1902 Encyclopedia > Periodicals

Periodicals




PERIODICALS may be broadly divided into two classes, the one chiefly devoted to general literature, apart from political and social news (a subject dealt with under the heading of NEWSPAPERS), and the other more exclusively to science and art, or to particular branches of knowledge or trade. The former class, and those of general interest only, will be principally dealt with in this article, where an endeavour is made to trace briefly the history of the rise and progress of that vast and increasing body of printed matter which, under the different names of reviews, magazines, &c., forms so large a part of current literature.


BRITISH.

The first literary periodical in English was the Hercurius Librarius, or a Faithful A ccount of all Books and Pamphlets (1680), a mere catalogue, followed by Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious (16th January 1681/82 to 15th January 1683), which was more of the type of the Journal des Savants, whence it borrowed many contributions, and by the Bibliothèque Universelle et Historique (January 1686-93), begun by Jean Leclerc, continued with the assistance of J. de la Crose, and carried on during the last six years of its existence by J. Bernard. Of the History of Learning (1691 ; another with the Same title in 1694) only a few numbers appeared, as the conductor, De la Crose, started the Works of the Learned (August 1691 to April 1692), devoted principally to Continental scholarship. The Compleat Library(I692 to December 1693) was a venture of John Dunton; the Memoirs for the Ingenious (1693) ran to six monthly numbers, and another with the same title appeared in the following year, only to enjoy an equally brief career. The first periodical of merit and influence was the History of the Works of the Learned (1699 -1712), largely consisting of descriptions of foreign books. The Memoirs of Literature, the first English review consisting entirely of original matter, published in London from 1710 to 1714, had for editor Michel de la Roche, a French Protestant refugee, who also edited at Amsterdam the Bibliothèque Angloise (1717-19), and subsequently H6moires Littiraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720-24). Returning to England in 1725, he recommenced his New Memoirs of Literature (1725-28), and in 1730 a Literary Journal. Dr Samuel Jebb started Bibliotheca Literaria (1722-24),which dealt with medals and antiquities as well as with literature, but only ten numbers appeared. The Present State of the Republick of Letters was commenced by Andrew Reid in January 1728, and completed in December 1736. It contained not only excellent reviews of English books but papers from the works of foreigners, and, as well as the Historia Literaria (1730- 34) of Archibald Bower,1 was very successful. The Bee (1733-34) of the unfortunate Eustace Budgell, and the Literary Magazine (1735-36), with which Ephraim Chambers had much to do, were very short-lived. In 1737 the History of the Works of the Learned appeared again, and was continued without intermission until 1743, when its place was taken by A Literary Journal (Dublin, 1744-49), the first review published in Ireland. The Museum (1746) of R. Dodsley united the character of a review of books with that of a literary magazine. Although England can show nothing like the Journal des Savants, which has flourished almost without a break for 220 years, a nearly complete series of reviews of English literature may be made up from 1681 to the present day.

After the close of the first quarter of the 18th century the literary journal began to assume more of the style of the modern review, and in 1749 the title and the chief features were united in the Monthly Review, established by Ralph Griffiths,2 who conducted it until 1803, whence it was edited by his son down to 1825. It came to an end in 1845. From its commencement the Review dealt with science and literature, as well as with literary criticism. It was Whig in politics and Nonconformist in theology. The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756-1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Johnson, and Robertson. Johnson took a considerable part in the Literary Magazine (1756-58). The reviews rapidly increased in number towards the end of the century. Among the principal were the London Review (1775-80), A New Review (1782-86), the English Review (1783-96), incorporated in 1797 with the Analytical Review (1788-99), the Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine (1798-1821), and the British Critic (1793-1843), the organ of the High Church party, and first edited by Archdeacon Nares and Beloe.

These periodicals had now become extremely numerous, and many of the leading London publishers found it convenient to maintain their own particular organs. It is not a matter of surprise, therefore, that the authority of the reviews should have fallen somewhat in public estimation. The time was ripe for one which should be quite independent of the booksellers, and which should also aim at a higher standard of excellence. As far back as 1755 Adam Smith, Blair, and others had endeavoured to carry on such a quarterly without achieving success, and in 1773 Gilbert Stuart and William Smellie issued during three years an Edinburgh Magazine and Review. To the northern capital is also due the first high-class critical journal which has kept up its reputation to the present day. The Edinburgh Review was established in 1802 by Jeffrey, Scott, Horner, Brougham, and Sydney Smith. It created a new era in periodical criticism, and assumed from the commencement a wider range and more elevated tone than any of its predecessors. The first editor was Sydney Smith, then Jeffrey for many years, and afterwards Macvey Napier. At one time 20,000 copies are said to have been published, but the circulation declined in 1832 to less than 9000. Scott, being dissatisfied with the new review, persuaded John Murray to start its brilliant Tory competitor, the Quarterly Review (1809), first edited by William Gifford, then by Sir J. T. Coleridge, and subsequently by J. G. Lockhart. The Westminster Review (1824), established by the disciples of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state, and legislation. In 1836 it was joined to the London Review (1829), founded by Sir William Molesworth, and then bore the name of the London and Westminster Review till 1851, when it returned to the original title. The other quarterly reviews are the Eclectic Review (1805-68), edited down to 1834 by Josiah Conder and supported by the Dissenters; the British Review (1811-25); the Christian Remembrancer (1819-68); the Retrospective Review (1820-26, 1828, 1853-54), for old books; the Foreign Quarterly Review (1827-46), afterwards incorporated with the Westminster; the Foreign Review (1828-29); the Dublin Review (1836), still continued as the organ of the Roman Catholics; the Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review (1843-47); the ProVective Review (1845-55), given up to theology and literature, previously the Christian Teacher (1835-44); the North British Review (1844-71) ; the British Quarterly Review (1845), successor to the British and Foreign Review (1835-44); the New Quarterly Review (1852-61); the Scottish Review (1853-62), published at Glasgow; the Wesleyan London Quarterly Review (1853); the National Review (1855-64); the Diplomatic Review (1855-81); the Irish Quarterly Review (1851-59), brought out in Dublin; the Home and Foreign Review (1862-64); the Fine Arts Quarterly Review (1863-65); the New Quarterly Magazine (1873-80) ; the Catholic Union Review (1863-74) ; the Anglican Church Quarterly Review (1875) ; Mind (1876), dealing with mental philosophy; the Modern Review (1880); and the Scottish Review (1882).

The monthly reviews include the Christian Observer (1802-57), conducted by members of the established church li upon evangelical principles, with Zachary Macaulay as the first editor; and the Monthly Repository (1806-37), origin-ally purely theological, but after coming into the hands of the Rev. W. J. Fox made entirely literary and political. The Fortnightly Review (1865) was intended as a kind of English Revue des Deux Mondes. Since 1866 it has appeared monthly. The Contemporary Review (1866) and the Nineteenth Century (1877) are similar in character, consisting of signed articles by men of mark of all opinions upon questions of the day. The National Review (1883) was brought out to supply the demand for an exclusively Conservative review, and Modern Thought (1879) for the free discussion of political, religious, and social subjects.

The weekly reviews dealing generally with literature, science, and art are the Literary Gazette (1817-62), first edited by William Jerdan, which had for many years a circulation of 6000 copies; the Athenaeum (1828), established by Silk Buckingham, but which was not very successful until it was taken over by C. W. Dilke; and the Academy (1869), founded, and at first edited, by Dr Appleton. Those which also include political and social topics are the Examiner (1808-81), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), and the Chronicle (1867-68). The reviews in the Academy are signed.

Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started by the eccentric John Dunton in the A thenian Gazette, or Camisticat Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689/90 to 1695/96), a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a penny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement. In the last part the publisher announces that it will be continued "as soon as ever the glut of news is i little over." Defoe’s Review (1704-13) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the "scandalous club" was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners. These little papers, rapidly thrown off for a temporary purpose, were destined to form a very important part of the literature of the 18th century, and in some respects its most marked feature. Although the frequenters of the clubs and coffee-houses were the persons for whom the essay-papers were mainly written, a proof of the increasing refinement of the age is to be found in the fact that now for the first time were women specially addressed as part of the reading public. The Tatler was commenced by Richard Steele in 1709, and issued thrice a week until 1711. The idea was at once extremely popular, and a dozen similar papers were started within the year, at least one half bearing colourable imitations of the title. Addison contributed to the Tatter, and together with Steele established and carried on the Spectator (1710-14), and subsequently the Guardian (1713). The newspaper tax enforced in 1712 was a sore blow. Before this time the daily issue of the Spectator had reached 3000 copies; it then fell to 1600 ; the price was raised from a penny to twopence, but the paper came to an end in 1714. Dr Drake (Essays illustr. of the Rambler, &c., ii. 490) drew up an imperfect list of the essayists, and reckoned that from the Tatler to Johnson’s Rambler, during a period of forty-one years, 106 papers of this description were published. Dr Drake continued the list down to 1809, and described altogether 221 which had appeared within a hundred years. The following is a list of the most considerable, with their dates, founders, and chief contributors.

Tatler (12th April 1709 to 2d January 1710/11), Steele, Addison, Swift, Hughes, &c. ; Spectator (1st March 1710/11 to 20th December 1714), Addison, Steele, Budgell, Hughes, Grove, Pope, Parnell, Swift, &c. ; Guardian (12th March 1713 to Ist October 1713), Steele, Addison, Berkeley, Pope, Tickell, Budgell, &c. ; Rambler (20th March 1750 to 14th March 1752), Johnson ; Adventurer (7th November 1752 to 9th March 1754), Hawkesworth, Johnson, Bathurst, Wartou, Chapoue; World (4th January 1753 to 30th December 17 56), E. Moore, earl of Chesterfield, R. 0. Cambridge, earl of Orford, Soame Jenyns, &c. ; Connoisseur (31st January 1754 to 30th September 1756), Colman, Thornton, Warton, earl of Cork, &c. ; Idler (15th April 1768 to 5th April 1760), Johnson, Sir J. Reynolds, and Bennet Langton ; Bee (6th October 1759 to 24th November 1759), 0. Goldsmith ; .Mirror (23d January 1779 to 27th May 1780), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Home, Baunatvne, &c. ; Lounger, (5th February 1785 to 6th January 1787), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Tytler; Observer (1785 to 1790), Cumberland ; Looker,on (10th March 1792 to 1st February 1794), W. Roberts, Beresford, Chalmers.

