1902 Encyclopedia > Tennis

Tennis




TENNIS. This, the oldest perhaps, of all existing ball-games, is at once the most difficult to learn, on account of the intricacy of its laws, and the most interesting when learnt, because of the great variety of its combinations and the difficulty of solving rapidly the problems which constantly presented to the player. It derives an additional claim to attention from numberless historical associations. Of the origin of tennis it is not possible to speak with certainly; but it may be confidently assumed that it sprang from some very simple sport. It first appeared in Europe in the Middle Ages, when we find it played in open courts, in the parks or ditches of the feudal castles of France and Italy. It was at first the pastime of kings and nobles, but afterwards became popular will all classes. The French seem to have borrowed it from the Italians, and to have contributed some of its refinements; and the English took it from the French. Though mentioned in the Arthurian romances, the game was certainly not known in England in the time of Arthur. The name tennis is supposed to be derived from the exclamation "Tenez!" employed by early French players in serving the ball. In Italy the game is called "giuoco della palla"; in France, ‘jeu de paume," which also means the tennis court; generic title of "Ballspiel"; in Spain, "juego al bie" or "jugar al ble." It is clear from the French name that the ball was originally struck with the palm of the hand. This was afterwards protected by a glove, as is still the practice in the Basque country. Upon the glove strings and cross-strings were next stretched, to give a faster impulse; and the addition of a short handle made an easy transition to the racket. In the time of Henry VII. the hand still sometimes met the racket, even in the royal court at Windsor.

One of the first improvements in the game consisted in the building of closed courts, first with walls, then with walls and roof. It is still played in the open air in some palces in France, and "Pallone," a rude and violent variety of the game, is yet seen in Italy. There are twenty-seven courts in England and one in Dublin.

As now played, tennis in France is virtually the same as in England, though there are a few differences of detail. The court is rectangular (see the annexed plan). An inner wall runs round three sides, to the height of 7 feet, from which a sloping root, called the penthouse, reached to the outer wall. The surrounding passage thus enclosed (not shown in plan) is 7 feet wide. Opposite to the long penthouse is the main wall, in which there is at one point a projection called the tambour, E, which deflects the ball across the court. In the inner wall, below the penthouse, there are several openings, the one at the end , on the service side, being called the dedans, B, the others the galleries. At the further end of the court is the grille, a square opening adjacent to the main wall. Across the court, halfway between the two ends, is stretched a net n, 3 feet high in the middle and 5 feet at the sides. The game may be played by two, or by the three, or by four players, one against one, one against two, or two against two. At the commencement the players toss or "spin" a racket, to decide which shall serve first, calling "rough" (for the knotted side) or "smooth." The partly which wins the "spin" has the choice of the service or the "first stroke," the latter term meaning the return of the service. The server then begins at the "dedans" end of the court, technically called the "service side," pitches the ball in the air, and strikes it with his racket so that it shall drop on the side penthouse or on the wall above it, and then from the penthouse upon the floor on the other side of the net (called the "hazard side"), within the "service court" bounded by the "service line" x and called or a "pass" if the ball has gone beyond the pass line. If he serves a second fault, his adversary scores a point, called a "stroke." A pass counts for nothing, but annuls a previous fault. (FOOTNOTE 179-1) It now becomes the duty of the adversary, called the "strike-out," to return the ball by striking it with his racket in such a manner that it shall pass back over the net to the service side. The server must now strike it again and return it to the hazard side; and the player who first returns the ball into the net of "out of court" (i.e., to the roof, or above the play line on the walls) loses the stroke, which is scored to his antagonist. But, if a player fail or refuse to strike the ball in the air (a "volley") or on its first bound and before it touches the floor a second time, then, except on the hazard side beyond the service line, a "chase" is made or reckoned on the floor, according to the lines on or between which the ball has dropped the second time. This chase is a stroke in abeyance. When one has been made it is called by the marker, but does not affect the score until one of the players has scored 40, when they change sides, and the player who has allowed the chase to be made must then endeavour to win it, i.e., to place the second bound of the ball returned by him better, i.e., nearer to the end wall, than the point at which the clause was marked. As often as his adversary returns his stoke, he must again endeavour to do this, until he succeeds or fails. If he succeed, he scores the stoke; if not, it is scored to his adversary. If two chases have been made at any stage of the score, even at the beginning of a game, then the players must change sides and play for the chases, as above described. A player who succeeds in sending the ball into the grille, the dedans, or the last division of the gallery -- called the "winning gallery" -- on the hazard side, scores at all times a stroke. The minutiae of the game and the mode of scoring cannot be more succinctly described than in the annexed laws. (FOOTNOTE 180-1)


LAWS.

