YORK, a northern county of England, is bounded E. by the North Sea, N. by Durham (the boundary line being formed by the Tees), S. by Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, and Chester, and W. by Lancaster and Westmorland. It is much the largest county in England, being more than double the size of Lincolnshire, which ranks next to it. The area is 3,882,851 acres, or nearly 6067 square miles, almost one-eighth of the surface of England. Of the total area 750,828 acres or about 1173 square miles are in the East Riding, 1,361,664 acres or about 2127J square miles in the North Riding, and 1,768,380 acres or about 2763 square miles in the West Riding. The city of York, which forms an administrative division separate from the Ridings, embraces an area of 1979 acres or about 3 square miles. Geology. The marked differences in the geological structure of Yorkshire are reflected in the great variety of its scenery. The stratification is for the most part regular, but owing to a great line of dislocation nearly coincident with the western boundary of the county the rocks dip towards the east, while the strike of the strata is from north to south. The bold and picturesque scenery of the western hills and dales is due to the effects of denudation among the harder rocks, which here come to the surface. A portion of the Pennine chain, stretching from Derbyshire to the Cheviots, runs north and south through Yorkshire, where it has an average breadth of about 30 miles. The strata here consist of (1) Silurian beds, occupying a small area in the north-west corner of the county; (2) the Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone, which has been subjected to great dislocations, the more important of which are known as the North and South Craven faults; (3) the Yoredale series, consisting of shales, flagstones, limestone, and thin seams-of coal; and (4) the Millstone Grit, forming part of the hilly moorlands, and capping many of the loftier eminences. In the West Riding the Pennine range forms part of the elevated country of Craven and Dent, with Whernside (2384 feet), Ingleborough (2361), and Penyghent (2270). Towards the east it gradually declines into a series of moorland hills. Mickle Fell in the north-west corner of the county rises to a height of 2581 feet. The scenery in the western part of the North Riding is somewhat similar to that in Craven, except that the lower hills are of sharper outline owing to the perpendicular limestone scars. To-the intermingling of the limestone with the softer rocks-are due the numerous "forces" or waterfalls, which are one of the special features of the scenery of this district,, the more remarkable being High Force in Teesdale and Aysgarth Force in Wensleydale. The action of water on the limestone rocks has given rise to extensive caverns, of which the best examples are those of Clapham and Ingle-ton in the West Riding, as well as to subterranean water-courses. At Brimham, Plumpton, and elsewhere there are curious fantastic masses of rock due to irregular weathering of the Millstone Grit. The Pennine region is bounded on the south-east by the Coal Measures, forming the northern-portion of the Derbyshire, Nottingham,, and Yorkshire-coalfield, which in Yorkshire extends from Sheffield north-wards to Leeds. To the east the Measures dip beneath the Permian beds, of which a narrow band crops up from Masham southwards. The Permian strata are overlain to the east by the Trias or New Bed Sandstone, which is scarcely ever exposed, but having been partly worn away is covered with Glacial deposits of clay and gravel, forming the low-lying Vale of York, extending from the Tees south to Tadcaster and east beyond York to Market Weighton. Farther east the Triassic beds are overlain by Lias and Oolite. The Lias crops to the surface in a curve extending from Bedcar to the Humber. In the Middle Lias there is a seam of valuable iron ore, the source of the prosperity of the Cleveland region. The moorlands extending from Scarborough and Whitby are formed of Liassic strata topped with beds of Lower Oolite, rising gradually to the north-east and attaining at Burton Head a height of 14891 feet, the greatest elevation of the Oolite formation in England. In the bottom bed there is a seam of ironstone, an immense nugget of which, in Bosedale, now nearly all removed, formed at one time a conspicuous cliff. In this district there are a number of picturesque eminences capped by Lower Oolites, and among the eastern slopes of the moorlands there are several charming and fertile valleys. Along the line of the Lower Oolites there is a series of low flat hills, which slope southwards under the clays of the Vale of Pickering. These clays are covered by the Chalk, forming the district of the Wolds, which again dips southwards below the clays and sands of Holderness.