As from the "pamphlet of news" arose the weekly paper wholly devoted to the circulation of news, so from the general newspaper was specialized the weekly or monthly review of literature, antiquities, and science, which, when it included essay-papers, made up the magazine or miscellaneous repository of matter for information and amusement. Several monthly publications had come into existence since 1681, but perhaps the first germ of the magazine is to be found in the Gentleman’s Journal (1691-94) of Peter Motteux, which, besides the news of the month, contained miscellaneous prose and poetry. In .1722 Dr Samuel Jebb included antiquarian notices as well as literary reviews in his Bibliotheca Literaria (1722-24), but the Gentleman’s Magazine, founded in 1731, fully established, through the tact and energy of the publisher Edward Cave, the type of the magazine, from that time so marked a feature of English periodical literature. This magazine, so long a source of fortune to its successive owners, was vainly offered during four years to different publishers before Cave was able to start it himself. The first idea is due to Motteux, from whom the title, motto, and general plan were borrowed. The chief feature in the new venture at first consisted of the analysis of the journals, which Cave undertook personally. Prizes were offered for poetry. In April 1732 the leading metropolitan publishers, jealous of the interloper Cave, started the London Magazine, or Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer (1732-84), which had a long and prosperous career. The new magazine closely copied Cave’s title, plan, and aspect, and bitter war was long waged between the two. The rivalry was not without benefit to the literary public, as the conductors of each used every effort to improve their own review. Cave introduced the practice of giving engravings, maps, and portraits, but his greatest success was the addition of Johnson to the regular staff. This took place in 1738, when the latter wrote the preface to the volume f or that year, observing that the magazine had "given rise to almost twenty imitations of it, which are either all dead or very little regarded." The plan was also imitated in Denmark, Sweden, and Germany. Cave edited his magazine down to his death in 1754, when it was continued by his brother-in-law David Henry, afterwards by John Nichols and his son. The specially antiquarian and historical features were dropped in 1868, and it was changed to a miscellany of light literature.

Many other magazines were produced in consequence of the success of these two. It will be sufficient to mention the following. The Scots Magazine (1739-1817) was the first published in Scotland; from 1817 to 1826 it was styled the Edinburgh Magazine. The Universal Magazine (1747) had a short, if brilliant, career; but the European Magazine, founded by James Perry in 1782, lasted down to 1826. Of more importance than these, or than the Royal Magazine (1759-71), was the Monthly Magazine (1796-1843), with which Priestley and Godwin were originally connected. During thirty years the Monthly was conducted by Sir Richard Phillips, under whom it became more statistical and scientific than literary. Class magazines were represented by the Edinburgh Farmer’s Magazine (1800-25) and the Philosophical Magazine (1798), established in London by Alexander Tilloch; the latter at first consisted chiefly of translations of scientific articles from the French. The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still published :—the Gentleman’s Magazine (1731), the Gospel Magazine (1768), Wesleyan Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis’s Botanical Magazine (1786), Evangelical Magazine (1793), Methodist New Connexion Magazine (1797), Philosophical Magazine (1798).

The increased influence of this class of periodical upon the public opinion of our own era was first apparent in Blackwood’s Edinburqh Magazine, founded in 1817 by the publisher of that name, and carried to a high degree of excellence by the contributions of Scott, Lockhart, Hogg, Maginn, Syme, and John Wilson, the editor. It is still issued, and has always remained Liberal in literature and Conservative in politics. The New Monthly Magazine is somewhat earlier in date. It was founded in 1814 by the London publisher Colburn, and was edited in turns by Campbell, Theodore Hook, Bulwer Lytton, and Ainsworth. Many of Carlyle’s and Thackeray’s pieces first appeared in Fraser’s Magazine (1830), long famous for its personalities and its gallery of literary portraits. The Metropolitan Magazine was started in opposition to Fraser, and was first edited by Campbell, who had left its rival. It subsequently came into the hands of Captain Marryatt, who printed in it many of his sea-tales. The British Magazine (1832-49) included religious and ecclesiastical information. From Ireland came the Dublin University Magazine (1833). The regular price of these magazines was half a crown; the first of the cheaper ones was Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine (1832-61) at a shilling. It was Radical in politics, and had Roebuck as one of its founders. Bentley’s Miscellany (1837-68) was exclusively devoted to novels, light literature, and travels. Several of Ainsworth’s romances, illustrated by Cruikshank, first saw the light in Bentley. The Nautical Magazine (1832) was addressed specially to sailors, and Colburn’s United Service Journal (1829) to both services. The Asiatic Journal (1816) dealt with Oriental subjects.

From 1815 to 1820 a number of low-priced and unwholesome periodicals flourished. The Mirror(1823-49), a two- penny illustrated magazine, begun by John Limbird,1 and the Mec hanics Magazine (1823) were steps in a better direction. The political agitation of 1831 led to a further popular demand, and a supply of cheap and healthy serials for the reading multitude commenced with Chambers’s Edinburgh, Journal (1832), the Penny Magazine (1832 - 45) of Charles Knight, issued under the patronage of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and the Saturday Magazine (1832-44), begun by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The first was published at 11/2d. and the last two at ld. Knight secured the best authors and artists of the day to write for and illustrate his magazine, which, though at first a commercial success, may have had the reason of its subsequent discontinuance in its literary excellence. At the end of 1832 it had reached a sale of 200,000 in weekly numbers and monthly parts. It came to an end in 1845 and was succeeded by Knight’s Penny Magazine (1845), which was stopped after six monthly parts. These periodicals were followed by a number of penny weeklies of a lower tone, such as the Family Herald (1843), the London Journal (1845), and Lloyd’s Miscellany; the two former are still thriving. In 1850 the sale of the first of them was placed at 175,000 copies, the second at 170,000, and Lloyd’s at 95,000. In 1846 fourteen penny and three halfpenny magazines, twelve social journals, and thirty-seven book-serials were produced every week in London. A further and permanent improvement in cheap weeklies for home reading may been traced from the foundation of Howitt’s Journal (1847- 49), and more especially Household Words (1850), conducted by Charles Dickens, All the Year Round (1859), by the same editor, and afterwards by his son, Once a Week (1859), and the Leisure Hour (1852). The plan of Notes and Queries (1849), for the purpose of intercommunication among those interested in special points of literary and antiquarian character, has led to the adoption of similar departments in a great number of newspapers and periodicals, and, besides several imitators in England, there are now parallel journals in Holland, France, and Italy.

Recent shilling monthlies began with Macmillan (1859), the Cornhill (1860), and Temple Bar (1860). The Cornhill, first edited by Thackeray, was known for its specially literary tone down to 1883. St James’s Magazine (1861), Belgravia (1866), St Paul’s (1867-74), London Society (1862), and Tinsley’s (1867) are devoted chiefly to novels and light reading. The sixpenny illustrated magazines commenced with Good Words (1860) and the Quiver (1861), both religious in tendency. In 1882 Fraser changed its name to Longman’s Magazine, and was entirely popularized and reduced to sixpence. The Cornhill followed the same example in 1883, reducing its price to sixpence and devoting its pages to light reading. The English Illustrated Magazine (1883) was brought out in competition with the American Harper and Century. Of the artistic periodicals we may signalize the Art Journal (1849), long known for its line engravings, the Portfolio (1870), which has done much to popularize etching, and the Magazine of Art (1878).

The following statistics furnish an idea of the marvellous increase in the number of periodicals issued at different times during the last fifty years. In figures submitted to the House of Commons in 1864 Sir Edward Baines estimated the circulation of the monthly magazines in. 1831 at no more than 125,000 copies; when he spoke the number had increased to 3,609,350. The weeklies might be reckoned in 1831 at about qual to the monthlies in circulation, and the miscellaneous serials at 120,000, amounting altogether to 420,000 copies. In 1864 the circulation of weeklies and monthlies reached a total of' 6,094,950 (Journal of Statist. Soc., 1864, pp. 410-412). Concurrently with this increase in the whole number published there may be observed an equally regular decrease in the average cost of each. In 1831 there were, issued in London alone 177 monthlies, costing £17, 12s. 6d., or an average of 2s. apiece. At the end of 18.33 there were 236 of the same class, costing £23, 3s. 6d., and the average price had decreased to 1s. 11 1/2d Twenty years later, in 1853, there were 362 monthlies, costing £14, 17s. 6d., the average cost of each being now only 9 1/2d. (Knight’s Old Printer and Modern Press, 263).

In London itself the increase of the weeklies, monthlies, and quarterlies at different periods has been as follows:—

TABLE

Extending the inquiry to the whole of the United Kingdom, and including every description of periodical, with the exception of annuals and newspapers, May’s British and Irish Press Guide for the years 1874 and 1884 supplies this comparison:—

TABLE

The chief classes into which the same periodicals may be divided are:—

TABLE

Among the different periodicals issued in 1884 there were also 73 advocating temperance, 28 devoted to agriculture, 57 family magazines, 31 financial, 15 insurance, 18 medical, 7 secularist, 9 tailoring, and 7 bicycling.

Indexes to English Periodicals.—Lists of the separate indexes to particular series are given in H. B. Wheatley's What is an Index? 1879, and List of Bibliographics in the Reading.Room of the British Museum, 1881. The valuable and elaborate work of W. F. Poole, Index to Periodical Lit., Boston (Massachusetts), 1882, supplies an exhaustive alphabetical index to the titles of articles in 6205 volumes of English anti American serials of the present century. Monthly supplements appear in the Library Journal.

Authorities.—"Periodicals," in the British Museum catalogue; Lowndes, Bibliographer’s Manual, by Hy. G. Bohn, 1864; Cat. of Periodicals in the Bodl. Lib., part i., "English Periodicals," 1878; Cat. of the Hope Collection of Early Newspapers and Essayists in the Bodl. Lib., 1865; Scudder, Cat. of Scientific Serials, 1870; Andrews, Hist. of Brit. Journalism, 1859; Cucheval Clarigny, Hist. de la Presse en Angleterre et aux Etats Unis, 1857; Madden, Hist. of Irish Period. Lit., 1867; J. Grant, The Great Metropolis, ii. pp. 229-327; "Periodical Essays of the Age of Anne," in N. American Rev., xlvi.; Drake, Essays on the "Spectator," "Tatler," &c., 1810-14; Courthope, Addison ("Engl. Men of Letters"), 1884; "Forgotten Periodical Publications," in Notes and Queries, ser. iii., vol. ix.53; "Account of Periodical Literary Journals from 1681 to 1749," by S Parkes, in Quart. Journ. of Sc., Lit., &c., xiii. 36,289; "Last Century Magazines," in Fraser’s Mag., Sept. 1876, 325; "Periodicals during 1712-32," in Notes and Queries, ser iii., vol ix. 72, &c., x. 134; "Catholic Period. Lit.," ib., ser. v., vol. xi. 427, 494; "Early Roman Catholic Magazines," ib., ser. vi.. vol. iii. 43, &c., iv. 211; Timperley, Ency. of Lit. Anec., 1842; C. Knight, The Old Printer and the Modern Press, 1854, and Passages of a Working Life, 1864-65; Memoir of Robert Chambers, 1872; The London Cat. Periodicals, Newspapers, &c., 1844-84; Mitchell, Newspaper Press Directory, 1846-84; May, British and Irish Press Guide, 1874-84; The Bookseller, Feb. 1867, June and July 1868, Aug. 1874, July 1879.


