amst. 1845, 8vo. WÖRTER IN ENTGEGENGESETZTEN BEDEUTUNGEN.—Kedslob, Göttingen, 1873,8vo. KORAN.—Willmet (also in Haririum et vitam Timuri), Lugd. Bat. 1784, 4to; Amst. 1790: Fluegel, Concordantia, Leips. 1842, 4to: Penrico, Dictionary and Glossary, London, 1873, 4to. EL TABRISI'S LOGIC—Mir Abufeth (French), Boulac, 1842, 8vo. MALTESE.— Vassali, Roma;, 1796, 4to: Falzon (Malt. Ital. Eng.), Malta, s.a. 8vo: Vella, Livorno, 1843, Svo.
Armenian.—Mechitar, Venice, 1749-69, 4to, 2 vols.: Avedi-chiam, Surmelian, and Aucher [Aukerian], ib. 1836-37, 4to, 2 vols.: Aucher, ib. 1S46, 4to. POLYGLOT.—Villa (Arm.-vulg., litteralis, Lat. Indicaj et Gallica?), Roma?, 17S0. GEEEK AND LATIN.—Lazar-ists, Venice, 1836-7, 4to, 2 vols. 2217 pages. LATIN.—Eivola, Me-diolani, 1621, fol.: Nierszesovicz, Roma?, 1695,4to; Villotte, ib. 1714, fol.: Mechitar, Veneria?, 1747-03, 4to, 2 vols. ENGLISH.—Aucher, Venice, 1821-25, 4to, 2 vols. FRENCH.—Aucher, Venise, 1812-17, 8vo, 2 vols.; (Fr.-Arm. Turc), ib. 1840, 4to: Eminian, Vienna, 1853, 4to : Calfa, Paris, 1861, 8vo, 1016 pages; 1872. ITALIAN.— Ciakciak, Venezia, 1837, 4to. RUSSIAN.—Khudobashev [Khuta-pashian], Moskva, 1838, 8vo, 2 vols. Russ. ARM.—Adamdarov, ib. 1821, 8vo: Popov, ib. 1841, 8vo, 2 vols. MODERN WORDS.— Riggs, Smyrna, 1847, 8vo.
Georgian.—Paolini (Ital.), Roma, 1629, 4to: Klaproth (Fr.), Paris, 1827, 8vo : Tshubinov (Russian, French), St Petersburg, 1840, Wo; 1846, 8vo, 2 vols. 1187 pages. Circassian.—Loewe, London, 1854, 8vo. Ossetic—Sjögren, St Petersb. 1844, 4to.
Kurd.—Garzoni, Roma, 1787, 8vo: Lerch (German), St Peters-burg, 1857, 8vo: Id. (Russian), ib. 1856-58, 8vo.
Persian. —Boorhani Qatiu, arranged by J. Roebuck, Calcutta, 1818, 4to: Burhan % Kali, Boulak, 1836, fob: Muhammed Kazim, Tabriz, 1844, fol.: Haft Kulzum (The Seven Seas), by Ghazi ed din Haydar, King of Oude, Lucknow, 1822, fol. 7 vols. ARABIC.— Shums ool Loghat, Calcutta, 1806, 4to, 2 vols. TURKISH.—Ibrahim Effendi, Farhangi Shu'uri, ib. 1742, fol. 2 vols. 22,530 words, and 22,450 poetical quotations: Burhan Kati, by Ibn Kalif, trans-lated by Ahmed Asin Aintabi, ib. 1799, fob; Boulac, 1836, fob: Hayret Etfcndi, ib. 1826, 8vo. ARMENIAN. — Douzean, Constan-tinople, 1826, fob BENGALI.—Jay Gopal, Serampore, 1818, 8vo. LATIN.—Vullers (Zend appendix), Bonna? ad Rhen. 1855-68, 4to, 2 vols. 2544 pages; Supplement of Roots, 1867, 142 pages. ENGLISH. —Gladwin, Malda in Bengal, 1780, 4to ; Calcutta, 1797: Kirkpatrick, London, 1785, 4to: Moises, Newcastle, 1794, 4to: Rousseau, London, 1802, 8vo; 1810: Richardson (Arab, and Pers.), ib. 1780-1S00, fol. 2 vols.; ed. Wilkins, ib. 1806-10, 4to, 2 vols.; ed. Johnson, ib. 1829, 4to: Ramdhen Sen, Calcutta, 1829, 8vo; 1831: Tucker (Eng.-Pers.), London, 1850, 4to: Johnson (Pers. and Arab.), ib. 1852, 4to: Palmer, ib. 1876, 8vo, 726 pages. FRENCH. —Handjeri (Pers., Arab., and Turkish), Moseou, 1841, 4to, 3 vols. 2764 pages : Berge, Leipzig, 1869, 12mo. GERMAN.—Richardson, translated by Wahl as Orientalischc Bibliotheque, Lemg, 1788-92, 8vo, 3 vols. ITALIAN.—Angelus a S. Josepho [i.e. Labrosse] (Ital. Lat. Fr.), Amst. 1684, fol.
Old Persian.—(Cuneiform), Benfey (German), Leipzig, 1847, Svo: Spiegel (id.), ib. 1862, 8vo: Kossovich (Latin), Petropoli, 1872, 8vo.
Zend.—Justi, Leipzig, 1864, 4to : Vullers, Persian Lexicon, Appendix: Lagarde, Leipzig, 1868, 8vo.
Pahlavi.—An old Pahlavi and Pazend Glossary, translated by Destur Hoshengi Jamaspji, ed. Haug, London, 1867, 8vo; 1870, 8vo: West, Bombay, 1874, 8vo.
Indian Languages.
INDIAN TERMS.—The Indian Vocabulary, London, 1788, 16mo: Gladwin, Calcutta, 1797, 4to: Roberts, London, 1800, Svo: Rous" seau, ib. 1802, 8vo: Roebuck (naval), ib. 1813, 12mo: C. P. Brown, Zillah Diet., Madras, 1852, 8vo: Robinson (Bengal Courts), Cal-cutta, 1854, 8vo; 1860: Wilson, London, 1855, 4to: Fallon, Cal-cutta, 1858, 8vo.