The coast is not deeply indented at any part, the inlets Coast, scarcely deserving the name of bays. Except in the Holderness region, the shore as far north as Saltburn is bold and rocky, and presents a great variety of picturesque cliff scenery, while below the cliffs there are in many cases long stretches of beautiful sands.
Rivers. Yorkshire is famed for the beauty of its river scenery, in which respect it is scarcely surpassed by Scotland. The great majority of the rivers issue from the higher western regions and flow eastwards. The Tees, which rises on the south-east borders of Cumberland, forms throughout almost its entire length the boundary between Yorkshire and Dur-ham. The Swale rises on the confines of Westmorland, and after a semicircular course by Richmond joins the Ure a few miles below Boroughbridge. This latter river flows in a similar direction some miles south of the Swale through the beautiful Wensleydale, and then past Jervaulx Abbey, Masham, and Ripon. After its junction with the Swale it takes the name of the Ouse, and on being joined by the Nidd passes by York and Selby, beyond which it receives the Aire and the Trent, and finally it falls into the Humber. The Wharfe flows south-eastwards from the Pennine range past Bolton Abbey, Otley, Wetherby, and Tadcaster to the Ouse near Cawood. The Aire rises in full stream from the foot of Malham Cove in Craven, and, flowing past Skipton, Keighley, and Leeds, receives the Calder at Castleford, and falls into the Ouse near Goole. The Ribble flows southwards through the district of Craven into Lancashire. The Don rises in the Penistone moors, and flowing northwards by Sheffield and Doncaster falls into the Ouse near Goole. The Hull flows southwards through the East Riding to the Humber at Hull.
Lakes. The county is almost destitute of lakes, the only sheets of water of size sufficient to lay claim to that title being Semmer Water at the upper end of Wensleydale, Malham Tarn at the head of Airedale, and Hornsea Mere near the sea-coast at Hornsea.
Minerals. One of the chief sources of the mineral wealth of Yorkshire is the coalfield in the West Riding, the most valuable seams being the Silkstone, which is bituminous and of the very highest reputation as a house coal, and the Barnsley thick coal, the great seam of the Yorkshire coalfield, which is of special value, on account of its semi-anthracitic quality, for use in iron-smelting and in engine furnaces. The average yearly production of the Yorkshire coalfield is nearly twenty million tons, the number of persons employed above and below ground at the coal-pits being over 60,000. Associated with the Upper Coal Measures there is a valuable iron ore, occurring in the form of nodules. Large quantities of fire-clay are also raised, as well as of gannister and oil-shale. In the Middle Lias of the Cleve-land district there is a remarkable bed of iron ore, of which the annual production is over six million tons, the greater proportion of the ore being converted into pig-iron in Middlesbrough, by far the most important centre of pig-iron manufacture in the kingdom. Altogether the pro-duction of pig-iron in Yorkshire is nearly one-third of that produced in England, and nine-tenths of the produce of Yorkshire belongs to the Cleveland district. Lead ore is obtained in the Yoredale beds of the Pennine range in Wharfedale, Airedale, Niddesdale, Swaledale, Arkendale, and Wensleydale. Slates and flagstones are quarried in the Yoredale rocks. In the Millstone Grit there are several beds of good building stone, but that most largely quarried is the Magnesian Limestone of the Permian series, which, however, is of somewhat variable quality.
Mineral Springs. Yorkshire is noted for the number of its mineral springs, chiefly sulphureous and chalybeate, the principal, besides those at Harrogate, being Askern, Aldfield, Boston Spa, Croft, Filey, Guisbrough, Hovingham, and Scarborough.