India and the British Colonies.—The first Indian periodical was the Calcutta Monthly Register (1790), which lasted but a short time. A Calcutta Literary Gazette came out in 1830. In 1844 appeared the first number of the Calcutta Review (1844), which is still the most important serial of the Indian empire. The Bombay Quarterly Review was founded in 1855. Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819). The Religious and Theological Magazine was produced at Colombo in 1833. The Christian College Magazine was commenced in 1883. At Singapore the Journal of the Indian Archipelago appeared from 1847 to 1855. The Chinese Repository (1832), edited at Canton by Morrison, dealt with the farther East.

See "Periodical Literature in India" in Dark Blue, 1872-73.

Hubbard (Newspaper Directory) estimates the existing periodicals (omitting newspapers) of British North America at 652.

The number of weekly, monthly, and quarterly publications of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand is placed by the same authority at 570. The Melbourne Review (1876) deserves special mention.


FOREIGN.

France.—We owe the literary journal to France, where it soon attained to a degree of importance unapproached in any other country. The first idea may be traced in the Bureau d’Adresse of Théophraste Renaudot, living the proceedings of his conferences upon literary and scienti c matters (1633-42). About the year 1663 Mézeray obtained a privilege for a regular literary periodical, which came to nothing, and it was left to Denis de Sallo, counsellor of the parliament of Paris and a man of rare merit and learning, to actually carry the project into effect. The first number of the Journal des Savants appeared on 5th January 1665, under the assumed name of the sieur d’Hédouville. The prospectus promised to give an account of the chief books published throughout Europe, obituary notices, a review of the progress of science, besides legal and ecclesiastical information and other matters of interest to cultivated persons. The criticisms, however, wounded alike authors and the clergy, and the journal was suppressed after a career of three months. Colbert, seeing the public utility of such a periodical, ordered the abbé Gallois, a contributor of De Sallo’s, to re-establish it, an event which took place on 4th January 1666. It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was replaced in 1675 by the abbé de la Roque, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin in 1686. From 1701 commenced a new era for the Journal, which was then acquired by the chancellor de Pontchartrain for the state and placed under the direction of a commission of learned men. Just before the Revolution it developed fresh activity, but the troubles of 1792 caused it to be discontinued until 1796, when it again failed to appear after twelve numbers had been issued. In 1816 it was definitively re-established and replaced under Government patronage, remaining subject to the chancellor or garde-des-sceaux until 1857, when it was transferred to the control of the minister of public instruction. The present organization much resembles that of an academy. The members of the commission are elected, approved of by the minister, and divided into assistants and authors, the latter furnishing at least three articles per annum. at a fixed and modest rate of payment. All communications are discussed at fortnightly conferences.





Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trévoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Mémoires pour servir à l’Histoire des Sciences et des Arts (1701-67), more familiarly known as the Journal de Trévoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France. One feature of its career was its constant appeal for the literary assistance of outsiders. It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des Sciences et des Beaux-Arts (1768-75) by the abbé, Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-78), and as Journal de Littérature, des Sciences, et des Arts (1779-82) by the abbé Grosier.

The first legal periodical was the Journal du Palais (1672) of Bloudeau and Guéret, and the, first devoted to medicine the Nouvelles Découvertes dans tautes les Parties de la Médecine (1679) of Nicolas de Blégny, frequently spoken of as a charlatan, a term which sometimes means simply a man of many ideas. Religious periodicals date from 1680 and the Journal Ecclésiastique of abbé de la Roque. The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du Cabinet des Princes de l’Europe (1704-6 ), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794.

Literary criticism was no more free than political discussion, and no person was allowed to trespass either upon the domain of the Journal des Savants or that of the Hercure de France without the payment of heavy subsidies. This was the origin of the clandestine press of Holland, and it was that country which for the next hundred years supplied the ablest periodical criticism from the pens of French Protestant refugees. During that period thirty-one journals of the first class proceeded from these sources. From its commencement the Journal des Savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trévoux appeared at Amsterdam. From 1764 to 1775 miscellaneous articles from different French and English reviews were, added to this reprint. Bayle, a born journalist and the most able critic of the day, conceived the plan of the Nouvelles de la Ripublique des Lettres (1684-1718), which at once became entirely successsful and obtained for him during the three years of his control the dictatorship of the world of letters. He was succeeded as editor by La Roque, Barrin, Bernard, and Leclerc. Bayle’s method was followed in an equally meritorious periodical, the Histoire des Ouvrages des Savants (1687-1704) of H. Basnage de Beauval. Another continuator of Bayle was Jean Leclerc, one of the most learned and acute critics of the 18th century, who carried on three reviews, the Bibliothèque Universelle et Historique (1686-93), the Bibliotèque Choisie (1703-13), and the Bibliotèque Ancienne et Moderne (1714-27). They form one series, and, besides valuable estimates of new books, include original dissertations, articles, and biographies like our modern learned magazines. The Journal Litteraire (1713-22, 1729-36) was founded by a society of young men, who made it a rule to discuss their contributions in common. Specially devoted to English literature were the Bibliothèque Anglaise (1716-28), the Mémoires Littéraires, de la Grande Bretagne (1720-24), the Bibliothèque Britannique (1733-34), and the Journal Britannique (1750-57) of Maty,1 who took for his principle, "pour penser avec liberté il faut penser seul." One of these Dutch-printed reviews was L’Europe Savante (1718-20), founded chiefly by Themiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe, with the intention of placing each separate department under the care of a specialist. The Bibliothèque Germanique (1720-40) was established by Jacques Lenfant to do for northern Europe what the Bibliothèque Britannique did for England. it was followed by the Nouvelle Bibliothèque Germanique (1746-59). The Bibliothèque Raisonnée des Ouvrages des Savants (1728-58) was supplementary to Leclerc, and was succeeded by the Bibliothèque des Sciences et des Beaux-Arts (1754-80). Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.

Taking up the exact chronological order again, we find the success of the English essay-papers led to their prompt introduction to the Continent. An incomplete translation of the Spectator was published at Amsterdam in 1714, and many volumes of extracts from the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian were issued in France early in the 18th century. Marivaux brought out a Spectateur Français (1722), which was coldly received; it was followed by fourteen or fifteen others under the titles of La Spectatrice (1728-30), Le Radoteur (1775), Le Babillard (1778-79), &c. Of a similar character was Le Pour et le Contre (1723-40) of the abbé Prévost, which contained anecdotes and criticism, with special reference to Great Britain. Throughout the 18th century, in France as in England, a favourite literary method was to write of social subjects under the assumed character of a foreigner, generally an Oriental, with the title of Turkish Spy, Lettres Chinoises, &c. These productions were usually issued in periodical form, and, besides an immense amount of worthless tittle-tattle, contain some valuable matter.

During the first half of the century France has little of importance to show in periodical literature. The Nouvelles Ecclésiastiques (1728-1803) were first printed and circulated secretly by the Jansenists in opposition to the Constitution Unigenitus. The Jesuits retaliated with the Supplément des Nouvelles Ecclésiastiques (1734-48). The promising title may have had something to do with the temporary success of the Memoires Secrets de la République, des Lettres (1744-48) of the marquis d’Argens. In the Observations sur les Écrits Modernes (1735-43) Desfontaines held the gates of Philistia, for eight years against the Encyclopaedists and even the redoubtable Voltaire himself It was continued by the Jugements sur quelques Ouvrages nouveaux (1744-45). The name of Fréron, perhaps the most vigorous enemy Voltaire ever encountered, was long connected with Lettres sur quelques Écrits, de ce Temps (1749-54), followed by L’Année Littéraire (1754-90). Among the contributors of Fréron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbé de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrère, founded Observations sur la Littérature Hoderne (1749-52) and L’Observateur Littéraire (1758-61).

A number of special organs came into existence about this period. The first treating of agriculture and domestic economy was the Journal Économique (1751-72); a Journal de Commerce was founded in 1759 ; periodical biography may be first seen in the Nécrologe des Hommes Célèbres de France (1764-82) ; the political economists established the Éphémérides du Citoyen in 1765 ; the first Journal d’Éducation was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la Mode in the same year ; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des Théâtres (1770) ; in the same year were produced a Journal de Musique and the Encyclopédie Militaire ; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de Marine in 1778. We have already noticed several journals specially devoted to one or other foreign literature. It was left to Fréron, Grimm, Prévost, and others in 1754 to extend the idea to all foreign productions, and the Journal Étranger (1754-62) was founded for this purpose. The Gazeue Littéraire (1764-66), which had Voltaire, Diderot, and Saint-Lamlbert among its editors, was intended to swamp the small fry of criticism ; the Journal des Dames (1759-78) was of a light magazine class ; and the Journal de Monsieur (1776-83) had three phases of existence, and died after extending to thirty volumes. The memoires Secrets pour servir à l’Histoire de la Republique des Lettres (1762-87), better known as Mémoires de Bachaumont, from the name of their founder, furnish a minute account of the social and literary history for a period of twenty-six years. Of a similar character was the Correspodance Littéraire Secrète (1774.93), to which Métra was the chief contributor. L’Esprit des Journaux (1772-1818) forms an important literary and historical collection, which is rarely to be found complete.