Sanskrit.—Amarasimha (lived before A.D. 1000), Amarakosha, Calcutta, 1807, Svo; ib. 1834, 4to; Bombay, 1860, 4to; Lucknow, 1863, 4to; Madras, 1870, 8vo, in Grantha characters; Cottayam, 1873, 8vo, in Malayalim characters; Benares, 1867, fol. with Amaraviveka, a commentary by Mahesvara: Eajah Radhakanta Deva, Sabdakalpadruma, Calcutta, 1821-57, 4to, 8 vols. 8730 pages; 2d ed. 1874, &e.: Bhattachdrya, Sabdastoma Mahanidhi, Calcutta, 1S69-70, 8vo, parts i.-vii. 528 pages: Abhidhanaratna-mala, by Halayudha, ed. Aufrecht, London, 1861, 8vo : Vacha-spatya, by Taranatha Tarkavachaspati, Calcutta, 1873, &c, 4to (part i. to vii., 1680 pages). BENGALI.—Sabdasindhu, Calcutta, 1808: Amarakosa, translated by Eamodoyu Bidjalunker, Calcutta, 1831, 4to: Mathurana Tarkaratna, Babdasandarbhasindliu, Calcutta, 1863, 4to. MARATHI.—Ananta Sastri Talekar, Poona, 1853, 8vo, 495 pages: Madhava Chaudora, Bombay, 1870, 4to, 695 pages. TELUGU.—Amarakosha, Madras, 1861; ed. Kala, with Gurubalala prabodhika, a commentary, ib. 1861, 4to; with the same, ib. 1875, 4to, 516 pages; with Amarapadaparijata (Sans. & Tel.), by Vavilla Ramasvani Sastri, ib. 1862, 4to; ib. 1863, 8vo; 3d ed. by Jagan-mohana Tarkalankara and Kbetramohana, 1872, &c, parts i.-iv. 600 pages : Suria Pracasa Row, Sarva-Sabda-Sambodhini, ib. 1875, 4to, 1064 pages. TIBETAN AND MONGOL.—Schiefner, Buddhistisclie Triglotle, Petersburg, 1859, fob, the Vyupatti or Mahavyupatti from the Tanguir, vol. 123 of the Sutra. LATIN.—Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomeo, Amarasinha, seciioi. de ccelo, Roma?, 1798, 4to: Bopp, Berlin, 1828-30, 4to ; 2ded. 1840-44 ; 3d, 1866, 4to. ENGLISH.— Amarcckosha, transl. by Colebrooke, Serampore, 1808, 4to; 1845, Svo: Rousseau, London, 1812, 4to: Wilson, Calcutta, 1819, 4to; 2d ed. 1832 : ed. Goldstiicker, Berlin, 1862, &c, folio, to be in 20 parts: Yates, Calcutta, 1846, 4to: Benfey, London, 1865, 8vo: Earn Jasen, Benares, 1871, 8vo, 713 pages: Williams, Oxford, 1872, 4to. ENGLISH-SANSKRIT.—Williams, London, 1851, 4to. FRENCH.— Amarakosha, transl. by Loiseleur Deslongchamps, Paris, 1839-45, 8vo, 2 vols. 796 pages: Burnouf and Leupol, Nancy, 1863-64, 8vo. GERMAN.—Bohtlingk and Roth St Petersburg, 1853, &c, 4to, 7 vols, to 1875. ITALIAN.—Gubernatis, Torino, 1S56, &c., 8vo, un-finished, 2 parts. RUSSIAN.—Kossovich, St Petersburg, 1859, 8vo. ROOTS.—Wilkins, London, 1S15, 4to : Rosen, Berolini, 1827, 8vo: Westergaard, Bonna?, 1S40-41, 8vo: Vishnu Parasurama Sastri Pandita (Sans, and Marathi), Bombay, 1865, 8vo: Taranatha Tar-kavachaspati, Dhatupadarsa, Calcutta, 1869, 8vo: Leupol, Paris, 1870, 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Abhidhanacintamani, by Hemachadra, ed. Colebrooke, Calcutta, 1807, 8vo; translated by Bohtlingk and Eieu (German), St Petersburg, 1847, Svo. HOMONYMS.—Medini-kara, Mcdinikosha, Benares, 1865, 4to; Calcutta, 1869, 8vo; ib. 1872, 8vo. DERIVATIVES.—Hirochand and Eooji Eangit, Dhatu-manjari, Bombay, 1865, 18vo. TECHNICAL TERMS OF THE NYAYA PHILOSOPHY.—Nydyakosa, by Bhimaeharya Jhalakikar (Sanskrit), Bombay, 1875, 8vo, 183 pages. RIG VEDA.—Grassmann, Leipzig, 1873-75, 8vo.
Bengali. — Manoel, Lisboa, 1743, 8vo: Forster, Calcutta, 1799-1802, 4to, 2 vols. 893 pages : Carey, Serampore, 1815-25, 4to, 2 vols.; ed. Marshman, ib. 1827-28, 8vo, 2 vols.; 3d ed. ib. 1864-67, Svo; abridged by Marshman, ib. 1865, 8vo ; ib. 1871, 8vo,

2 vols. 963 pn.ges: Morton, Calcutta, 182S, Svo: Houghton, London, 1833, 4to: Adea, Shabdabudhi, Calcutta, 1854, 604 pages. ENGLISH. —Ram Comul Sen, ib. 1834, 4to, 2 vols.; London, 1835, 4to : D'Rozario, Calcutta, 1837, Svo: Adea, Abhidan, Calcutta, 1854, 761 pages. ENGLISH LAT.—Ramkissen Sen, ib. 1821, 4to. ENG.-BENG. AND* MANIPURI.—[Gordon], Calcutta, 1837, 8vo.