Agriculture. The hilly country in the west of Yorkshire, embracing the north-western corner of the North Riding and a great part of the West Riding, is chiefly pasture land, sheep being grazed on the higher grounds and cattle on the rich pastures where the limestone rock prevails. The Vale of York, with an area of about 1000 square miles, includes much fertile land occupied by all kinds of crops. The Chalk downs by careful cultivation now form one of the best soils for corn crops, the rotation being grasses, wheat, turnips, and barley. The till or boulder clay of Holderness is the richest soil in Yorkshire. A great part of the land in this district has been reclaimed from the sea, from 20,000 to 30,000 acres being protected by embankments. The Vale of Cleveland in the North Riding is well cultivated, the higher grounds in the district being chiefly pastoral. The smallest proportional area under cultivation is in the North Riding, 860,820 acres out of 1,361,664 in 1887, while in the East Riding there were 666,291 acres out of 804,798, and in the West Riding 1,210,639 acres out of 1,716,389. The proportion of permanent pasture is largest in the West Riding, 803,514 acres or about two-thirds of the area under cultivation, while in the North Riding it was 488,958 acres or rather more than one-half, and in the East Riding only 191,519 acres or considerably less than a third. On the other hand, the area under corn crops in the West Riding was 208,890 acres, in the North Riding 197,846 acres, and in the East Riding 254,162 acrea Wheat in 1887 occupied 66,341 acres in the East Riding, 38,437 in the North, and 58,659 in the West; barley 64,042 in the East, 61,367 in the North, and 54,592 in the West; and oats 101,410 in the East, 85,554 in the North, and 81,314 in the West. Rye, beans, and pease occupied comparatively small areas. Liquorice is grown in the neighbourhood of Pontefract. Flax is still grown, but occupies a comparatively small area, only 868 acres in 1887. Green crops in the East Riding occupied 110,806 acres (potatoes 12,956, turnips 75,590, mangold 5297, carrots 613, cabbage, &c, 7419, and vetches, &c, 8931), in the North Riding 78,689 (potatoes 11,246, turnips 58,121, mangold 2379, carrots 110, cabbage, &c, 3329, and vetches, &c, 3504), and in the West Riding 99,596 (potatoes 23,044, turnips 62,079, mangold 3331, carrots 250, cab-bage, &c, 2219, and vetches, &c, 8673). Clover and rotation grasses occupied in the East, North, and West Ridings 92,982, 71,846, and 85,075 acres respectively, and fallow land 16,388, 23,460, and 13,141 acres respectively. - The areas under orchards in 1887 werein the East Riding 849 acres, in the North 1015, and in the West 1694, the areas under market gardens being 520, 369, and 2652 acres, under nursery grounds 104, 154, and 807 acres, and underwoods (in 1881) 14,480, 49,106, and 66,014 acres respectively. Horses numbered 38,046 (23,508 used for agriculture, 14,538 un-broken horses and mares kept solely for breeding) in the East Rid-ing, 40,384 (26,026 used for agriculture) in the North Riding, and 53,149 (35,180 used for agriculture) in the West Riding. These horses are only such as are returned by occupiers of land, and do not include the large number used for commercial purposes. The draught horses are generally of a somewhat mixed breed, but the county is famed for its breeds of hunters and of carriage and saddle horses. A breed known as Cleveland bays is much used in London carriages. Horse-racing is a favourite Yorkshire sport, the principal stables being at Malton, Beverley, Doncaster, and Middleham. Cattle in 1887 numbered 86,169 (26,211 cows and heifers) in the East Riding, 162,462 (54,111 cows and heifers) in the North Riding, 264,876 (122,457 cows and heifers) in the West Riding. The breeds of cattle are not much attended to, the custom in the hilly districts, in both the West and the North Riding, being to purchase lean cattle at the northern fairs to fatten for the Lancashire and York-shire butchers. The Teeswater breed is, however, on the increase in Yorkshire. In Holderness there is a short-horned breed, chiefly valuable for its milking qualities. Cheese-making is largely carried on in some districts. Sheep in 1887 numbered in the East Riding 429,252, in the North Riding 638,320, and in the West Riding 646,809. The Leicester, the Lincoln, and the South Down, and crosses between the Cheviot and Leicester, are perhaps the most common breeds. The old Wolds sheep have also been improved by crossing with Leicesters. The total number of pigs in the East Riding in 1887 was 46,332, in the North Riding 48,990, and in the West Riding 71,887. Though the large long-eared breed is still kept, the small breed is that chiefly in favour. Large numbers of pigs are kept at the dairy farms and fed mainly on whey. York-shire bacon is famed for its flavour.