The movement of ideas at the close of the century may best be traced in the Annales Politiques, Civiles, et Littéraires (1777-92) of Linguet. The Décade Philosophique (year V. or 1796/97), founded by Ginguené, is the first periodical of the magazine class which appeared after the storms of the Revolution. It was a kind of resurrection of good taste ; under the empire it formed the sole refuge of the opposition. By a decree of 17th January 1800 the consulate reduced the number of Parisian journals to thirteen, of which the Décade was one; all the others, with the exception of those dealing solely with science, art, commerce, and advertisements, were suppressed. A report addressed to Bonaparte by Fiévée1 in the year XI. (1802/3) furnishes a list of fifty-one of these periodicals. In the year XIII. (1804/5) only seven non-political serials were permitted to appear.

Between 1815 and 1819 there was a constant struggle between freedom of thought on the one hand and the censure, the police, and the law-officers on the other. This oppression led to the device of "semi-periodical" publications, of which La Minerve Française (1818-20) is an instance. It was the Satire Ménippée of the Restoration, and was brought out four times a year at irregular intervals. Of the same class was the Bibliothéque Historique (1818-20), another anti-royalist organ. The censure was re-established in 1820 and abolished in 1828 with the monopoly. It has always seemed impossible to carry on successfully in France a review upon the lines of those which have become so numerous and important in England. The short-lived Revue Française (1828-30), founded by Guizot, Rémusat, De Broglie, and the doctrinaires, was an attempt in this direction. The well-known Revue des Deux Mondes was established in 1829 by Ségur-Dupeyron and Mauroy, but it ceased to appear at the end of the year, and its actual existence dates from its acquisition in 1831 by François Buloz,2 a masterful editor, under whose energetic management it soon achieved a worldwide reputation. The most distinguished names in French literature have been among its contributors, for whom it has been styled the "vestibule of the Academy." It was preceded by a few months by the Revue de Paris (1829-45), founded by Véron, who introduced the novel to periodical literature. In 1834 this was purchased by Buloz, and brought out concurrently with his other Revue. While the former was exclusively literary and artistic, the latter dealt more with philosophy. The Revue Indépendante (1841-48) was founded by Pierre Leroux, George Sand, and Viardot for the democracy. The times of the consulate and the empire were the subjects dealt with by the Revue de l’Empire (1842-48). In Le Correspondant (1843), established by Montalembert and De Falloux, the Catholics and Legitimists had a valuable supporter. The Revue Contemporaine (1852), founded by the comte de Belval as a royalist organ, bad joined to it in 1856 the Athenaeum Français. The Revue Germanique (1868) exchanged its exclusive name and character in 1865 to the Revue Moderne. The Revue Européenne (1859) was at first subventioned like the Revue Contemporaine, from which it soon withdrew Government favour. The Revue Nationale (1860) appeared quarterly, and succeeded to the Magazin de Libraire (1858).

The list of current periodicals, to which should be added the Revue des Deux Mondes and the Correspondant, include the following. Among those devoted to literature and criticism may be mentioned the Revue Britannique (1825) ; the Revue Critique d’Histoire et de Littérature (1866), one of the first of European weekly reviews ; Revue Politique et Littéraire, successor to the Revue des Cours Littéraires (1863), also weekly ; Le Livre (1880), confined to bibliograph and literary history, monthly ; and the Nouvelle Revue (1879), already a serious rival of the Revue des Deux Mondes, which it resembles in character and mode of publication, although distinctly Republican in politics. History and archaeology are represented by the Bibliothéque de l’École des Chartes (1839), which deals especially with the Middle Ages, and is published every two months; the Cabinet Historique (1855), a monthly, devoted to MSS. and unpublished documents ; the Revue Historique (1876), two-montlhy ; and the monthly Revue Archéologique (1860). The fine arts are car'ed for by the Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1859), monthly, and L’Art (1875), published weekly. We may also mention the Revue Philosophique (1876), monthly, and Le Tour du Afonde (1860), an illustrated weekly, consisting entirely of voyages and travels.

In 1883, apart from political newspapers, there were published in Paris 1379 periodicals of all kinds. They maybe classified in the following order:—theology 96, jurisprudence 130, reviews 75, popular reading 169, history and geography 37, political economy and finance 243, science generally 26, mathematics 6, medicine 101, natural science 21, military 14, naval 12, fine arts 75, fashion 81, education 46, technology 137, agriculture 46, sport 24, miscellaneous 40.

Authorities.—The subject of French periodicals has been exhaustively treated in the valuable works of Eugène Hatin,—Histoire de la Presse en France, 1859-61, 8 vols. ; Les Gazettes de Hollande et la Presse Clandestine aux 17 et 18 Siècles, 1865 ; and Bibliographie de la Presse Périodique Française, 1866. See also Catalogue de l’Histoire de France, 1855-79, 11 vols. ; V. Gébé, Catalogue des Journaux, etc., publiés à Paris, 1879; Brunet, Manuel du Libraire, avec Supplément, 1860-80, 8 vols. ; H. Le Soudier, Catalogue-tarif des Journaux, Revues, et Publications Périodiques parus en Paris jusqu’en 1883, 1883; F. Mège, Les Journaux et Écrits Périodiques de la Basse Auvergne, 1869.

Germany.—The earliest trace of the literary journal in Germany is to be found in the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen (1663) of the poet Johann Rist and in the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670-1704) of the Academia naturae curiosorum Leopoldina-Caro-lina, the first scientific annual, uniting the features of the Journal des Savants and of the Philosophical Transactions. D. G. Morhof, the author of the well-known Polyhistor, conceived the idea of a monthly serial to be devoted to the history of modern books and learning, which came to nothing. While Professor of morals at Leipsic, Otto Mencke planned the Acta Eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts, and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe. In 1680 he travelled in England and Holland in order to obtain literary assistance, and the first number appeared in 1682, under the title of Acta Bruditorum Lipsiensium, and, like its successors, was written in Latin. Among the contributors to subsequent numbers were Leibnitz, Seckendorf, and Cellarius. A volume came out each year, with supplements. After editing about 30 volumes Mencke died, leaving the publication to his son, and the Acta remained in the possession of the family down to 1745, when they extended to 117 volumes, which form an extremely valuable history of the learning of the period. A selection of the dissertations and articles was published at Venice in 7 vols. 4to, 1740. The Acta soon had imitators. The Ephemerides Litterariae (1686) came out at Hamburg in Latin and French. The Nova Litteraria maris Balthici et Septentrionis (1698-1708) was more especially devoted to north Germany and the universities of Kiel, Rostock, and Dorpat. Supplementary to the preceding was the Nova Litteraria Germaniae collecta Hamburgi (l703-9), which from 1707 widened its field of view to the whole of Europe. At Leipsic was produced the Teutsche Acta Eruditorum (1712), an excellent periodical, edited by J. G. Rabener and C. G. Jöcher, and continued from 1740 to 1758 as Zuverlässige Nachrichten. It included portraits.

The brilliant and enterprisinghristianThomasius brought out periodically, in dialogue form, his Monatsgespräche. (1688-90), written by himself in the vernacular, to defend his novel theories against the alarmed pedantry of Germany, and, together with Strahl, Buddeus, and others, Observationes selectae ad rem litterariam spectantes (1700), written in Latin. W. E. Tenzel also published Monatliche Unterredungen (1689-98), continued from 1704 as Curi-euse Bibliothek, and treating various subjects in dialogue form. After the death of Tenzel the Bibliothek was carried on under different titles by C. Woltereck, J. G. Krause, and others, down to 1721. Of much greater importance than these was the Monatlicher Auszug (1701), supported by J. G. Eccard and Leibnitz. Another periodical on Thomasius’s plan was Neue Unterredungen (1702), edited by N.H.Gundling. The Gundlingiana of the latter person, published at Halle (1715-32), and written partly in Latin and partly in German by the editor, contained a miscellaneous collection of juridical, historical, and theological observations and dissertations.

Nearly all departments of learning possessed their several special periodical organs about the close of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The Anni Franciscanorum (1680) was edited by the Jesuit Stiller; and J. S. Adami publislied, between 1690 and 1713, certain theological repertories under the name of Deliciae.





Historical journalism was first represented by Electa Juris Publci (1709), philology by Neue Acerra Philologica (1715-23), philosophy by the Acta Philosophorum (1715-27), medicine by Der patriotische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728). Reference has already been made to the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670 -1704) ; the Manatliche Erzählungen (1689) was also devoted to natural science.

Down to the early part of the 18th century Halle and Leipsic were the headquarters of literary journalism in Germany. Other centres began to feel the need of similar organs of opinion. Hamburg had its Niedersächsische neue Zeitungen, styled from 1731 Niedersächsische Nachrichten, which came to an end in 1736, and Mecklenburg owned in 1710 its Neuer Vorrath, besides others brought out at Rostock. Prussia owes the foundation of its literary periodicals to G. P. Schulze and M. Lilienthal, the former of whom began with Gelehrtes Preussen (1722), continued under different titles down to 1729 ; the latter helped with the Erldutertes Preussen (1724), and was the sole editor of the Acta Borussica (1730-32). Pomerania and Silesia also had their Special periodicals in the first quarter of the 18th century. Franconia commenced with Nova Litteraria, and Hesse with the Kurze Historie, both in 1725. In south Germany appeared the Württembergische Nebenstunden (1718), and the Parnassus Boicus, first published at Munich in 1722. The Frankfürter gelehrte, Zeitungen, was founded in 1736 by S. T. Hocker, and existed down to 1790. Austria owned Das merkwürdige Wien.

In 1715 the Neue Zeitungen van gelehrten Sachen was founded by J. G. Krause at Leipsic and carried on by various editors down to 1797. It was the first attempt to apply the form of the weekly political journal to learned subjects, and was imitated in the Vermischte Bibliothek (1718-20), and the Bibliotheca Novissima (1718-21), both founded by J. G. Francke in Halle. Shortly after the foundation of the university of Göttingen appeared Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachsen (1739), still famous as the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, which during its long and influential career has been conducted by professors of that university, and among others by Haller, Heyne, and Eichhorn.

Influenced by EL close study of English writers, the two Swiss Bodmer and Breitinger established Die Discurse der Maler (1721), and, by paying more attention to the matter of works reviewed than to their manner, commenced a critical method now to Germany. The system was attacked by Gottsched, who, educated in the French school , erred in the opposite direction. The war between the two parties gave fresh life to the literature of the country, but German criticism of the higher sort can only be said really to begin with Lessing. The Berlin publisher Nicolai founded the Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften, and afterwards handed it over to C. F. Weisse in order to give his whole energy to the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759-65), carried on by the help of Lessing, Mendelssohn, and Abbt. To Nicolai is also due the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (1765-1806), which embraced a much wider field and soon became extremely influential. Herder founded the Kritische Wälder in 1766. Der deutsche Merkur (1773-89, revived 1790-1810) ofWieland was the solitary representative of the French school of criticism. A new era in German periodical literature began when Bertuch brought out at Jena in 1785 the Allgemeine Literaturzeitung, to which the leading writers of the country were contributors. On being transferred to Halle in 1804 it was replaced by the Jenaische allgemeine Literaturzeitung, founded by Eichstädt. Both reviews enjoyed a prosperous career down to the year 1848.