Single-Handed Game .

1. The balls shall be not less than 2 _ in. and not more than 2 5/8 in. in diameter, and shall be not less than 2 _ oz. and not more than 2 _ oz. in weight.

Note. – There is not restriction as the shape or size of the rackets.

2. (a) The choice of sides at the beginning of the first set is determined by a spin.

(b) In subsequent sets of a series, the players shall begin each set on the side on which they finished the set before it.

3. The ball served must be struck with the racket, and may be delivered from any part of the service side.

4.The ball served must touch the service penthouse before touching any other part of the court, except the rest of the side court or on one of the lines which bound it.

5. The service is good,

(a) if the ball served touch in its descent any part of the service penthouse so as to rise again from it, or

(b) if the ball served strike the service wall and afterwards touch in its descent any part of the service penthouse, even though it do not rise again from it, or

(c) if the ball served drop in the winning gallery.

6. A fault may not be returned.

7. A pass may not be returned; but a ball served, which has not gone across the pass line on the penthouse, may be volleyed, although if untouched it might have dropped in the pass court. If a pass touch the striker-out, or if a service before it has dropped touch him when standing with both feet in the pass court, and not having attempted to strike the ball, it is still counted a pass.

8. A pass annuls a previous fault.

9. If the striker-out declare himself not ready for a service, and have made no attempt to return it, that service is counted for nothing, though it be a fault. It annuls a previous fault. The striker-out, having been asked if he is ready, and having declared himself ready, may not similarly refuse a second service.

10. The service continues to serve until two chases be made, or one chose when the score of either player is at forty or advantage (see law 25). The players then change sides, the server becoming striker-out and the striker-out becoming server.

11. The return is good if the ball in play be struck with the racket so that is pass the net without touching a gallery post or anything fixed or lying in an opening on the side from which it is struck, and without going out of court.

12. The return is not good,

(a) if not accordance with the terms of law 11, or

(b) if the balk be struck more than once, or be not definitely struck, or

(c) if the ball in play, having passed the net, come back and drop on the side from which it was struck, unless it should have touched a gallery post or anything fixed or lying in an opening on that side of the court which is opposite to the striker.

13. A ball which is no longer in play may not be returned.

14. The server wins a stroke (except as provided in law 9),

(a) if a good service enter the winning gallery or the grille, or

(b) if the striker-out fail to return a good service (except when it makes a chase; see laws 17-19), or

(c) if the striker-out fail to return the ball in play (except when it makes a chase; see law 17-19), or

(d) if he himself return the ball in play so that it enter the winning gallery or grille, or fall on or beyond the service line, or

(e) if the serve or return the ball in play so that it drop or fall upon a ball or other object which is on or beyond the service line, or

(f) if he win a chase (see law 20), or

(g) if the striker-out lose a stroke (see law 16).

15. The striker-out wins a stroke (except as provided in law 9),

(a) if the server serve two consecutive faults (except as provided in law 31 (b), or

(b) if the server fail to return the ball in play (except when it makes a chase: see law 17-19), or

(c) if he himself return the ball in play so that it enter the dedans, or

(d) if he win a chase, or

(e) if the server lose a stroke (see law 16).

16. Either player losses a stroke,

(a) if he lose a chase (see law 21),

(b) if the ball in play (except as provided in law 7) touch him or anything which he wears or carries, except his racket in the act of returning the ball, or

(c) if he touch or strike the ball in play with his racket more than once, or do not definitely strike it.

17. When a ball in play on either side of the net, not being that on which the striker is standing,

(a) falls on any part of the floor, except on or beyond the service line, or

(b) enters any gallery, except the winning gallery, or

(c) touches a gallery post, it is marked a chase

(i)at that line on the floor on which it fell, or

(ii) better or worse than that line on the floor which is nearest to the point at which it fell, or

(iii) at that gallery the post of which it touched, except as provided in law 18 and 19.

Note (a). – A ball in play which touches the net post and drops on the side opposite to the striker is marked a chase at the line on the side on which it drops.

Note (b). – A ball in play which enters a gallery is marked a chase at that gallery which it enters, notwithstanding that it may have touched an adjacent gallery post without touching the floor in the interim.

Note (c). – The gallery lines on the floor correspond and are equivalent to the galleries of which they bear the names.

