STATEN ISLAND, an island of New York State, forming, with some adjacent islands, Richmond county, with a population of 38,991 in 1880, is situated about 5 miles south of New York city, from which it is separated by New York Bay, while the Narrows, commanded by Forts Wadsworth and Tompkins and a line of water-batteries, separate it from Long Island on the north-east, Staten Island Sound from New Jersey on the west, and Newark Bay and the Kill van Kull from the same State on the north. It is of an irregular triangular shape, its greatest length being about 13 miles, its greatest breadth about 8, and the total area 58 1/2 square miles. The surface is gently undulating, but a range of hills attaining 310 feet in height extends across the northern portion. Iron ore is found. The island contains many detached villa residences of persons in business in New York. On an artificial island off the east shore is the New York quarantine establishment, and Staten Island is the seat of the "Sailors' Snug Harbour," a retreat for superannuated seamen. Steam ferries ply half-hourly to New York, and on the island there is a railway line from Tompkinsville to Tottenville.