At the commencement of the present century we find the Erlanger Literaturzeitung (1799-1810), which had replaced a Gelehrte Zeitung (1746) ; the Leipziger Literaturzeitung (1800-34); the Heidelbergische Jahrbücher der Literatur (1808) ; and the Wiener Literaturzeitung (1813-16), followed by the Wiener Jahrbücher der Literatur (1818-48), both of which received Government support and were like the Quarterly Review in their Conservative politics and high literary tone. Hermes, founded at Leipsic in 1819 by W. T. Krug, was distinguished for its erudition, and came out down to 1831. One of the most remarkable periodicals of this class was the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik (1827-46), first published by Cotta. The Hallische Jahrbücher (1838-42) was founded by Ruge and Echtermeyer, and supported by the Government. The Repertorium der gesammten dentschen Literatur, established by Gersdorf in 1834, and known after 1843 as the Leipziger Repertorium der deutschen und ausländischen Literatur, existed to 1860. Buchner founded the Literarische Zeitung at Berlin in 1834. It was continued by Brandes down to 1849. The political troubles of 1848 and 1849 were most disastrous to the welfare of the literary and miscellaneous periodicals. Gersdorf’s Repertorium, the Gelehrte Anzeigen of Göttingen and of Munich, and the Heidelberg Jahrbücher were the sole survivors. The Allgemeine Monatschrift für Literatur (1850), conducted after 1851 by Droysen, Nitzsch, and others, continued only down to 1854 ; the Literarisches Centralblatt (1850) had a longer existence. The Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung srang out of the Literarisches Wochenblatt (1818), founded by Kotzebue ; since 1865 it has been edited by R. Gottschall with considerable success. Many of the literary journals did not disdain to occupy themselves with the fashions, but the first periodical of any merit specially devoted to the subject was the Bazar (1855). The first to popularize science was Natur (1852). The Hausblätter (1855), a bi-monthly magazine, was extremely successful. The Salon (1868) followed more closely the type of the English magazine.

About this period arose a great number of serials for popular reading, known as "Sontagsblätter," of which the Gartenlaube (1858) and Daheim are examples. Of a more solid character are the Deutsches Museum (1851- 57) of Prutz and Frenzel; the Grenzboten; the Preussische Jahrbücher (1858) ; the Berliner Revue (1855) ; Unsere Zeit (1857), at first only a kind of supplement to Brockhaus’s Conversationslexikon, but now an important review of matters of contemporary interest ; Die Gegenwart (1872) ; the new Literatur-zeitung (1874) of Jena.; the Deutsche Rundschau (1874), conducted upon the method of the Revue des Deux Mondes ; and many others.

Periodicals have been specialized in Germany to an extent perhaps unequalled in any other country. Those of a really high class have become so numerous and form so marked a feature in the current literature that it may be useful to give a classified list of the chief of them, including the many Jahresberichte which supply summaries of the works published annually in particular departments.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL AND LITERARY:—Petzholdt’s neuer Anzeiger; Centralblatt für Bibliothekswissenschaft; Allgemeine Bibliographie für Deutschland; Bibliographie und literarische Chronik der Schweiz; Polytechnische Bibliothek ; Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung, ed. by Rud. von Gottschall ; Literarisches Centralblatt für Deutschland; Die Gegenwart; Die Grenzboten; Deutsche Rundschau; Im neuen Reich; Preussische Jahrbücher; Magazin für die Literatur des In- und Auslandes ; Die neue Zeit ; Archiv f. Literaturgeschichte ; Westermann’s illustrirte deutsche Monatshefte.

THEOLOGY:—Der Katholik; Theologische Literaturzeitung; Theologische Studien und Kritiken ; Theologische Studien aus Württemberg; Theologische Quartalschrift; Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte; Neue evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung; Protestantische Kirchen-Zeitung; Monatsschrift für Geschichte d. Judenthums.

LAW, POLITICAL ECONOMY, &c. :—Jahrbuch f. Gesetzgebung ; Jahrbuch der deutschen Gerichtsverfassung ; Zeitschrift für Rechtsgeschichte ; Jahrbuch der preussischen Gerichtsverfassung; Annalen d. Reichsgerichts; Seuffert’s Archiv für Entscheidung der obersten Gerichte ; Scuffert’s Blätter f. Rechtsanwendung ; Jahrbuch. für das deutsche Versicherungswesen ; Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik ; Zeitschrift f. gesammte Staatswissenschaft; Vierteljahrsschrift für Volkswirtschaft; Statistische Monatsschrift.

MEDICINE AND SURGERY :—Archiv für Anthropologie; Archiv f. experimentelle Pathologie; Schmidt’s Jahrbücher der in- und ausländischen ges. Medicin; Zeitschrift f. klin. Medicin; Archiv für Anatomic und Physiologic; Morphologisches Jahrbuch; Archiv für Gynäkologie; Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie ; Archiv f. klin. Chirurgie ; Graefe’s Archiv ; Vierteljahrsschrift für gerichtl. Medicin.

NATURAL SCIENCE:—Archiv für, Anatomie u. Physiologie; Archiv für Naturgeschichte ; Annalen der Physik und Chemie; Annalen der Mathematik und Physik; Botanischer Jahresbericht ; Botan. Jahrbücher ; Flora ; Botanische Zeitung Zoologischer Jahresbericht ; Zeitschrift für wissenschaftl. Zoologie; Jahresbericht über d. Fortschritte d. Chemie ; Liebig’s Annalen d. Chemie.

PHILOSOPHY:—Philosophische Monatshefte; Zeitschrift für Philosophie.

EDUCATION:—Rheinische Blätter; Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie; Pädagogischer Jahresbericht.

JUVENILE LITERATURE:—Herzblättchens Zeitvertreib; Deutsche Jugend.

CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND PHILOLOGY:—Jahrbücher für class. Philologie; Hermes; Rheinisches Museum; Philologus; Archäologische Zeitung; Jahresberichte üb d. Fortschritte d. class. Alterthumswissenschaft.

ORIENTAL LITERATURE:—Zeitschrift d. deutschen morgenländischer, Gesellschaft; Zeitschrift .f Völkerpsychologie.

MODERN LANGUAGES:—Anglia ; Archiv f. d. Studium d. neueren Sprachen; Germania; Zeitschrift f. deut. Alterthum.

HISTORY, &c.:—Sybel’s hist. Zeitschrift ; Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft ; Archiv f. Anthropologie ; Archiv f. oesterr. Geschichte ; Das Staatsarchiv; Forschungen z. deut. Geschichte; Baltische Studien; Zeits. f. Museologie; Zeits. f. Numismatik.

GEOGRAPHY:—Geogr. Jahrbuch; Globus; Das Ausland; Petermann’s Mitteilungen; Zeitschrift f. Ethnologie.

MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY:—Jahrbuch üb d. Fortschritte d. Mathematik; Archiv d. Mathematik u. Physik; Journal f. d. reine u. angewandte Math. ; Zeitschrift f. Mathematik; Astronomische Nachrichten.

ARMY AND NAVY:—Jahresberichte üb. d. Veränderungen im Militärwesen; Deutsche Heeres-Zeitung; Jahrbücher f. d. deut. Armee u. Marine; Militär-Literaturzeitung; Militär-Wochenblatt; Streffleur’s österr. Militär-Zeitschrift.

TRADE ORGANS, &c.:—Börsenblatt f. d. deut. Buchhandel; Deutsches Handelsarchiv; Stammer, Jahresbericht ü d. Zitckerfabrikation; Gewerbehalle ; Polytechn. Notizblatt.

ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING, &c.:—Allgemeine Bauzeitung; Der Civil-ingenieur ; Dingler’s polytechnisches Journal; Zeitschrift f. Bauwesen ; Osterr. Zeitschrift f. Berg. u. Hüttenwesen; Jahrbuch der Erfindungen auf d. Gebieten der Physik u. Chemie, der Technologie, u.s. w.

RAILWAYS, TELEGRAPHY, SHIPPING, &c.:—Hansa; Mitteilungen aus d. Gebiete d. Seewesens ; Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift ; Nautisches Jahrbuch; Der Maschinenbauer.

FORESTRY AND SPORTING:—Förstliche Blätter; Allg. Forst u. Jaydzeitung; Zeitschrift f. Forst u. Jagdwesen.

AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, &c.:—Bienenzeitung; Forschungen auf d. Gebiete d. Agrikulturphysik ; Landwirthschaftliche Jahrbücher; Allg. Zeitung für deut. Land u. Forstwirthe; Gartenflora; Neubert’s deut. Gartenmagazin; Deut. allg. Zeitung f. Landwirthschaft, u.s.w.

THEATRES:—Neuer Theaterdiener; Münchener Theater Journal.

FINE ARTS—Jahrbuch. d. k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen; Die graphischen Künste; Zeitschrift f. Kunst und Antiquitätensammler. Music:—Neue Berliner Musikzeitung; Neue Zeitschrift f. Musik.

FICTION:—Deut.Romanzeitung.

STENOGRAPHY:—Jahrbuch d. Schule Gabelsbergers; Allg. deutsche Steno grafenzeitung.

POPULAR READING:—Daheim; Die Gartenlaube; Ueber Land und Meer; Vom. Fels zum Meer.

FREEMASONRY:—Freimaurerzeitung.

HUMOROUS:—Fliegende Blätter; Kladderadatsch.

CHESS:—Deutsche Schachzeitung.

MISCELL. ILLUSTRATED:—Illustrirte Zeitung.

There were in
Austria in 1848 22 literary and 41 special period icals, and in 1873 110 literary and 413 special periodicals (see the extremely valuable statistical inquiry of Dr Johann Winckler, Die period. Presse Oesterreichs, 1875). Germany possessed in 1848 about 947 periodicals (Deutscher Zeitungs-Katalog, 1848), and in 1884 1550 (Gracklauer’s Deutscher Journal-Katalog für 1884). According to the Deutscher Zeitschriften-Katalog, 1874, there were published in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland in 1874 2219 periodicals in the German language.