According to the latest landowners' Return, 1873, the East Rid-ing was divided among 19,576 proprietors, possessing 710,733 acres at an annual value of £2,032,195, or about £2, 17s. 2d. per acre. There were 15,012 who owned less than one acre each, and there were 4049 acres of common lands. The following possessed over 10,000 acres each :Sir Tatton Sykes 34,010 acres, Lord Londes-borough 33,006, Sir G. Cholmley 20,503, Lord Wenlock 19,453 Lord Hotham 18,683, W. H. H. Broadley 14,208, William F. Bethel 13,396, Lord Leconfield 13,247, Lord Middleton 12,295, Crown Property 12,230, Viscountess Downe 11,595, and T. A. C. Constable 10,981. The North Riding was divided among 16,315 proprietors, possessing 1,278,884 acres at an annual value ol £1,841,945, or about £1,8s. 9d. per acre. The following owned ovei 10,000 acres each :John Bowes 48,887, Lord Feversham 39,312, marquis of Ailesbury 15,370, Lord Bolton 15,419, Viscount Downe 15,271, earl of Carlisle 13,030, Sir G. O. Wombwell 11,912, Lord Londesborough 11,884, Mrs D. Harcourt 11,442, Mrs J. T. D. Hutton 10,902. There were 10,115 proprietors who possessed less than one acre, and the area of common land was 247,409 acres. The West Riding was divided among 76,913 proprietors, possessing 1,632,259 acres at an annual value of £8,199,840, or about £5,0s. 5 Jd. per acre, the large rental being due to the increased rent of land in towns. There were 59,496 proprietors who owned less than one acre each, and the estimated area of common land was 99,912 acres.
The following proprietors owned over 10,000 acres each :Charles
Towneley 23,153, earl of Harewood 20,330, duke of Devonshirel9,333,
Earl Fitzwilliam 19,165, Andrew Montagu 17,591, duke of Norfolk
15,270, George Lane Eox 15,018, earl of Dartmouth 14,723, Walter
Morrison 14,118, Sir H. J. Tufton 12,202, T. W. S. Stanhope 11,357,
Ayscough Fawkes 11,205, James Farrer 11,088, marquis of Ripon
10,908, Sir H. D. Ingilby 10,610, and duke of Leeds 10,034.
Communication. The county, especially in the manufacturing districts, is intersected with railways in all directions, the principal companies being the North Eastern, the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincoln, the Lancashire and Yorkshire, the Midland, and the Great Northern. A considerable amount of traffic, especially in coal, is carried on by means of the canals.