Canarese.—Reeve, Madras, 1824-32, 4to, 2 vols.; ed. Sander-son, Bangalore, 1858, Svo, 1040 pages; abridged by the same, 1858, 8vo, 276 pages: Dictionarium Canarcnse, Bengalori, 1855, 8vo: School Dictionary, Mangalore, 1876, Svo, 575 pages.
Dardic Languages.—Leitner (Astori, Ghilghiti, Chilasi, and dialects of Shina, viz., Arnyia, Khajuna, and Kalasha), Lahore, 1S68, 4to.
Guzarati.—(English) Mirza Mohammed Cauzim, Bombay, 1846, 4to ; Shapurji Edalji, ib. 1868, 8vo, 896 pages: Karsandas Mulji, ib. 1868, 8vo, 643 pages.
Hindi.—Rousseau, London, 1812, 4to: Adam, Calcutta, 1829, 8vo : Thompson, ib. 1846, 8vo : Bale, London, 1876, 8vo, S09 pages. ENGLISH.—Adam, Calcutta, 1833, Svo. ENGLISH, URDU, AND HINDI.—Mathuraprasada Misra, Benares, 1865, 8vo, 1345 pages.
Hindustani.—Ferguson, London, 1773, 4to: Gilchrist, Calcutta, 1800, 8vo; ed. Hunter, Edinb. 1810 ; Loud. 1825: Taylor, Cal-cutta, 1808, 4to, 2 vols.: Gladwin, (Persian and Hind.), Calcutta, 1809, 8vo, 2 vols.: Shakespeare, London, 1817, 4to ; 1820; 1834; 1849: Forbes, London, 1847, 8vo; 1857: Bertrand (French), Paris, 1858, 8vo: Biice, London, 1864, 12mo: Fallon, Banaras, 1876, &c., to be in about 25 parts and 1200 pages. ENGLISH.—Gilchrist, 1787-80, 4to, 2 parts: Thompson, Serampore, 1838, 8vo.
Kashmiri.—Elmslie, London, 1872, 12mo.
Khassia.—Roberts, Calcutta, 1S75, 12mo.
Malayalim.—Fabricius and Breithaupt, Weperg, 1779, 4to : Bailey, Cottayam, 1846, 8vo: Gundert, Mangalore, 1871, 8vo, 1171 pages.
Marathi.—Carey, Serampore, 1810, Svo: Kennedy, Bombay, 1824, fob: Jugunnauth Shastri Kramavant, Bombay, 1829-31, 4to,
3 vols.: Molesworth, ib. 1831, 4to ; 2d ed. 1847, 4to ; ed. Candy, Bombay, 1857, 4to, 957 pages; abridged by Baba Padnianji, ib. 1863, Svo ; 2d ed. (abridged), London, 1876, 8vo, 644 pages. ENGLISH.—Molesworth, Bombay, 1847, 4to.
Oriya.—Mohunpersaud Takoor, Serampore, 1811, 8vo: Sutton, Cuttaek, 1841-48, 8vo, 3 vols, 856 pages.
Pali.—Clough, Columbo, 1824, Svo: Moggallana Thero (a Sin-ghalese priest of the 12th century), Abhulhanappika (Pali.-Eng -Singhalese), ed. Waskeduwe Subheti, Columbo, 1S65, Svo: Childers, London, 1872-5, 8vo, 658 pages. ROOTS.—Silavamsa, Dhatuman-jusa (Pali., Sing., and Eng.), Colombo, 1872, Svo.
Prakrit.—Helius, Radices, Bonnfe ad Rh., 1839, Svo.
Punjabi.—Starkey, 1850, 8vo; Lodiana Mission, Lodiana, 1854-60, 444 pages.
Pushtu or Afghan.—Horn, St Petersb. 1845, 4to : Raverty, London, 1860, 4to; 2d ed. ib. 1867, 4to: Bellow, 1867, Svo.
Sindhi.—Eastwick, Bombay, 1843, fob 73 pages : Stack, ib. 1855, 8vo. 2 vols.
Singhalese.—Clough, Colombo, 1821-30, Svo, 2 vols.: Calla-way (Eng., Portuguese, and Singalese), ib. 1818, Svo : Id., School Dictionary, ib. 1821, 8vo: Bridgenell (Sing.-Eng.), ib. 1847, ISmo: Nicholson (Eng.-Sing.), 1864, 32mo, 646 pages.
Tamil.—Provenza (Portug.), Ambalacotce, 1679, Svo: SadurAgu-rardi, written by Beschi in 1732, Madras, 1827, fob ; Pondicherry, 1875, 8vo: Blin (French), Paris, 1834, 8vo: Rottler, Madras, 1834-41, 4to, 4 vols.: Jaffna Book Society (Tamil), Jaffna, 1S42, 8vo, about 58,500 words: Knight and Spaulding (Eng. Tarn.), ib. 1844, Svo; Dictionary, ib. 1852, 4to : Pope, 2d ed. ib. 1859, 8vo: Winslow, Madras, 1862, 4to, 992 pages, 67,452 words.
Telugu.—Campbell, Madras, 1821, 4to: C. P. Brown, Madras, (Eng.-Tel.), 1S52, 8vo, 1429 pages: Id., (Tel.-Eng.), ib. 1852, 8vo, 1319 pages. MIXED TELUGU.—Id., ib. 1854, 8vo.
Thuggee.—Sleeinan, Calcutta, 1830, Svo, 6S0 Ramasi words.