18. When a ball in play

(a) drops or falls in the net, on the side opposite to the striker, or

(b) drops on the floor, on the side opposite to the striker, and bounding over the net, falls on that side of it from which it was struck, whether it touch the net in its bound or not, it marked a chase at the line on the side opposite to the striker.

19. When a ball in play drops or falls upon a ball or other object which is on the floor (except when it is on or beyond the service line; see law 14 (e)), it is marked a chase at the point at which that ball or other object was when the ball in play dropped or fell upon it.





20. Either player wins a chase,

(a) if he serve or return the ball so that it either a winning opening, or

(b) if he serve return the ball so that it fall better than the chase for which he played, or enter a gallery or touch a gallery post better than the gallery or the gallery line a6t which the chase was for which he played, or

(c) if he serve or return the ball so that it drop or fall upon a ball or other object which is at a point on the floor better than that at which, or at the gallery corresponding to which, the chase was for which he played, or

(d) id his antagonist fail to return the ball in play, except, when it falls worse than the chase in question.

21. either player loses a chase,

(a) if he fail to return the ball in play, except when it falls worse than the chase in question, or

(b) id he return the ball in play so that it fall worse than the chase, or enter a gallery or touch a gallery post worse than the gallery or the gallery line at which the chase was for which he played, or

(c) if he return the ball in play so that it drop or fall upon a ball or other object which is at a point on the floor worse than that at which the chase was for which he played.

22. When a ball in play

(a) falls at a point on the floor neither better nor worse than that at which, or at the gallery corresponding to which, the chase was for which the striker played, or

(b) enters that gallery or the gallery corresponding to that gallery line, or touches the post of that gallery, falls on the chase was for which the striker played, or

(c) drops or falls upon a ball or other object which is at a point on the floor neither better nor worse than that at which, or at the gallery corresponding to which, the chase was for which the striker played, it is marked chase-off: it is not scored as a stroke won by either player; the chase is annulled, and the striker has not to play for it again.

23. As soon as two chases are marked, or one chase when the score of either player is at forty or advantage (see law 25), the players change side. The player who made the first chase now defends it, while the other plays to win it; and so with the second chase, except when only one has been marked.

24. If by an error three chases have been marked, or two chases when the score of wither player is at forty or advantage (see law 25), the last chase in each case is annulled.

25. On either player winning his first stroke, the score is called fifteen for that player; on either player winning his second strike, the score is called thirty for that player; or either player winning his third stroke, the score is called forty for that player; and the fourth stroke won by either player is scored game for that player, except as below.

If both players have won three strokes, the score is called deuce, and the next stroke won by either player is scored advantage for that player. If the same player win the following stroke, he wins the game; if he lose the following stroke, the score is again called deuce; and so on, until either player win the two strokes immediately following the score of deuce, when the game is scored for that player.

26. The player who first wins six games wins a set, except as below.

If both players win five games, the score is called games all, and the next game won by either player is scored advantage game for that player. If the same player win the following game, he wins the set; if he lose the following game, the score is again called games all; and so on, until either player win the two games immediately following the score of games all, when he wins the set.

Note. -- Players often agree not to play advantage sets, but to decide the set by one game after arriving at the score of games all.

27. Every chase is marked, and every stroke, by the marker, who is entitled to consult the dedans when he is in doubt. A player who is dissatisfied with the marker’s decision is entitled to appeal to the dedans. A majority of the dedans confirms or reverse the marker’s decision. An appeal must be made before a recommencement of play.

Note. -- The dedans should not give a decision unasked on a question of marking a chase or stroke, but may, and should, correct inaccurate scoring of chases, strokes, games, or sets.


Three-Handed and Four-Handed Games, sometimes called Double Games.

28. The partners serve and strike-out in alternate games, unless it shall have been previously agreed to the contrary.

Note. -- It is usually, but not always, agreed that the striker-out may leave to his partner such services as pass him.

The former laws apply to these as well as to single games, and advantages and disadvantages attaching to a single player under the former laws here attaching to a pair of players.


Odds

29.(a). A bisque or a half-bisque may not be taken after the service has been delivered.

(b) The server may not take a bisque after a fault; but the striker-out may do so.

Note. -- A bisque is a stroke which may be claimed by the recipient of odds at any time during a set, subject to the provisions of laws and 30.

30. A player who wishes to take a bisque or a half-bisque, there being a chase or two chases marked, may take it either before or after changing sides; but he may not, after changing sides, go back to take it.