Authorities.—For the general history of the subject consult C. Juncker Schediasma de ephemeridibus eruditorum, Leipsic, 1692; H. Kurz, Geschiehte der deutschen Literatur, Leipsic, 1852; R. Prutz, Geschichte des deuschen Journalismus, vol. i., 1845—unfortunately it does not go beyond 1713; H. Wuttke, Die deutschen Zeitseltriften, 1875; and P. F. Richter, Verzeichniss der Periodica im Besitze der k. öff. Bibl. zu Dresden, 1880.

Switzerland.—The Nova Litteraria Helvetica (1703-15) of Zurich is the earliest literary periodical which Switzerland can show. From 1728 to 1734 a Bibliothèque Italique, and towards the end of the century the Bibliothèque Britannique (1796-1815), dealing with agriculture, literature, and science, in three separate series, were published at Geneva. The latter was followed by what still re mains the leading periodical of French-speaking Switzerland, the Bibliothèque Universelle (1816), which also has a scientific and a literary series. The Revue Suisse (1838) was produced at Neuchâtel.

Italy.—Prompted by M. A. Ricci, Francesco Nazzari, the future cardinal, established in 1668 the Giornale de’ Letterati upon the plan of the Journal des Savants. His collaborateurs each agreed to undertake the criticism of a separate literature, while Nazzari re tained the general editorship and the analysis of the French books. The journal was continued to 1675, and another series was carried on to 1769. Bacchini brought out at Parma (1688-90) and at Modena (1692-97) a periodical with a similar title. A much better known Giornale was that of Apostolo Zeno, founded with the help of Maffei and Muratori (1710), continned after 1718 by Pietro Zeno, and after 1728 by Mastraca and Paitoni. Another Giornale, to which Fabroni contributed, was published at Pisa in 1771 ; it has been continued almost down to our own times. The Galleria di Minerva was first published at Venice in 1696. One of the many merits of the antiquary Lami was his connexion with the Novelle Letterarie (1740-70), founded by him, and after the first two years almost entirely written by him. Its learning and impartiality gave it much authority. The Frusta Letteraria (1763-65) was brought out at Venice by Giuseppe Baretti under the pseudonym of Aristarco Scannabue. The next that deserve mention are the Giornale Enciclopedico (1806) of Naples, followed by the Progresso delle Scienze (1833-48) and the Husco di Scienze e Letteratura of the same city, and the Giornale Areadico (1819) of Rome. Among the contributors to the Poligrafo (1811) of Milan were Monti, Perticari, and some of the first names in Italian literature. The Biblioteca Italiana (1816-40) was founded at Milan by the favour of the, Austrian Govern ment, and the editorship was offered to and declined by Ugo Foscolo. It rendered service to Italian literature by its opposition to the Della-Cruscan tyranny. Another Milanese serial was the Concilia tore (1818-20), which, although it only lived two years, will be remembered for the endeavours made by Silvio Pellico, Camillo Ugoni, and its other contributors to introduce a more dignified and courageous method of criticism. After its suppression and the falling off in interest of the Biblioteca Raliana the next of any merit, to appear was the Antologia, a monthly periodical brought out at Florence in 1820 by Gino Cappelli and Giampetro Vieusseux, but suppressed in 1833 on account of an epigrain of Tominaseo, a principal writer. Some striking papers were contributed by Giuseppe Mazzii. Naples had in 1832 Il Progresso of Carlo Troya, helped by Tommaseo and Centofanti, and Palermo owned the Giornale di Statistica (1834), suppressed eight years later. The Archivio Storico, consisting of reprints of documents with historical dissertations, dates from 1842, and was founded by Vieusseux and Gino Capponi. The Civilta Cattolica (1850) is still the organ of the Jesuits. The Rivista Contemporanea (1852) was founded at Turin in emulation in the Revue des Deux Mondes, which has been the type followed by so many Continental periodicals; it still appears. Tile Politecnico (1839) of Milan was suppressed in 1844 and revived in 1859.The Nuova Antologia (1866) has already acquired a well-deserved repution as a high-class review and magazine. Its rival, the Rivista Europea, is now considered the special organ of the Florentine men of letters. The Rassegna Settimanale was a weekly political and literary review, which after eight years of existence gave place

to a daily newspaper, the Rassegna. The Archivio Trentino (1882) is the organ of "Italia Irredenta." The Rassegna Nazionale, conducted by the marchese Manfredo di Passano, a chief of the moderate clerical party, the Nuova Rivista of Turin, the Fanfulla delkla

Domenica, and the Gazzetta Letteraria may also be mentioned. During the last few years Italy has been showing such vigour her periodical literature that it may be worth while to append the titles of the chief of those which are now appearing: Annali di Matematica, (1867); Annuario di Giurisprudenza (1883) ; Archiv di Statistica (1876) ; Archivio storico Lombardo (1874); Archivio Veneto (1871) ; Archivio per to Studio delle Tradizioni popolari; Archivio per la Zoologia; Il Bibliofilo; Bollettino di Archeologia cristiana; Il Filangieri (1876); La Natura, (1884), Nuovo Giornale botanico (1869); Giornale degli Eruditi (1883); Giornale di Filologia Romanza ; Giornale storico della Letteratura Italiana (1883) ; Nuova, Rivista internazionale (1879) ; Il Politecnico (1853) ;La Rassegna ltaliana (1881); Rivista storica ltatiana(1884); Revue Internationale (1883).

Not counting political newspapers, there were published in Italy in the year 1871 133 literary periodicals, 43 devoted to the fine arts 132 commercial, 49 scientific, 19 administrative, 20 humorous, &c showing a total of 416. Ten years later, in 1881, the number ha increased to 892, of which 46 were religious, 23 administrative, 114 scientific, 52 agricultural, 36 humorous, &c.

Authorities.—See G. Ottino, La Stampa periodica in Italia, Milan, 1875 Raccolta dei periodici presentata all’ Esposizione in Milano, 1881 ; A. Roux, La littérature contemporaine en Italie (1873-83), Paris, 1883.

Belgium.—The Journal Encyclopédique (1756-93), founded b P. Rousseau, made Liége a propagandist centre for the philosophica party. In the same city was also first established L’Esprit des Journaux (1772 -1818), styled by Sainte-Beuve "cette cousidérable et excellente collection," but "journal voleur et compilateur." The Journal historique et littéraire (1788-90) was founded at Luxem burg by the Jesuit De Feller ; having been suppressed there, it was transferred to Liége, and subsequently to Maestricht. It is one of the most curious of the Belgian periodicals of the 18th century, and contains most precious materials for the national history. A complete set is very rare and much sought after. The Revue Belge (1835-43), in spite of the support of the best writers of the kingdom, its successor the Revue de Liége (1844-47), the Trésor National (1842-43), published at Brussels, and the Revue de Belgique (1846-51) were all shortlived. The Revue de Bruxelles (1837-48), supported by the nobility and the clergy, had a longer career. The Revue Nationale was the champion of Liberalism, and came to an end in 1847. The Messager des Sciences historiques (1833), which still comes out at Ghent, has been much more successful, and is in repute on account of its historical and antiquarian character. The Revue Catholique is also still published by the professors of the university of Louvain. In 1846 it began a contro versy with the Journal historique et littéraire of Kersten (1834) upon the origin of human knowledge, which lasted for many years and excited great attention. The Revue Trimestrielle was founded at Brussels by Van Bemmel in 1854. The Athenaeum Belge (1868) did not last long.

Among Flemish serials may be mentioned the Nederduitsche Letteroefeningen (1834) ; the Belgisch Museum (1836-46), edited by Willems ; the Broederhand, which did not appear after 1846 the Taalverbund of Antwerp ; the Kunst- en Letterblad (1840-43) and the Vlaensche Rederyker (1844).

The Annales des Travaux Publics (1843), the Bulletin de l’Indus trie (1842), the Journal des Beaux-Arts (1858), the Catholic Précis: historiques (1852), the Protestant Chrétien Belge (1850), Van Bene den’s Archives de Biologie, the Revue de Belgique (1868), and the Revue de Droit international are representative of their several respective classes.

It has been calculated that in 1860 there were 51 periodicals published in Belgium. In 1884 the number had increased to 412.

See U. Capitaine, Recherches sur les journaux et les écrits périodiques Liégeois, 1850; Relevé de tous les écrits périodiques qui se publient dans le royaurae de Belgique, 1875 ; Catalogue des journaux, revues, et publications périocliques de la Belgique, 1883; Annuaire de la libraire Belge, 1884.

Holland.—This country occupies a distinguished position in the history of the periodical literature of the 18th century, from the labours of the French refugees already referred to (see p. 539). The first serial written in Dutch was the Boekzaal van Europa (1692 -1708, and 1715-48), which had several changes of name during its long life. The next of any note was the Republijk der Geleerden (1710-48). The English Spectator was imitated by J. van Effen in his Misanthrope (1711-12), written in French, and in the Hollandsche Spectator (1731-35), in Dutch. An important serial was the long lived Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen (1761). The Algemeene Kunst- en Letterbode (1788) was long the leading review of Holland ; in 1860 it was joined to the Nederlandsch spectator (1855). Of those founded in the present century may be mentioned the Recensent (1803) and Nieuwe Recensent ; the Nederlandsch Museum (1835) ; the Gids (1837) ; the Tijdstroom (1857) ; the Tijdspiegel, a literary journal of Protestant tendency; The Theologisch Tijdschrift (1867), the organ of the Leyden school of theology ; and tho Dietselbe Warande, a Roman Catholic review devoted to the national anti quities. Colonial interests have been cared for by the Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie (1848). The Nederlandish Magazin and Minerva are still published.

See Alphabetische Naamlijst van Boeken (1790-1875), Amsterdam, 1885-78.

Scandinavia.—Early in the 18th century Denmark had the Nye Tidender (1720), continued down to 1836 under the name of Dansk- literaturtidende. The Minerva (1785) of Rahbek was carried on to 1819, and the Skandinavisk Museum (1798-1803) was revived by the Litteratur-Selskabs Skrifler (1805). These were followed by the Laerde Efterretninger (1799 -1810), afterwards styled Litteratur- Tidende (1811-36), the Athene (1813-17), and Historisk Tidsskrift (1840). In more modern times appeared Tidsskrift for Litteratur og Kritik (1832-42, 1843); Maanedsskriftfor Litteratur (1829-38) ; Nord og Syd (1848 - 49) of Goldschmidt, succeeded by Ude og Hjemme, still published ; and the Dansk Maanedsskrift (1858) of Steenstrup, with signed historical and literary articles. One of the most note worthy Scandinavian periodicals has been the Nordisk Universitets Tidsskrift (1854-64), a bond of union between the universities of Christiania, Upsala, Lund, and Copenhagen.