Indo-Chinese Languages.—Leyden, Comparative Vocabulary of Burma, Malaya, and Thai, Serampore, 1810, 8vo. Annamese: Rhodes (Portug. and Lat.), Roma?, 1651, 4to: Pigneauxaud Taberd, Fredericinagori, 1838, 4to: Legrand de la Liraye, Paris, 1874, 8vo: Pauthier (Chin. Ann.-Fr. Lat.), Paris, 1867, &e., Svo. Assamese: Mrs Cutter, Saipur, 1840, 12mo : Bronson, London, 1876, 8vo, 617 pages. Burmess: Hough (Eng.-Burm.), Serampore, 1825 ; Moul-main, 1845, 8vo, 2 vols. 955 pages: Judson, Calcutta, 1826, 8vo; (Eng. Burm.), Moulmain, 1849, 4to; (Burm. Eng.), ib. 1852, Svo ; 2d ed., Rangoon, 1866, 8vo, 2 vols. 968 pages: Lane, Calcutta, 1841, 4to. Cambodian : Aymonier (Fr.-Camb.), Saigon, 1874, 4to; Id. (Camb.-Fr.), ib. 1S75, fob Karen: Sau-kau Too (Karen), Tavoy, 1847, 12mo, 4 vols.: Mason, Tavoy, 1840, 4to. Sgau-Karcn: Wade, ib. 1849, 8vo. Siamese (Thai): Pallegoix (Lat. French, Eng.), Paris, 1854, 4to: Dictionarium Latinum Thai, Bangkok, 1850, 4to, 498 pages.
Malay.-LATIN.—Haex, Romoe, 1631, 4to ; Batavia, 1707. DUTCH.—Houtmaun (Malay and Malagassy), Amst. 1603, 4to;
1673; 1680; 1687; 1703 ; Batavia, 1707 : Wiltens and Dankaarts, Gravenhaghe, 1623, 4to ; Amst. 1650; 1677; Batavia, 1708, 4to: Heurnius, Amst. 1640, 4to: Gueynier, Batavia, 1677, 4to ; 1708 : Loder, ib. 1707-8, 4to : Van der Worm, ib. 1708, 4to: Roorda van Eysinga, (Low), ib. 1824-25, Svo, 2 vols. ; 12th ed. 's Gravenhage, 1863, 8vo; Id. (Hof, Volks en Lagen Taal), ib. 1855, 8vo: Dissel and Lucardie (High Malay), Leiden, 1860, 12mo: Pijnappel, Amst. 1863, 8vo: Badings, Schoonhoven, 1873, Svo. ENGLISH.—Hout-maun (Malay and Malagassy), translated by A. Spaulding, London, 1614, 4to : Bowrey, ib. 1701, 4to : Howison, ib. 1801, 4to : Mars-den, ib. 1812, 4to: Thomsen, Malacca, 1820, Svo; 1827: Crawford, London, 1851, 8vo, 2 vols. FRENCH —Boze, Paris, 1825, 16mo: Elout (Dutch-Malay and French-Malay), Harlem, 1826, 4to: Bougourd, Le Havre, 1856, 8vo: Richard, Paris, 1873, 8vo, 2 vols. : Favre, Vienna, 1875, Svo, 2 vols.
Indian Archipelago.—BataJc : Van dor Tuuk, Amsterdam, 1861, Svo, 564 pages. Bugis : Mathes, Gravenh. 1874, 8vo, 1188 pages: Thomsen (Eng.-Bugis and Malay), Singapore, 1833, 8vo. Dyak: Ilardeland (German), Amst. 1859, Svo, 646 pages. Javanese: Senerpont Domis, Samarang, 1827, 4to, 2 vols. : Roorda van Eysinga, Kampen, 1834-35, 8vo, 2 vols. : Gerieke, Amst. 1847, 8vo ; ed. Taco Roorda, ib. 1871, &c. parts i.-v., 880 pages: Jansz and Klinkert, Samarang, 1851, 8vo; 1865: Favre (French), Vienne, 1870, 8vo. Macassar: Matthes, Amst. 1859, 8vo, 951 pages. Sunda: De Wilde (Dutch, Malay, and Sunda), Amsterdam, 1841, 8vo: Rigg (Eng.), Batavia, 1862, 4to, 573 pages. Formosa : Happart (Favorbmg dialect, written about 1650), Parrapattan, 1840, 12mo.
Philippines.—Bicol : Marcos, Sampaloc, 1754, fob Bisaya : Sanchez, Manila, 1711, fob : Bergano, ib. 1735, fob : Noceda, ib. 1841 : Mentrida (also Hiliguena audHaraya), ib. 1637, 4to; 1841, fob 827 pages: Felis de la Encarnacion, ib. 1851, 4to, 2 vols. 1217 pages. Ibanac: Bugarin,i£>. 1854,4to. Ilocana, Cairo,iJ. 1849, fob Pampanga: Bergano, ib. 1732,fob Tagala: Santos, Toyabas, 1703, fob ; ib. 1835, 4to, 857 pages: Noceda and San Lucar, Manila, 1754, fob; 1832.