31. (a) When the odds of round services are given, the ball served by the giver of the odds must touch the grille penthouse after touching the service penthouse and before dropping in the service court or on one of the lines which bound it.

(b) Neither faults nor failure in complying with the above condition are counted against the giver of the odds; but the recipient of the odds may decline to return such services as do not touch both the penthouse; if, however, he attempt and fail to return any such services, it is counted against him.

32. Half-court: the players having agreed into which half-court on each side of the net the giver of the odds shall play, the latter loses a stroke if the ball returned by him drop in either of the other half-courts.

But a ball returned by the giver of the odds which

(a) drops on the half-court line,

(b) drops inn his half-court and touches the dedans post before falling, or

(c) drops in his half-court and falls in the dedans, even though on the other side of the dedans post, or

(d) touches the dedans post before dropping is counted for the giver of the odds.

And a return boated against any wall by the giver of the odds which

(e) drops in his half-court, or

(f) drops on the half-court line, or

(g) touches the dedans post before dropping, or

(h) touches any penthouse, battery, or wall before dropping in his half-court line, or touching the dedans post, is also counted for the giver of the odds.

Note. -- It is, or course, evident that the giver of these odds may make a chase, or win a chase or a stroke, with a ball which drops in his half-court, or on the half-court line, but falls in the other half-court.

33. When the odds of ‘touch no walls" or "touch no side walls" are given, a ball returned by the giver of the odds which on falling makes a nick is counted for the striker.


Directions to the Marker

It is the duty of the marker

To call the fruits, and the passes;

To call the strokes, when won, or when he is asked to do so;

To call the games and sets at the end of each, or when asked to do so;

To mark the chases, when made;

To call the chases when there are two in the order in which they were made, or the chase when there is one with the score at forty or advantage; and then

To direct the players to change sides;

To call the chase or chases again, in order as above, when the players have changed sides, and each chase as a player has to play for it;

Not to call play or not play in doubtful cases before the conclusion of the rest unless asked to do so;

To decide all doubtful and disputed stroked, subject to an appeal to the dedans;

To warn the players of any balls lying on the floor in their way, or to their danger or disadvantages, and to remove all such balls;

To collect the balls into the ball-basket; and

To keep the ball-troughs constantly replenished in the dedans and last gallery, and the latter especially in three-handed and four-handed games. (J.MA*.)



TENNIS, LAWN. Lawn-tennis is a modern adaptation of the first principles of tennis, in the simplest form, to a ball-game played on grass with rackets. The balls are of India-rubber, hollow, and covered with white cloth. The rackets are lighter and broader than those used at tennis. The court for the single-handed game, one player against one, is shown in fig. 1, that for the three or four-handed games in fig. 2. The dimensions of the courts, the size and weight of the balls, the mode of scoring, and other details are given in the laws of the game (see below). The only requisites for the game are the balls, rackets, net and posts, and a hard level surface of grass. It may be and often is, played upon surfaces of wood, asphalt, cement, gravel, or other substance. The grass requires constant mowing, rolling, and in dry weather watering to keep it in order. In the winter months it should be sedulously weeded, sown where necessary, and swept and rolled whenever the weather permits.

The choice of sides depends upon a toss or spin of a racket, as in tennis. The winner chooses the service or the preferable side, as he pleases. The server begins the game by striking the ball with his racket so that it passes (without touching) over the net, which is hung across the court from the posts A,A. The ball served must drop in the space which is diagonally opposite to him on the other side line, the half-court, and the service line, His adversary, called the "striker-out," must return the ball before it touches the ground a second time; and the server must similarly return it again; and so on, until one or other player fails to return it over the net so that it shall drop on the ground anywhere on the side of the net furthest from him, and within or upon any of the lines which bound that space, technically called his adversary’s court. When one player thus fails, he losses a stroke, which the other is deemed to win, and it is added to the score of the latter. The score is kept as at tennis, but there are no chases.

Activity and condition have great value in lawn-tennis, though there is room for much skill in placing the ball in the corners with hard, low strokes, and in intercepting and returning the ball by the volley while in the air, before it reaches the ground. But in matches temper, endurance, and quickness of movement count for very much.