Manufactures and Trade. For many years an extensive district factures in the West Riding has been famed for its woollen and worsted. The early development of the industry was due partly to the abundance of water power supplied by the numerous streams in the valleys by which the district is indented ; and in recent times the happy accident of the proximity of coal and iron has enabled the industry to keep pace with modern requirements. The West Riding is now the chief seat of the woollen manufacture in the United Kingdom, and has almost a monopoly in the manu-facture of worsted cloths. In this industry nearly all the important towns in the Riding are engaged, Leeds having for its specialty almost every variety of woollen and worsted cjoth, Bradford yarns and mixed worsted goods, Dewsbury, Batley, and the neighbouring districts shoddy, Huddersfield both plain goods and fancy trouser-ings and coatings, and Halifax, to the neighbourhood of which the cotton industry of Lancashire has also penetrated, worsted and car-pets. Next to the woollen industry comes the manufacture of iron and steel machinery and implements of every variety, Leeds being one of the principal seats of all kinds of mechanical engineering, and Sheffield of iron work and cutlery. For the minor manufac-tures in the district, and for more specific details, reference must be made to the separate articles on the different towns. Until comparatively recently agriculture was the chief calling of the North Riding; but the discovery of iron ore in the Cleveland region has led to the formation of another great manufacturing centre, mainly devoted to the production of pig-iron, the manufacturing of steel by the basic process, and iron shipbuilding. The industrial activity of the East Riding is mostly centred in Hull, the chief port of the county, although the Lancashire ports must be regarded as the principal ports for the trade, especially of the West Riding. In the North Riding Middlesbrough is rising into importance as a shipping port, and Whitby, though not progressing as a port, has a considerable coasting trade. The fishing industry, which is of minor importance, is carried on at Hull, Filey, Whitby, and Scar-borough, and a considerable number of villages. Water- Scarborough is by far the most attractive and thriving watering-ing- place north of the Thames; and a number of others, such as Whitby, places Bridlington, Filey, and Saltburn, are rising yearly in repute, and spas. Among others, chiefly of local celebrity, are Redcar, Hornsea, and ' Withernsea. There are a considerable number of inland spas fre-quented to some extent by persons from other parts of the county, but the only one of wide reputation is Harrogate.
Administration and Population. Yorkshire has from an early period been divided into three ridings, each of which has a lord and lieutenant. The East Riding has a separate court of quarter sessions and a commission of the peace. The city of York within the iation. municipal limits constitutes a separate division of the county.
The municipal city and the ainsty are for parliamentary purposes included in the North Riding, for registration purposes in the Esst Riding, and for all other purposes in the West Riding. The parlia-mentary city of York, which formerly extended beyond the muni-cipal limits, is partly in the North and partly in the East Riding. The following table gives the population of the county and of the three ridings in 1801, 1821, 1871, and 1881 :
== TABLE ==
The population has more than quadrupled since 1801, the increase having been much the greatest in the West Riding. Though in area much the largest, Yorkshire is in population third among English counties, being exceeded in this respect both by Lancashire and Middlesex. The number of males in 1881 was 1,420,001 and of females 1,466,563. The number of persons to an acre in the county was 0'74East Riding 0P42, North Riding (not including the city of York) 0-25, and West Riding 1'23. The East Riding comprises 6 wapentakes and the municipal boroughs of Beverley (pop. 11,425), Kingston-upon-Hull (154,240), and Hedon (966). It is divided into 12 petty and special sessional divisions. The borough . of Kingston-upon-Hull has a separate court of quarter sessions and a commission of the peace, and the borough of Beverley has a com-mission of the peace. The riding contains 352 civil parishes with part of one other, viz., Filey, which extends into the North Riding. It is entirely in the diocese of York. The North Riding comprises 11 wapentakes, the liberties of East and West Langbauvgh and of Whitby Strand, and the municipal boroughs of Middlesbrough (55,934), Richmond (4502), and Scarborough (30,504). It is divided into 19 petty and special sessional divisions. The boroughs of Richmond and Scarborough have separate courts of quarter sessions and commissions of the peace, and the borough of Middlesbrough has a commission of the peace. The riding contains 554 civil parishes and parts of five others. It is almost entirely in the diocese of York and Ripon. The West Riding comprises 9 wapen-takes, the city of Ripon (7390), and the municipal boroughs of Barnsley (29,790), Batley (27,505), Bradford (183,032), Dewsbury (29,637), Doncaster (21,139), Halifax (73,630), Harrogate (9482), Huddersfield (81,841), Leeds (309,119), Pontefract (8798), Rother-ham (34,782), Sheffield (284,508), Wakefield (30,854), and Keighley (12,085). The riding is divided into 25 petty and special sessional divisions. The city of York, the boroughs of Bradford, Doncaster, Leeds, Pontefract, and Sheffield, and the liberty of Ripon (including the city) have separate courts of quarter sessions and commissions of the peace, and the boroughs of Batley, Dewsbury, Halifax, Huddersfield, and Wakefield have commissions of the peace. The liberty and the borough of Ripon are not included in the West Riding for the purposes of the county rate, but are rated separately. The riding contains 724 civil parishes and parts of six others. It is mostly in the dioceses of York, Ripon, and Manchester. For parliamentary purposes the East Riding is formed into three divi-sions,Buckrose, Holderness, and Howdenshire, each returning one member. It also includes the parliamentary borough of Kingston-upon-Hull, returning three members, with part of the borough of York city, which returns two members. The North Riding for parliamentary purposes is formed into four divisions, Cleveland, Richmond, Thirsk, and Whitby, each returning one member. It also includes the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Scarborough, each returning one member, with portions of the boroughs of Stockton and York city. The West Riding for parliamentary purposes is formed into three divisions, which are again subdivided into districts each returning one member,the north division into five districts, the south into eight, and the east into six. The riding also includes the following parliamentary boroughs:Bradford returning three members, Dewsbury one, Halifax two, Huddersfield one, Leeds five, Pontefract one, Sheffield five, and Wakefield one.