Chinese.—Native Dictionaries are very numerous. Many are _very copious and voluminous, and have passed through many editions. Shwo wan, by Hit Shin, is a collection of the ancient char-acters, about 10,000 in number, arranged under 540 radicals, published B.c. 150, usually in 12 vols: Yupien, by Ku Ye Wang, published A.D. 530, arranged under 542 radicals, is the basis of the Chinese Japanese dictionaries used in Japan : Ping tseu loui pien, Pekin, 1726, 8vo,
130 vols : Pei wan yiln fu (Thesaurus of Literary Phrases), 1711,
131 vols, 8vo, prepared by 66 doctors of the Han lin Academy in 7 years. It contains 10,362 characters, and countless combinations of two, three, or four characters, forming compound words and idioms, with numerous and copious quotations. According to Williams (On the word Shin, p. 79), an English translation would fill 140 volumes octavo of 1000 pages each. Kaughi tsze tien (Kanghi's Standard o: Canon of the Character), the dictionary of Kanghi, the first emperor of the present dynasty, was composed by 30 members of the Han lin, and published in 1716, 40 vols. 4to, with a preface by the emperor. It contains 49,030 characters, arranged under the 214 radicals. It is generally in 12 vols., and is universally used in China, being the standard authority among native scholars for the readings as well as the meanings of characters. LATIN.—De Guignes (French, Lat.), Paris, 1813, fob ; Klaproth, Supplément, 1S19 ; ed. Bazil, (Latin), Hong-kong, 1853, 4to : Goncalves, (Lat.-Chin.), Macao, 1841, fob: Gallery, SystemaPhmieticum, Macao, 1841, 8vo: Schott, Vocabularvum, Berlin, 1844, 4to. ENGLISH.—Raper, Lon-don, 1807, fob 4 vols.: Morrison, Macao, 1815-23, 4to, 3 parts in 6 vols. : Medhurst, Batavia, 1842-43, 8vo, 2 vols. : Thorn, Canton,

1843, 8vo: Lobscheid, Hong-kong, 1871, 4to : Williams, Shanghae, 1874, 4to. ENG. CHINESE.—Morrison, part iii. : Williams, Macao,
1844, 8vo: Medhurst, Shanghae, 1847-48, 8vo, 2 vols. : HungMaou, Tung yung fan hwa (Common Words of the Red-haired Foreigners), 1850, 8vo. Doolittle, Foochow, 1872, 4to, vol. i. 550 pages. FRENCH.—Gallery, Diet. Encyclopédique, Macao and Paris, 1845 (radicals 1-20 only): M. A. H., 1876, Svo, autographié, 1730 pages. FRENCH-CHIN.—Perny (Fr.-Latin, Spoken Mandarin), Paris, 1869, 4to; Appendice, 1770: Lemaire andGiguel, Shanghae, 1874, 16mo. PORTUGUESE.—Goncalves (Port.-Chin.), Macao, 1830, 8vo, 2 vols.: Id., (Chin.-Port.), ib. 1833, 8vo. IDIOMS.—Giles, Shanghai, 1873, 4to. PHRASES.—Yaou Pei-keen, Luy yih, 1742-65, Svo, 55 vols: Tseen Ta-hin, Shing luy, 1853, 8vo, 4 vols. CLASSICAL EXPRESSIONS.—Keang Yang and 30 others, Sze Shoo teen Lin, 1795, 8vo, 3.0 vols. ELEGANT EXPRESSIONS.—Chang ting yuh, Fun luy tsze kin, 1722, 8vo, 64 vols. PHRASES OF THREE WORDS.—Julien (Latin), Paris, 1864, 8vo. POETICAL.—Pei vjan she ynn, 1800, Svo, 5 vols. PROPER NAMES.—F. Porter Smith (China, Japan, Corea, Annam, &e., Chinese-Eng.), Shanghai, 1870, 8vo. TOPO-GRAPHY.— Williams, Canton, 1841, 8vo. NAMES OF TOWNS.— Biot, Paris, 1842, 8vo. ANCIENT CHARACTERS. — Eoo Lwan-tseang, Luh shoo fun luy, 1800, 8vo, 12 vols. SEAL CHARACTER. —Heu Shin, Shwo wan, ed. Seu Heuen, 1527, 8vo, 12 vols. RUNNING HAND.—St Aulaire and Groeneveld (Square Characters, Running Hand; Running, Square), Amst. 1861, 4to, 117 pages. TECHNICAL TERMS (in Buddhist translations from Sanskrit).

—Yuen Ying, Yih tsee kingpin e, 1848, 8vo. DIALECTS.—Ainoy : Douglas, London, 1873, 4to, 632 pages : Maogowen, Hong-kong, 1869, 8vo. Canton: Yu Heo-poo and Wan ke-shih, Keang hoo chin tuh fun ynn tso yacu ho tseih, Canton, 1772, 8vo, 4 vols.; 1803, 8vo, 4 vols.; Fuh-shan, 1833, 8vo, 4 vols: Morrison, Macao, 1828, 8vo : Wan ke sliih, Canton, 1856, Svo : Williams (tonic, Eng. -Chinese), Canton, 1856, 8vo: Chalmers, Hong-kong, 1859, 12mo ; 3d ed. 1873, 8vo. Changchow in Fuhkeen : Seay Sew-lin, Ya mh tung shih woo yin, 1818, 8vo, 8 vols. ; 1820. Foochow: Tseih (a Japanese general) and Lin Peih shan, Pa yin ho ting, ed. Tain Gan, 1841, 8vo: Maclay and Baldwin, Foochow, 1870, 8vo, 1123 pages. Ilok-lceen: Medhurst, Macao, 1832, 4to: Peking, Stent, Shanghae, 1871, 8vo.
Corean.—CHINESE, COREAN, AND JAPANESE.—Cham Seen Wo Kwo tsze mei, translated by Medhurst, Batavia, 1835, 8vo. RUS-SIAN.—Putzillo, St Petersburg, 1S74, 12vo, 746 pages.
Japanese.—Sio Ken Zi Ko (Examination of Words and Charac-ters), 1608, 8vo, 10 vols.: Wa Kan Won Se Ki Sio Gen Zi Ko, lithographed bySiebold,Lugd. Bat., 1835, fob JAP. CHINESE.—Faga biki set yo sin. CHINESE-JAP.—Kanghi Tse 'Fein, 30 vols. 12mo: Zi rin gioku ben. DUTCH DICTIONARIES PRINTED BY JAPANESE.— Nieeu verzameld Japansch en FPollandsch Woordenboek, by the inter-preter, B. Sadayok, 1810 : Minamoto Masataka, Prince of Nakats (Jap. Chinese-Dutch), 5 vols. 4 to, printed at Nakats by his servants: Jedo-IIalma (Dutch-Jap.), Jedo, 4to, 20 vols.: Nederduitsche taal, Dutch Chinese, for the use of interpreters. LATIN AND PORTUGUESE. —Calepinus, Dictionarium, Amacusa, 1595, 4to. LATIN.—Collado, Compendium, Komce, 1632, 4to: Lexicon, Roma;, 1870, 4to, from Calepinus. ENGLISH.—Medhurst, Batavia, 1830, 8vo : Hepburn, Shanghai, 1867, 8vo; 1872. ENG.-JAP.— Plori Tatnoskoy, Yedo, 1862, 8vo; 2d ed. Yeddo, 1866, 8vo: Satow and Ishibashi Masakata (spoken language), London, 1876, 8vo. FRENCH.— Rosny (Jap. Fr. Eng.), Paris, 1857, 4to, vol. i.: Pages, Paris, 1869, 4to, translated from Calepinus. FR.-JAP.—Soutcovey, Paris, 1864, 8vo. FR. ENG. JAP.—Mermet de Cachon, Paris, 1866, 8vo, unfinished. GERMAN.—Pfizmaier (Jap.-Ger., Eng.), Wien, 1851, 4to, unfinished. SPANISH.—Vocabulario del Japan, Manila, 1630, 4to, translated from the next. PORTUGUESE.—Vocabulario da Linguo de Japam, Nangasaki, 1603, 4to. RUSSIAN.—Goshkevich, St Petersburg, 1857, 8vo, 487 pages. CHINESE CHARACTERS WITH JAPANESE PRONUNCIATION.—Rosny, Paris, 1867, 8vo. CHINESE AND JAPANESE NAMES OF PLANTS.—Hoffmann, Leyde, 1864, 8vo.