Lawn-tennis, in one from or another, has been played for many centuries out-of-doors. The present variety of the game was first introduced, in from which was soon shown to be impracticable, about the year 1874. It was then taken up by the All England Club at Wimbledon, who in 1877 remodeled the size and shape of the court, and the laws, and altered the system of scoring to that which obtains in the parent game. Thereupon, with the consent of the M.C.C. at Lord’s, who lent the authority of their name to the movement, the code of laws which now prevails, and has been occasionally amended only in a few details, was promulgated by the All England Club. The championship of the game, which is open to gentlemen amateurs only, was instituted at Wimbledon by the A.E.C. in 1877l. A lady’s championship and a championship for pairs (gentlemen) have also been instituted, and are annually completed for on the grounds of the A.E.C. at Wimbledon. Lawn-tennis, in the short time which has elapsed since its introduction, has achieved immense popularity. Prize-meeting are held annually at Bath, Cheltenham, Dublin, Edinburgh, Manchester, Liverpool, and many other places in the United Kingdom; the game is also played with as great enthusiasm in the United States, Canada, Australia, and India. In all those countries prize-meetings are held and championships are instituted.


LAWS (FOOTNOTE 182-1)

Single-Handed Game.

1. For the single-handed game the court is 27 feet in width and 78 feet in length. It is divided across the middle by a net, the ends of which are attached to the tops of two posts A. and A (see fig. 1), which stand 3 feet outside the court on each side. The height of the net is 3 feet 6 inches at the posts and 3 feet at the centre. At each end of the court, parallel to the net, and at a distance of 39 feet from it, are drawn the base lines CD and EF, the extremities of which are connected by the side lines CE and DF. Half-way between the side lines and parallel to them, is drawn the half0court line GH, dividing the space one ach side of the net into two equal parts, called the right and left courts. On each side of the net, at a distance of 21 feet from it, and parallel to it, are drawn the service lines XX and YY.

2. The balls shall be not less than 2 1/2 inches nor more than 2 9/16 inches in diameter, and not less than 1 7/8 oz. nor more than 2 oz. in weight.

3. In matches where umpires are appointed their decision shall be final; but where a referee is appointed an appeal shall lie to him from the decision of an umpire on a question of law.

4. The choice of sides and the right of serving during the first game shall be decided by toss, provided that, of the winner of the toss choose the right to serve the other palyer shall have the choice of sides, and vice versa.





5. The players shall stand on opposite sides of the net. The player who first delivers the ball shall be called the server, the other the striker-out.

6. At the end of the first game the striker-out shall become server and the server shall become striker-out; and so on alternatively in the subsequent games of the set.

7. The server shall stand with one foot beyond (i.e., further from the net than ) the base line, and with the other foot upon the base line, and shall deliver the service form the right and left courts alternatively, beginning from the right.

8. The ball served must drop within the service line, half-court line, and side line of the court which is diagonally opposite to that from which it was served, or upon any such line.

9. It is a fault if the service be delivered from the wrong court, of id the server do not stand as directed in law 7, of id the ball served drop in the net or beyond the service line, or id it drop out of court or in the wrong court; it is not a fault if the server’s foot which is beyond the base line do not touch the ground at the moment at which the service is delivered.

10. A fault may not be taken.

11. After a fault, the server shall serve again from the same court from which he served the fault, unless it was a fault because served from the wrong court.

12. A fault may not be claimed after the next service has been delivered.

13. The service may not be volleyed, i.e., taken before it touches the ground.

14. The server shall not serve until the striker-out is ready. If the Katter attempts to return the service, he shall be deemed to be ready.

15. A ball is in play from the moment at which it is delivered in service (unless a fault) until it has been volleyed by the striker-out in his first stroke, or has dropped in the net or out of court, or has touched either of the players or anything that he wears or carries, except his racket in the act of striking, or has been struck by either of the players with his racket more than once consecutively, or has been volleyed before it has passed over the net or has failed to pass over the net before its first bound (except as provided in law 17), or has touched the ground twice consecutively on either side of the net, though the second time may have been out of court.

16. It is a let if the ball served touch the net, provided the service be otherwise good, or id a service or fault be delivered when the striker-out is not ready, or if either player be prevented by an accident beyond his control from counts for nothing, and the server shall serve again.

17. It is a good return although the ball touch the net, or, having passed outside either post, drop on or within any of the lines which bound the court into which it is returned.

18. The server wins a stroke if the striker-out volley the service, or fall to return the service or the ball in play (except in the case of a let), or return the service or ball in paly so that it drop outside any of the lines which bound his opponent’s court, or otherwise lose a stroke, as provided by law 20.

19. The striker-out wins a stroke if the server serve two consecutive faults, or fall to return the ball in play (except in the case of a let), or return the ball in play so that it drop outside any of the lines which bound his opponent’s court, or otherwise lose a stroke, as provided by law 20.