Iceland has had the Islenzk Sagnablöd (1817-26), Skirnir (1827), still published, N_ Fjelagsrit (1841-73), and Gefn (1870-73).

See T. Möbius, Cat. libb. Island. et Norvegicorun, Leipsic, 1856-SO.

The first trace of the serial form of publication to be found in Norway is in the Ugentlige korte Afhandlinger (1760,61), "Weekly Short Treatises," of Bishop Fr. Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays. The Maanedlige Afhandlinger (1762), "Monthly Treatises," was supported by several writers and devoted chiefly to rural economy. These two were followed by Politik og Historie (1807-10) Saga (1816-20), a quarterly review edited by J. S. Munch ; Den Norske Tilskuer (1817-21), a miscellany brought out at Bergen ; Hermoder (1821-27), a weekly aesthetic journal ; Iduna, (1822-23), of the same kind but of less value ; Vidar (1832-34), a weekly scientific and literary review ; Nor (1846-46), of the same type ; Norsk Tidsskrift for Videnskab og Litteratur (1847-55) ; Illustreret Nyhedsblad (1851-66), "Illustrated News"; Norsk Maanedsskrift (1856-60), "Monthly Review for Norway," devoted to history and philology ; and Norden (1866), a literary and scientific review. Popular serials date from the Skilling Maqazin (1835), which first introduced wood-engraving, and is still published. The Norsk Familjeblad is a current weekly of the same class.

See P. Botten-Hansen, La Norvège Littéraire, Christiania, 1868; Norsk Bog-Fotegnelse (1814-72).

The Swensk Argus (1733-34) of Olof Dalin is the first contribution of Sweden to this subject. The next were the Tidningar om den Lärdas Arbeten (1742) and the Lärda Tidningar. The patriotic journalist C. C. Gjörwell established about twenty literary periodicals, of which the most important was the Swenska Mercurius (1755-89). Atterbom and some fellow-students founded about 1810 a society for the deliverance of the country from French pedantry, which with this end carried on a periodical entitled Phosphoros (1810-13), to propagate the opinions of Sehlegel and Schelling. The Svensk Literatur-Tidning (1813 - 25) of Palmblad and the Polyfem (1810-12) had the same objects. Among more recent periodicals we may mention Skandia (1833-37); Literaturbladet (1838-40) ; Ställningar och Forhallanden (1838) of Crusenstolpe, a monthly review of Scandinavian history; Tidskrift för Litteratur (1850) ; Norsk, Tidsskrif (1862), weekly, still published ; Förr och Nu ; and the Revue Suédoise (1858) of Kramer, written in French. TheNy illus trered Tidning and Hemvännen are current illustrated weeklies the Svenska Veckoblad is also weekly.

See Revue des Deux Mondes, 1st August 1861.

Spain and Portugal.—Spain owes her intellectual emancipation to the monk Benito Feyjóo, who in 1726 produced a volume of dissertations somewhat after the fasbion of the Spectator, but on graver subjects, entitled Teatro Critico, which was continued down to 1739. His Cartas Bruditas (1742-60) were also issued periodically. The earliest critical serial, the Diario de los Literatos (1737-42), kept up at the expense of Philip V., did not long sur vive court favour. Other periodicals which appeared in the 18thcentury were Mañer’s Mercurio (1738) ; the Diario Noticioso (1758- 81); El Pensador (1762-67) of Joseph Clavijo y Fajardo; El Belianis Literario (1765), satirical in character ; the Semnario Erudito (1778-91), a clumsy collection of documents ; El Correo Literario de la Europa (1781-82); El Censor (1781) ; the valuable Memorial Literario (1784-7808); El Correo Literario (1786-91), devoted to literature and science: and the special organs El Correo Mercantil (1792-98) and El Semanario de Agricultura (1797-1805). In the present century we have Variedades de Ciencias, Lileratura, y Artes (1803-5), among whose contributors have been the distin-guisbed names of Quintana, Aloratin, and Antillon ; Miscelanea de Comercio (1819) ; and Diaro general de las Ciecias Medicas. The Spanish refugees in London published Ocios de Españoles Refugiados (1823-26) and Miscelánea hispano-americana (1824-28), and at Paris Miscelánea escojida americana (1826). The Crónica científica y literaria (1817-20) was afterwards transformed into a daily newspaper. Subsequently to the extinction of El Censor (1820-23) there was nothing of any value until the Cartas Españolas (1832), since known as the Revista Española (1832-36) and as the Revista de Madrid (1838). Upon the death of Ferdinand VII. Periodicals had a new opening; in 1836 there were published sixteen journals devoted to science and art. The fashion of illustrated serials was introduced in the Semanario pintoresco Español (1836-57), notice able for its biographies and descriptions of Spanish monuments. El Panorama (1839-41) was another literary periodical with engravings. Of more recent date have been the Revista Ibérica (1861-63), conducted by Sanz del Rio; La America (1857-70), specially devoted to American subjects and edited by the brothers Asquerino ; and the Revista de Cataluña, published at Barcelona. The chief of those published at the present time are the Revista de España, the Revista Contemporánea, the Revista Europea, and the Revista de Archivos.

Apart from newspapers, there were issued at Madrid in 1867 47 periodicals, of which 10 were religious, 32 literary, 17 official, 7 satirical, &c. In 1882 the number of periodicals issued in Spain was 377-24 legal, 24 agricultural, 35 commercial, 15 army and navy 14 theatrical, 45 illustrated, 36 literature and science, 52 medical, 11 fashions, 51 education, 44 religion, 26 miscellaneous.

See G. Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature, New York, 1872; G. Hubbard, Hisloire de la littérature contemporaine en Espagne, Paris, 1876; E. Hartzen busch, Periodicos de Madrid, 1876; Lapeyre, Catalogo-tarifu de los periodicos, revistas, y ilustraciones en España, 1882.

Portugal could long boast of only one review, the Jornal Enciclopedico (1779-1806), which had many interruptions ; then came the Jornal de Coimbra (1812-20) ; the Panorama (1836-57), founded by Herculano ; the Revista Universal Lisbonense (1841-53), estab lished by Castilho ; the Instituto (1853) of Coimbra ; the Archivo Pittoresco (1867) of Lisbon; and the Jornal da Sociedade dosAmigos das Letteras. In 1868 a review called Voz Femenina, and conducted by women, was established at Lisbon.

I. F. Da Silva, Diccionario Bibl. Portuguez, IS58,

Greece.—The periodical literature of modern Greece commences G with ‘O ____, brought out at Vienna in 1811 by Anthimos Gazi and continued to 1821. A philological serial with the same title is still published. In Aegina the ___ appeared in 1831, edited by Mustoxidis ; and at Corfu, in Greek, Italian, and English, the ____ (1834). After the return of King Otho in 1833 a literary review called ___ was commenced. Le Spectateur de l’Orient, in French, pleaded the national cause before Europe for three years from 1853. A military journal was published at Athens in 1855, and two years later the archaeological periodical conducted by Pittakis and Rangavi. For many years ____ (1850-72), edited by Rangavi and Paparrigopoulos was the leading serial. Among with existing periodicals ____ deals with natural science, the ____ with agriculture, and the ____ with theology.

See A. R. Rangabé, Hist. littéraire de la Grèce Moderne, Paris, 1879; R. Nicolai, Geschichte der neugriechischen Literatur, 1876.

Russia.—The historian Müller made the first attempt to establish periodical literature in Russia in his Yejem’yesyatchniya Sotchineniya (1765-64), or "Monthly Works." In 1759 Sumarakoff founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptchelá, or "Industrious Bee," giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays. Karamsin brought out in 1802 the V’yestnik Evropi, an important review with Liberal tendencies, which is still appearing. The Conservative Russkoi V’yestnik (1808) was revived at Moscow in 1856 by Kattkoff, and is also published now. The romantic school was supported by Sin Otetchestra (1812), "Son of the Fatherland," united in 1825 to the Severnoi Arkhiv (1822), which dwindled and came to an end soon after 1839. One of the most successful Russian reviews has been the Biblioteka dl’ya Tchtenia (1834), or "Library of Read ing." The Slavophile party is represented by the Russkaya Missl, "Russian Thought," published in Moscow.

Finland has had Suomi (1841), written in Swedish.

See C. Courrière, Histoire de la littérature contemporaine en Russie, Paris, 1875, and the bibliographical works of Méjoff.

Slavonic Countries.—Bohemia has had the Casopis Ceskeho Museum (1827), founded by Palacky ; Ziva (1853), a review of natural history; and the Samatky Archeologiske.

Hungary can show the Ungrisches Magazin (1781-87, 1791), published at Pressburg, and the Magyar Muzeum (1788). The Tudományos gyüjetémény (1817-41) and the Figyelmezö (1837-43) deserve mention. Uj Magyar Muzeum was a scientific magazine, and the Budapesti Szemle (1857) of a more general character.

Before the revolution of 1830 Poland bad the Pamietnik Warszawski of Lach Szyrma. Among other reviews may be mentioned the Dziennik Literacki of Lemberg, the Biblioteka Warszawska of Warsaw, and the Przegland Polski of Cracow.

Roumania commenced with the Magasinal istorica pentru Dacia (1845), containing valuable historical documents, and Moldavia man with Dacia Literaria (1840) and Archiva Romanesca (1841).

The best literary review Servia has had was the Wila, edited by Novakovic.

See A. Bourgeault, Histoire des littératures étrangères, 1876, 3 vols.; D. Iarcu, Bibliografia chronologica romana, 1873.


UNITED STATES.