Aino.—Pfizmaier, Wien, 1854, 4to.
Northern and Central Asia.—Buried: Castren, Petersburg, 1857, 8vo. Calmuck: Zwick, Villingen, 1853, 4to: Smirnov, Kazan, 1857,12mo: Jiigl,SicldhiKur,Leipzig, 1866, 8vo. Chuvash: Clergy of the school of the Kazan Eparchia, Kazan, 1836, 8vo, 2481 words: Lyule(Russ.-Chuv. French),Odessa, 1846,Svo, 244pages: Zolotnitski, Kazan, 1875, 8vo, 287 pages. Jagatai: Mir Ali Shir, Abuska, ed. Vambery, with Hungarian translation, Pesth, 1862, 8vo: Vambery, Leipzig,'1867, 8vo.: Pavet de Courteille, Paris, 1870, 8vo. Koibal and Karagas: Castren, St Petersburg, 1857, 8vo. Manchu: Yutchi tseng ting tsing wen Man (Manchu Chinese), 1771, 4to, 6 vols.: Sze ti höh pik wen Man (Manchu-Mongol, Tibetan, Chinese) 10 vols. 4to, the Chinese pronunciation represented in Manchu: San hoh pien lan (Manchu-Chineso, Mongol), 1792, 8vo, 12 vols.;—all three classed vocabularies: Langles (French), Paris, 1789-90, 4to, 3 vols.: Gabelentz (German), Leipzig, 1864, 8vo: Zakharov (Russian), St Petersburg, 1875, 8vo, 1235 pages; Mongol: I. J. Schmidt (German, Russian), St Petersburg, 1835, 4to: Schergin, Kasan, 1841, 8vo: Kovalevski, Kasan, 1844-49 4to, 3 vols. 2703 pages. Ostiak: Castren, Petersb. 1858, 8vo. Samoyed: Castren, St Petersburg. 1855, 8vo, 308 pages. Tartar: Giganov (Tobolsk), St Petersburg, 1804, 4to; (Russ.-Tartar), ib. 1840, 4to: Troyanski (Kazan), Kasan, 1835-55, 4to. Tibetan: Minggi djamtoo (Tibet-Mongol): Bodschi dajig togpar lama : Kad shi schand scharwoi melouggi jige (Manchu-Mongol-Tibetan-Chinese), Kanghi's Dictionary with the Tibetan added in the reign of Khian lung (1736-95): Csoma de Koros (Eng.), Calcutta, 1834, 4to: I.J.Schmidt (German), St Petersburg, 1841, 4to: Id. (Russian), ib. 1843, 4to : Jaeschke (Eng.), Loudon, 1870, 8vo, 160 pages: Id. (Germ.), Guadau, 1871, 658 pages: (Bhotanta), Schroeter, Seram-pore, 1826, 4to. Tungusian: Castren, St Petersburg, 1856, 8vo, 632 pages. Uigur: Vambery, Innspruck, 1870, 4to. Yakut: Böhtlingk, ib. 1854, 4to, 2 vols. Yenissei Ostiak- Castren, ib. 1849, 8vo.
AFRICA.
Egyptian.—Young (enchorial), London, 1830-31, 8vo: Sharpe, London, 1837, 4to: Birch, London, 1S38, 4to: Champollion (died 4th March 1832), Dictionnaire Egyptien, Paris, 1841, 4to : Brugsch, Ilierogtyphisch-Deinotisches Wörterbuch, Leipzig, 1867-68, 4to, 4 vols. 1775 pages, nearly 4700 words, arranged according to the hieroglyphic alphabet of 28 letters : Pierret, Yocabulaire hierog., Paris, 1875, 8vo, containing also names of persons and places: Birch, in vol. v. pp. 337-5SO of Bunsen's Egypt's Place, 2d ed. London, 1867, ko. 8vo, 5010 words. PROPER NAMES.—Brugsch,
Berlin, 1851, 8vo, 726 names: Parthey, ib. 1864, 8vo, about 1509 names: Lieblein, Christiania, 1871, 8vo, about 3200 from hiero-glyphic texts. BOOK OF THE DEAD.—Id., Paris, 1875, 12mo
Coptic.—Veyssière de la Croze, Oxon. 1775, Svo: Rossi, Roma;, 1807, 4to: Tattam, Oxon. 1855, 8vo: Peyron, 1835, 4to (the standard) : Parthey, Berolini, 1844, 8YO.
Ethiopie—Wemmer, Roma?, 1638, 4to: Ludolf, London, 1661, 4to ; Francof. ad M., 1699, fob : Dillmann (Tigré appendix), Leipzig, 1863-65, 4to, 828 pages.
Amharic—Ludolphus, Franc, ad Maenum, 1698, fob : Isen-berg, London, 1841, 4to, 442 pages. Tigré: Munzinger, Leipzig, 1865, 8vo : Beurmann, ib. 1868, 8vo.