20. Either player losses a stroke if the ball in play touch him or anything that he wears or carries, except his racket in the act of striking, or if he touch or strike the ball in play with his racket more than once consecutively or if he touch the net or any of its supports while the ball is in play, or if he volley the ball before it has passed the net.

21. On either player winning his first stroke , the score is called 15 for that player; on either player winning his second stroke, the score is called 30 for that player; on either player winning his third stroke, the score is called 40 for that player; and the fourth stroke won by either player is scored gamed for that player, except as below.

If both players have won three strokes, the score is called deuce; and the next stroke won by either player is scored advantage for that player. If the same player win the next stroke, he wins the game; if he lose the next stroke, the score is again called deuce; and so on until either player win the two strokes, immediately following the score of deuce, when the game is scored for that player.

22. The player who first wins six games wins a set, except as below.

If both players win five games, the score is called games all; and the next game won by either player is scored advantage game for that player. If the same player win the enxt game be wins the set; if he lose the next game, the score is again called games all; and so on until either player win the two games immediately following the score of games all, when he wins the set.

Note. -- Players may agree not to play advantage sets, but to decide the set by one game after arriving at the score of games all.

23. The players shall change sides at the end of every set; but the umpire, on appeal from either partly before the toss for choice, may direct the players to change sides at the end of every game if in his opinion either side have a distinct advantage, owing to the sun, wind, or any other accidental cause; but, if the appeal he made after a match has been begun, the umpire may only direct the players to change sides at the end of every game of the odd and concluding set.

24. When a series of sets is played, the player who was server in the last game of one set shall be striker-out in the first game of the next.


Odds.

25. A bisque is one stroke, which may be claimed by the receiver of the odds atany time during a set, except as below.

A bisque may not taken after the service has been delivered.

The server may not take a bisque after a fault; but the striker-out may do so,

26. One or more bisques may be given in augmentation or diminution of other odds.

27. Half-fifteen is one stroke given at the beginning of the second and every subsequent alternate game of a set.

28. Fifteen is one stroke given at the beginning of every game of a set.

29. Half-thirty is one stoke given at the beginning of the first game, two strokes at the beginning of the second game; and so on, alternatively in all the subsequent games of a set.

30. Thirty is two strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.

31. Half-forty is two strokes given at the beginning of the first-game, there strokes at the beginning of the second game; and so on, alternatively, in all the subsequent games of a set.

32. Forty is three strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.

33. Half-court: the players having agreed into which court the giver of the odds shall play, the latter loses a stroke if the ball, returned by him, drop outside any of the lines which bound that court.


Three-Handed and Four-Handed Games.

34. The above laws shall apply to the three-handed and four-handed games, except as below.

35. For the three-handed and four-handed games the court is 36 feet in width. Within the side lines, at a distance of 4 1/2 feet from them, and parallel to them, are drawn the service side lines IK and LM. The service lines are not drawn beyond the points, I, L. K. and M, towards the side lines. In other respects, the court is similar to that which is described in law 1.

36. In the three-handed game the single player shall serve in every alternate game.

37. In the four-handed game, the pair who have the right to serve in the first game may decide which partner shall do so, and the opposing pair may decide similarity for the second game. The partner of the player who served in the first game shall serve in the third; and the partner of the player who served in the second game shall serve in the fourth; and so on in the same order in all the subsequent games of a set.

38. The player shall take the service alternatively throughout each game. No palyer shall receive or return a service delivered to his partner. The order or service and of striking-out once arranged shall not be altered, nor shall the strikers-out- change courts to receive the service, before the end of the set.

39. The ball served must drop within the service line, half-court line, and service side line of the court which is diagonally opposite to that from which it was served, or upon any each line.

40. It is a fault if the ball served do not as provided in law 39, or if it touch the server’s partner or anything that he wears or carries.

41. If a player serve out of his turn, the umpire, as soon as the mistake is discovered by himself or by one of the players, shall direct the player to serve who ought to have served; but all strokes scored and any fault served before such discovery shall be reckoned. If a game shall have been completed before such discovery, then the service in the next alternate game shall be delivered by the partner of the player who served out of his turn; and so on in regular rotation. (J. MA*.)


Footnotes

(179-1)In the Manchester Club this law (8) has been wisely abolished.

(180-1) Reprinted from the present writer’s Annals of Tennis, 1878, by the kind consent of the publisher Mr. H. Cox.

(182-1) Printed by permission of the All England Lawn-Tennis Club.



The above article was written by Julian Marshall; author of The Annals of Tennis.




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