SPAIN - GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS
Spain - Geography and Statistics - Bibliography
Bibliography. The most comprehensive work on the geography of Spain is the Diccionario Geográfico-historico e Statistico de las Provincias de España of Madoz, 16 vols., 1846-50. A more summary account is contained in the Reseñas Geográfica, Geológica, y Agrícola de España, by D. Fr. Coello, &c, Madrid, 1859 ; and in Die Pyrenäische Halbinsel, by Dr Moritz "Willkomm, Leipsic, 3 vols., 1884-86. Numerous notices regarding the geography of Spain are to he found in the Boletin de la Sociedad Geografica de Madrid. See also F. Garrido, La España Contemporanea, Barcelona, 2 vols., 1865-67 (the French edition, Brussels, 1862, is comparatively meagre) ; Davillier, L'Espagne, Paris, 1873; A. J. C. Hare, Wanderings in Spain; A. Gallenga, Iberian Reminiscences, London, 1883; Webster, Spain, London, 1882; Harrison, Spain, Boston, 1882; Higgin, Commercial and Industrial Spain, London, 1886 ; together with the guide-books of Ford (Murray) and O'Shea (Black).
The botany of Spain is very fully treated in various works by Willkomm. Besides the Prodromus Florae Hispanicae, Stuttgart, 3 vols. 4to, 1861-80, the most important are Illustrationes Florae Hispaniae, Stuttgart, 1881, &c, fol., and Die Strand- und Steppengebiete der iber. Halbinsel, Leipsic, 1852, 8vo. Of another flora by Don M. Colmeiro, entitled Enumeracion de las Plantas de la Peninsula Hispano-Lusitana e Islas Baleares, one volume has been published (Madrid, 1885). It is expected to be completed in 4 vols.
There is no recent general work on the zoology of Spain.
The geology of the Iberian Peninsula is treated in a series of articles, illustrated by several maps, by D. Federico de Botella, in the above-mentioned Boletin, vol. ii., 1877. See also Macpherson, Succession Estratigrafica de los Terrenos Arcaicos de España; W. K. Sullivan, Notes on the Geology and Mineralogy of the Spanish Provinces of Santander and Madrid. The geological maps of Spain already completed are those of De Verneuil and Collomb, Paris, 1864, 2d ed. (now out of print) 1868, and De Botella y de Hornos, Madrid, 1879. A geological survey of the provinces of Spain is now in progress, and on the conclusion of the survey a map will be published in sixteen sheets on the scale of 1:400,000.
Among the more important annual or periodical official statistical publications are the Estadistica General del Comercio Exterior de España; Boletin Mensual de Estadistica Demografico-Sanitaria; Situacion de los Ferrocarriles; and Estadistica Minera de España.
The best topographical map of Spain is that of C. Vogel, in four sheets, in Stieler's Hand Atlas, on the scale of 1:1,500,000. Among other maps that may be referred to are that of D. Fr. Coello, scale 1: 1,000,000, Madrid, 1861, and the Mapa Itinerario Militar de España Formado por el Cuerpo de Estado Mayor del Ejercito en 1865, scale 1: 500,000. An excellent map, on the scale of 1: 50,000, indicating the elevations by means of contour lines at intervals of 20 metres, and by figures for particular spots (the elevations reduced to the mean level of the Mediterranean at the port of Alicante), and distinguishing cultivated and uncultivated ground, and in the former distinguishing huertas, gardens, oliveyards, vineyards, orangeries, &c, where they exceed an area of 10 hectares, is now being published by the Instituto Geografico y Estadistico de Madrid. Of this map, however, only about 20 out of 1080 sheets have as yet been issued. Among those which have already appealed is that containing Madrid. (G. G. C.)
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