East Coast.—Dankali: Isenberg, London, 1840, 12mo. Galla -. Krapf, London, 1842, 8vo: Tutschek, München, 1844, 8vo. Engu-tuk Iloigob: Erhardt, Ludwigsberg, 1857, 8vo. Kisuaheli: Voca-bulary of the Soahili, Cambridge, U.S. 1845, 8vo: Steere, London, 1870, 8vo, about 5800 words. Kisuaheli, Kinika, Kikamba, Kipokono, Kikian, Kiyalla: Krapf, Tübingen, 1850, Svo.
Malagasy.—Houtmann (Malaysehe en Madagask Talen), Amst. 1603; 2d ed. Matthysz, ib. 1680, 8vo: Huet de Froberville, Isle de France, fob 2 vols.: Flacourt, Paris, 1658, 8vo: Challand (Southern), Isle de France, 1773, 4to: Freeman and Johns, London, 1835, 8vo, 2 vols: Dalmont (Malgache, Sakalave, et Betsimara),
1842, 8vo : Kessler, London, 1870, 8vo.
Southern Africa.—Bleek, The Languages of Mozambique, London, 1856, 8vo. Kaffrc: Bennie, Lovedale, 1826, 16mo : Ayliffe, Graham's Town, 1846, 12mo: Appleyard, 1850, 8vo: Bleek, Bonn, 1853, 4to, 646 pages. Zulu-Kaffre: Perrin (Kau're-Eng.) London, 1855, 24mo, 172 pages: Id. (Eng.-Kaflre), Pieter-maritzburg, 1855, 24mo, 227 pages: Id. (Eng.-Zulu), ib., 1865, 12mo, 226 pages : Dohne, Cape Town, 1857, 8vo, 428 pages : Colenso, Pietermaritzburg, 1861, 8vo, 560 pages, about 8000 words. Hottentot: Bleek, Cape Town, 1857, 4to, 261 pages. Nam-aqua: Tindall, ib. 1852, 8vo : Vocabular, Barmen, 1854, 8vo : Hahn, Leipzig, 1870, 12mo. Sechuana: Casalis, Paris, 1841, 8vo. Severo: Halm, Berlin, 1857, 8vo, 207 pages, 4300 words.
Western Africa.—Akra or Ga: Zimmermann, Stuttgart, 1858, 8vo, 690 pages. Ashantee : Christaller (also Akra), Basel, 1874, 8vo, 299 pages. Bulloni: Nylander, London, 1814, 12mo. Bunda or Angola: Canneeatim, Lisboa, 1804, 4to, 722 pages. Dualla Grammatical Elements, &c, Cameroons, 1855, 8vo. Efik or Old Calabar: Waddell, Old Calabar, 1846, 16mo, 126 pages; Edinb.
1849, 8vo, 95 pages. Eyo: Raban, London, 1830-31, 12mo, 2
parts. Grebo : Vocabulary, Cape Palmas, 1837, 8vo ; Dictionary,
ib. 1839, 8vo, 119 pages. Ifa: Schlegel, Stuttgart, 1857, 8vo.
Mpongwe: De Lonne (Franç-Pongoué), Paris, 1876, 12mo, 354
pages. Oji: Riis, Basel, 1854, 8vo, 284 pages. Sherbro': Schön,
s.a.et I. 8vo, written in 1839, 42 pages. Susu : Brunton, Edin-
burgh, 1802, 8vo, 145 pages. Vei: Koelle, London, 1854, 8vo, 266
pages. Wolof and Bambarra: Dard, Paris, 1825, 8vo. Wolof :
Roger, ib. 1829, 8vo: Missionnaires de S. Esprit, Dakar, 1855,
&c. 16mo. Faidherbe (Freneh-Wolof, Poula, and Soninke), St
Louis, Senegambia, 1860, 12mo. Yoruba: Crowther, London,
1843, 8vo ; 1852, 298 pages: Vidal, ib. 1852, 8vo : Bowen, Wash-
ington, 1858, 4to.
Central Africa.—Barth, Vocabularies, Gotha, 1862-66, 4to. Bari: Mitterreutzner, Brixen, 1867, 8YO : Remiseli, Vienna, 1874, 8vo. Diuka: Mitterreutzner, Brixen, 1866, 8vo. Haussa: Schön (Eng.), London, 1843, 8vo.
Berber.—Venture de Paradis, Paris, 1844, 8vo : Brosselard, ib.
1844, 8vo : Delaporte, ib. 1844, 4to, by order of the Minister of
War : Creusât, Franç-Kabyle (Zouaoua), Alger, 1873, 8vo. Siwah :
Minutoli, Berlin, 18*27, 4to.
AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA.
Australia.—New South Wales : Threlkeld (Lake Macquarie Language), Sydney, 1834, 8vo. Victoria: Bunce, Melbourne, 1856, 12mo, about 2200 words. South Australia : Williams, South Australia, 1839, 8vo : Teichelmann and Schürmann, Adelaide, 1840, 8vo : Meyer, ib, 1843, 8vo. Murray River : Moorhouse, ib. 1846, 8vo. Parnkalla : Schiirmann, Adelaide, 1844, 8vo. Wool-ner District: Vocabulary, ib. 1869, 12mo. Western Australia: Sir George Grey, Perth, 1839, 4to ; London, 1840, 8vo : Moore, ib. 1843 : Brady, Roma, 1845, 24nio, 8vo, 187 pages. Tasmania : Millegan, Tasmania, 1857.
Polynesia. —Hale, Grammurs and Vocabularies of all the Poly-nesian Languages, Philadelphia, 1846, 4to. Marquesas, Sandwich, Gambier: Mosblech, Paris, 1843, 8vo. llawaian : Andrews, Vocabulary, Lahainaluna, 1836, Svo : Id., Dictionary, Honolulu, 1865, Svo, 575 pages, about 15500 words. Marquesas: Pierquin de Gembloux, Bourges, 1S43, 8vo : Buschmann, Berlin, 1843, 8vo. Samoan : Dictionary, Samoa, 1862, 8vo. Tahitian : A Tahi-tian and English Dictionary, Tahiti, 1851, 8vo, 314 pages. Tonga : Rabone, Vavau, 1845, 8vo. Fijian: Hazlewood (Fiji-Eng.) Vewa,
1850, 12mo: Id. (Eng.-Fiji), ib. 1852, 12mo: Id., London, 1872, 8vo.