History and Antiquities. Traces of the old British inhabitants are numerous in the Wolds of the East Riding and the moors of the North Riding. Remains of the circular pit-dwellings of ancient Brigantian villages still exist at Egton Grange, Hole Pits, Killing Pits, Danby, and Roseberry Topping. A large number of implements, of both flint and bronze, have been discovered in the barrows on the Wolds and moors, and in the caves of the limestone district. Circles and other stone monuments are not uncommon, the most remarkable being the monolith, 29 feet in height, at Rudston, and the group of monoliths called the Devil's Arrows at Boroughbridge, 16|, 21$, and 22J feet in height respectively. On the hill-sides there are numerous ancient earthworks and dykes, such as the fortification on Flamborough Head, incorrectly called the Danes' dyke. Yorkshire was included in the territory of the Brigantes at the time of its invasion by the Romans in 51 ; it did not, however, make formal submission till 79. It afterwards formed part of the district of Maxima Csssariensis, of which the capital was Eboracum (York). The central districts of Yorkshire seem to have been densely peopled by the Romans. Watling Street entered the county near Bawtry, crossed the Don at Danum (Doncaster), the Aire at Legeolixim (Castleford), and the Wharfe at Calcaria (Tadcaster). Thence it proceeded by Eboracum (York), Isurium (Aldborough), and Cataractonium (Catterick Bridge) to Ad Tisam (Pierce Bridge), where it crossed the Tees. Another road passed eastwards from York to Malton, and various branches traversed the county in different directions. A great variety of Roman remains have been discovered and traces of Roman camps are numerous, such as Cataractonium, the outlines of the station at Old Malton, the ancient wall with the multangular tower at York, and the remains of Isurium. After the departure of the Romans Yorkshire was overrun by the Piets. Subsequently it formed the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Deira to the south of Bernicia (see vol. viii. p. 270). The two were included in Northumbria, which seems to have been under the rule sometimes of a single prince and sometimes of two separate princes in Bernicia and Deira, the northern boundary of the latter kingdom being probably the Tees and the southern always the Humber (see NORTHUMBERLAND, vol. xvii. p. 568 sq., where the early history of the district, includ-ing a notice of the Danish invasions, is given). After the Con-quest Yorkshire was divided among several Norman earlsincluding Alan of Brittany, who held Richmond Castle, Ilbert de Lacy, and William de Percy. The district was at this period frequently invaded by the Scots. In 1138 David of Scotland laid waste the country to the gates of York ; but he was completely defeated by the English on 22d August of that year in the battle of the Standard at Northallerton. In 1312 Thomas Plantagenet, earl of Lancaster, raised an insurrection in Yorkshire against Gaveston, the favourite of Edward II., whom he captured in Scarborough and beheaded at Warwick on 19th June. The earl again in 1322 headed a party against the Despensers, but on 16th March was defeated and captured at Boroughbridge, and on 22d was beheaded at Pontefract. During the Wars of the Roses the county %vas the scene of frequent conflicts, including the battle of Wakefield (31st December 1460), in which Richard, duke of York, was defeated by Queen Margaret and slain, and the battle of Towton (29th March 1461), in which Edward IV. defeated Henry VI. In 1536 the county was the scene of the insurrection under Robert Aske, known as the "Pilgrimage of Grace," caused by the dissolution of the monasteries. In 1569 a rising took place in Yorkshire under the earls of Westmorland and Northumberland