Spurred by the success of the Gentleman’s Magazine in England, Benjamin Franklin printed and published the earliest miscellany in America, under the title of the General Magazine (1741), at Philadelphia, which, owing to want of support, expired after six monthly numbers had appeared. Franklin’s rival, John Webbe, brought out in opposition the American Magazine (1741), which ran only to two numbers. Further attempts at Philadelphia in 1757 and 1769 to revive periodicals with the same name were both fruitless. The other pre-revolutionary magazines were the Boston American Magazine (1743-47), in imitation of the London Magazine; the Boston Weekly Magazine (1743) ; the Christian History (1743- 44); the New York Independent Reflector (1762-54); the New England Magazine (1758-60), a collection of fugitive pieces; the Boston Royal American Magazine (1774-75) ; and the Pennsylvania Magazine (1775-76), which, founded by R. Aitken, with the help of Thomas Paine, came to all untimely end upon the commencement of the war. The Columbian Magazine (1786-90) was continued as the Universal Asylum (1790-92). Matthew Carey brought out the Ameri can Museum in 1787, and it lasted until 1792. Five or six more magazines ran out a brief existence before the end of the, century. One of the most successful of them was the Farmer’s Museum (1793-99), supported by perhaps the most brilliant staff of writers American periodical literature had yet been able to show, and edited by Donnie w o in 1801 commenced the publication of the Tortfolio, carried on to 1827 at Philadelphia. For five years it was a weekly miscellany in quarto, and afterwards an octavo monthly ; it was the first American serial which could boast of so long an existence. The Literary Magazine (1803-8) was established at Philadelphia by C. B. Brown, who, with Donnie, may be considered as having been the first American professional man of letters. The Anthology Club was founded at Boston ill 1803 by Phineas Adams for the cultiva tion of literature and the discussion of philosophy. Ticknor, Everett, and Bigelow were among the members, and were contributors to the organ ofthe club, the Monthly Anthology (180311), the forerunner of the North American Review. In the year 1810 Thomas (Printing in America, ii. 292) informs us that 27 periodicals were issued in the United States. The first serious rival of the Portfolio was the Analectic Magazine (1813-20), founded at Philadelphia by Moses Thomas, with the literary assistance of W. Irving (for some time the editor), Paulding, and the ornithologist Wilson. In spite of a large subscription list it came to an end on account of the costly style of its production. The first southern serial was the Monthly Register (1805) of Charleston. New York possessed no periodical worthy of the city until 1824, when the Atlantic Magazine appeared, which changed its name shortly afterwards to the New York Monthly Review, and was supported by R. C. Sands and W. C. Bryant. For many years Graham’s Magazine was the leading popular miscellany ill the country, reaching at one time a circulation of about 35.000 copies. The first western periodical was the Illinois Monthly Magazine. (1830-32), published, owned, edited, and almost entirely written by James Hall, who followed with his Western Monthly Magazine (1833-36), produced in a similar manner. In 1833 the novelist C. F. Hoffman founded at New York The Knickerbocker (1833 - 60), which soon passed under the control of Timothy Flint and became extremely successful, most ofthe leading native writers of the next twenty years having been contributors. Equally popular was Putnam’s Monthly Magazine (1853-57, 1867-69). The Dial (1841-44), Boston, the organ of the transcendentalists, was first edited by Margaret Fuller, and subsequently by R. W. Emerson and G. Ripley. Among other extinct magazines may be mentioned the American Monthly Magazine (1833-38), the Southern Literary Messenger (1834), Richmond, the Gentleman’s Magazine (1837-40), and the International Magazine (1850-62), edited by R. W. Griswold. The Yale Literary Magazine dates from 1836. The Merchants’ Magazine was united in 1871 with the Commercial and Financial Chronicle. Foremost among existing magazines come Harper’s Monthly Magazine (1850) and Scribner’s Monthly (1870), now The Century, both famous for their unrivalled wood-engraving and literary excellence. Within the last few years the circulation of these two periodicals has increased to a remarkable degree both at home and abroad. Not less admirable in their way are the Atlantic Monthly (1857), Lippincott’s Magazine, and the Manhattan.

The first attempt to carry on an American review was made by Robert Walsh in 1811 at Philadelphia with the American Review of History and Politics, which lasted only a couple of years. Still more brief was the existence of the General Repository and Review (1812), brought out at Cambridge by Andrews Norton with the help of the professors of the university, but of which only four numbers appeared. Niles’s Weekly Register (1811- 48) was political, historical, and literary. The North American Review, the oldest and most prosperous if all the American reviews, dates from 1815, and was founded by William Tudor, a member of the previously. mentioned Anthology Club. After two years’ control Tudor handed over the review to the club, then styled the North American Club, whose most active members were E. T. Channing, R. H. Dana, and Jared Sparks. On his return from Europe in 1819 E. Everett became the editor; his elder brother Alexander acquired the property in 1829. The roll of the contributors to this review numbers almost every American writer of note. Since January 1879 it has been published monthly. The American Quarterly Review (1827-37), established at Philadelphia by Robert Walsh, came to an end oil his departure for Europe. The Southern Review (1828-32), conducted by H. Legaré, S. Elliott, and G. W. Simms in defence of the politics and finance of the South, enjoyed a shorter career. It was resuscitated in 1842, and lived another ten years. These two were followed by the Democratic Review (1838-52), the American Review, afterwards the American Whig Review (1845-52), the Massachusetts Quarterly Review (1847-50), and a few more. The .Arew Englander (1843), the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1825), and the National Quarterly Review (1860) are Still publisbed. The critical weeklies of the past include the New York literary Gazette (1834-35, 1839), De Bow’s Review (1846), the Literary World (1847-53), the Criterion (1855-56), the Round Table (1863-64), the Citizen (1864-73), and Appleton's Journal (1869). The leading weeklies of the day include the Nation (1865), the Literary World (1870), and the Critic (1881).

Religious periodicals have been extremely numerous in the United States during the last hundred years. The earliest was the Theological Magazine (1796-98). The Christian Examiner dates from 1824 and lasted down to 1870. The Panoplist (1805), changed to the Missionary Herald, still represents the American Board of Missions. The Methodist Magazine dates from 1818 and the Christian Disciple from 1813. The American Biblical Repository (1831-50), a quarterly, was united with the Andover Bibliotheca Sacra (1843) and with the Theological Eclectic (1865). Brownson’s Quarterly Review began as the Boston Quarterly Review in 1838, and did much to introduce to American readers the works of the modem French philosophical school. Among more recent serials of this class we may notice the Protestant Episcopal Quarterly-Review (1854), the Presbyterian Magazine (1851-60), the Catholic World (1865), the Southern Review (1867), the New Jerusalem Magazine (1827), American Baptist Magazine (1817), the Church Review (1848), the Christian Review (1836), the Universalist Quarterly (1844). Among historical periodicals may be numbered the American Register (1806-11), Stryker’s American Register (1848-51), Edwards’s American Quarterly Register (1829-43), the New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1847), Folsom’s Historical Magazine (1857), the New York Genealogical Record (1869), and the Magazine of American History (1877).

For many years the leading English periodicals have been regularly reprinted in the. United States, and many serial publications have been almost entirely made up of extracts from English sources. Perhaps the earliest example is to be found in Select Views of Literature (1811-12). The Eclectic Magazine (1844) and Littell’s Living Age (1844) are still published.

In 1817 America possessed only one scientific periodical, the Journal of Mineralogy. Professor Silliman established the journal known by his name in 1818. Since that time tbeAmerican Journal of Science has enjoyed unceasing favour. Among other special periodicals of the day may be mentioned the American Naturalist, the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, the American Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the American Journal of Philology, the American Railroad Journal, the Bankers Magazine, the Index Hedicus, and the Journal of the Franklin Institute.

The number of periodicals devoted to light literature and to female readers has been, and still remains, extremely large. The earliest in the latter class was the Lady’s Magazine (1792) of Philadelphia. The name of the Lowell Offering (1841), written chiefly by factory girls, is well known in England. Godey’s Ladies’ Book is still issued. Children’s magazines originated with the Young Misses’ Magazine (1806) of Brooklyn St Nicholas is a modern high-class representative of this kind another current example is the Child’s Paper (1852).

The following estimate of the number of periodicals now appear. ing in the United States is taken from G. P. Rowell and Co.’s American Newspaper Record (1883). Weeklies, and those published more frequently than once a week, are omitted on account of the difficulty of distinguishing them from newspapers. The numbers given are—bi-weeklies 47, semi-monthlies 176, monthlies 1034, bi-monthlies 12, quarterlies 59 ; total 1327.

See an excellent article on the subject in Ripley and Dana’s American Cyclopaedia; Cucheval Clarigny, Histoire de la presse en Angleterre et aux États Unis, 1857; H. Stevens, Catalogue of American Books in the Library of the British Museum, 1866, and American Books with Tails to ‘em, 1873; I. Thomas, History of Printing in America, Albany, 1874; J. Nichol, American Literature (1620. 1880), 1882 ; Pettengill’s Newspaper Directory for 1878; G. P. Rowell and Co.’s American Newspaper Directory, New York, 1869-88; Hubbard's Newspaper Directory of the World, New York, 1882-84. The leading perlodicals of the United 8tates are indexed in W. F. Poole’s Index, Boston, 1882, and Library Journal.


Footnotes

FOOTNOTES (page 536)

(1) Archibald Bower (1686-1766) was educated at Douai, and became a Jesuit. He subsequeiitly professed himself a convert to the Anglican Church, and published a number of works, but was more esteemed for his ability than for his moral character.

(2) The biographers of Goldsmith have made us familiar with the name of Griffiths, the prosperous publisher, with his diploma of LL. D. granted by an American university, and with the quarrels between him and the poet.


FOOTNOTE (page 538)

1 John Limbird, to whom even before Chambers or Knight is due the carrying out the idea of a cheap and good periodical for the people, died so recently as 31st October 1883, without having achieved the worldly prosperity of his two followers.


FOOTNOTE (page 539)

1 Matthew Maty, M.D., born in Holland, 1718, died principle librarian of the British Museum, 1776. He settled hi England in 1740, published several books, and wrote the preface to Gibbon’s first work, Étude de la Littérature.


FOOTNOTEs (page 540)

(1) The novelist and publicist Joseph Fiévée (1767-1839), known for his relations with Napoleon I., has been made the subject for a study by Sainte-Beuve (Causeries, v. 172).

(2) This remarkable man (1804-1877) began life as a shepherd. Educated th rough the charity of M. Naville, he came to Paris as a compositor, and by translating from the English earned sufficient to purchase the moribund Revue des Deux Mondes, which acquired its subsequent position in spite of the tyrannical editorial behaviour of the proprietor. M. Monod (Academy, 20th Jan. 1877) states that latterly Buloz enjoyed an income of 365,000 francs from the Revue.



The above article was written by: H. R. Tedder.



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