Maori: Kendall, 1820, 12mo: Williams, Paihia, 1844, 8vo ; 3d ed.
London, 1871, 8vo: Taylor, Auckland, 1870, 12mo.

AMERICA.
North America.—Esquimaux: Washington, London, 1850, 8vo : Petitot (Mackenzie and Anderson Rivers), Paris, 1876, 4to. Kinai: Radloff, St Petersburg, 1874, 4to. Greenland: Egede, (Gr. Dan. Lat., 3 parts), Hafn. 1750, 8vo; 1760: Fabricius, Kjöben-havn, 1804, 4to. Hudson's Bay Indians: Bowrey, London, 1701, fob Abnaki: Rasles, Cambridge, U.S., 1833, 4to. Chippewa: Baraga, Cincinnati, 1853, 12mo, 622 pages : Petitot, Paris, 1876, 4to, 455 pages. Massachusetts or Natiek : Cotton, Cambridge, U.S. 1829, 8vo. Onondaga: Shea (French-Onon.), from an MS. of 17th cent.), London, 1860, 4to, 109 pages. Dacota: Riggs, New York, 1851, 4to, 424 pages : Williamson (Eng. Dae), Santos Agency, Nebraska, 12mo, 139 pages. Mohawk : Brayas, New York, 1863, 8vo. Hidatsa(Minnetarees, Gros Ventres of tlie Missouri) : Matthews, ib. 1874, 8vo. Choctaw: Byington, ib. 1852, 16mo. Clallam and Lummi : Gibbs, ib. 1863, 8vo. Yakama ; Pandosy, translated by Gibbs and Shea, ib. 1862, 8vo. Chinook: Gibbs, New York, 1863, 4to. Chinook Jargon, the trade language of Oregon: Id., ib. 1863, 8vo. Talché or Telarne: Sitjar, ib. 1861, 8vo. Mutnns: Arroyo de la Cuesta, London, 1862, 4to.
Mexico and. Central America. — Tepehuan : Rinaldini, Mexico, 1743, 4to. Cora: Ortega, Mexico, 1732, 4to. Tarahu-mara: Steffel, Brünn, 1791, 8vo. Otomi: Carochi, Mexico, 1645, 4to : Neve y Molina, ib. 1767, 8vo : Yepes, ib. 1826, 4to : Picco-lomini, "Roma, 1841, 8vo. Mexican or Aztec : Molina, Mexico, 1555, 4to; 1571, fob 2 vols.: Arenas, ib. 1583 ; 1611, 8vo ; 1683;
1725 ; 1793, 12mo ; 1831, 12mo : Biondelli, Milan, 1869, fob Mexican, Tontonacan, and Huastecan ; Olmos, Mexico, 1555-60, 4lo, 2 vols. Huastecan : Tapia Zenteno, ib. 1767, 4to, 128 pages. Opata or Tequima : Lombardo, ib. 1702, 4to. Tarasca : Gilberti, ib. 1559, 4to : Lagunas, ib, 1574, 8vo. Mixtecan : Alvarado, Megico, 1593, 4to. Zapoteca: Cordova, ib. 1578, 4to. Maya: Beltran de Santa Rosa Maria, ib. 1746, 4to ; Merida de Yucatan, 1859, 4to, 250 pages : Brasseur de Bourbourg, Paris, 1874, 8vo, 745 pages. Quiche: Id. (also Cakchiquel and Trutuhil dialects), ib. 1862, 8vo.
South America.—Chibcha: Uricoechea, Paris, 1871, 8vo. Chayma: Tauste, Madrid, 1680, 4to : Yanguas, Burgos, 1683, 4to. Carib : Raymond, Auxerre, 1665-66, 8vo. Calibi: D.[e] L.[a] S.[auvage], Paris, 1763, 8vo. Tupi : Costa Rubini, Rio de Janeiro, 1853, 8vo : Silva Guimaràes, Bahia, 1854, 8vo : Diaz, Lipsia, 1858, 16mo. Guarani: Ruiz de Montoyo, Madrid, 1639, 4to ; 1640; 1722, 4to ; ed. Platzmann, Leipzig, 1876, etc., 8vo, to be in 4 vols. 1850 pages. Moxa: Marban, Lima, 1701, 8vo. Lule : Machoni de Corderia, Madrid, 1732,12mo. Quichua: Santo Thomas, Ciudad de los Reyes, 1586, 8vo : Torres Rubio, Sevilla, 1603, 8vo; Lima, 1609, 8vo; ed. Figueredo, Lima, 1754, 8vo : Holguin, Ciudad de los Reyes, 1608, Svo : Tschudi, Wien, 1853, 8vo, 2 vols.: Mark-ham, London, 1864, 8vo : Lopez, Les Races Aryennes de Perou, Paris, 1871, 8vo, comparative vocabulary, pp. 345-421. Aymara: Bertonio, Chicuyto, 1612, 4to, 2 vols. Chileno: Valdivia (also Allentiac and Milcocayac), Lima, 1607, 8vo : ,'Febres, ib. 1765, 12mo ; ed. Hernandez y Caluza, Santiago, 1846, 8vo, 2 vols. Tsonecan (Patagonian): Schmid, Bristol, I860, 12mo. (P. A. L.)



Footnotes

Joannes de Garlandia, who probably was born about 1275. and died soon after 1250, gives the following explanation in his Diction-arius, which is a classed vocabulary :—" Dictionarius dicitur libellus iste a dictionibus magis necessariis, quas tenetur quilibet scolaris, non tantum in scrinio de lignis facto, sed in cordis armariolo firmitur retinere.H This has been supposed to be the first use of the word.
* An excellent dictionary of quotations, perhaps the first of the kind; a large folio volume printed in Strasburg about 1475, is entitled " Pharetra auctoritates et dicta doctomm, philosophorum, poetarum coiitinens."



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