in behalf of Mary Queen of Scots. During the Civil War the county was chiefly Royalist, although some of the most famous Parliamentary officers were Yorkshiremen, the more noted being Fairfax and Lambert. Bradford, Hull, Scarborough, Pontefract, and York sustained long sieges ; and on 2d July 1644 the great and decisive battle of the war occurred at Marston Moor. The annals of the county are destitute of further incidents of special historic importance. Ancient Of ancient strongholds or castles Yorkshire has still many inter-castles, esting examples in a more or less complete condition, including Barden Tower, built in the reign of Henry VII. by Henry Clifford, "the shepherd lord," which has been in ruins since 1774 ; Bolton Castle, pronounced by Leland "the fairest in Richmondshire," a square building with towers at the corners, erected in the reign of Richard II. by Richard Scrope, chancellor of England, occupied by Queen Mary while under the charge of Lord Scrope, besieged during the Civil War, and rendered untenable in 1647 ; the square tower or keep of Bowes Castle, supposed to have been built by Alan Niger, first earl of Richmond; the gateway tower (erected in the reign of Henry VI. J of Cawood Castle, said to have been originally built by King Athelstan in 920 ; the keep and various portions of the walls of the extensive fortress of Conisbrough, of uncertain origin, but probably dating from Saxon times ; the remains of Danby Castle, said to have been built shortly after the Conquest by Robert de Bruce ; Harewood, of great extent, originally founded soon after the Conquest, but now containing no portions earlier than the reign of Edward III.; the keep, in the Early English style, and other remains of Helmsley, built in the 12th century by Robert de Roos surnamed Fursan; detached portions, including the principal tower, of Knares-borough, probably dating originally from Norman times ; the pictur-esque remains of the quadrangular fortress of Middleham, built soon after the Conquest by Robert FitzRanulph, afterwards possessed by the Nevilles, and rendered untenable by order of Parliament in 1647 ; the ruins of the ancient stronghold of Mulgrave, said to have been originally founded two centuries before the Conquest by a Saxon giant named Wade or Wada, dismantled after the Civil War ; the extensive remainsincluding Rosamond's Tower, associated with the misfortunes of Fair Rosamond, the mistress of Henry II. of Pickering Castle, of unknown date, dismantled after the Civil War; the ruins of Pontefract, formerly one of the most important fortresses of the kingdom, built by Ilbert de Lacy about 1080 ; a few remains of Ravensworth Castle, dating from before the Conquest; the keep and other remains of the great Norman fortress of Rich-mond, founded about 1070 by Alan Rufus of Brittany ; the tower of Ripley, built in 1555 by Sir William Ingilby, included in the modern mansion ; slight remains of the fortress of Sandal, erected in 1320 by John, eighth earl of Warren ; the great tower, in the Roman style, and other remains of the extensive fortress of Scar-borough, founded by William le Gros in 1136 ; the detached ruins of Sheriff Hutton, founded by Bertram de Bulmer in the reign of Stephen ; slight remains of the ancient Skelton Castle ; Skipton Castle, of various dates, but originally Norman; Slingsby Castle, originally built probably soon after the Conquest ; the ruins of Spofforth, originally erected by Henry de Percy in 1309 ; the founda-tions of the keep and some fragments of the walls of Tickhill, built or enlarged by Roger de Busli in the 11th century ; the remains of Whorlton, dating from the time of Richard II. ; and one side of the great quadrangular castle of Wressell, built by Thomas Percy, earl of Worcester, in the reign of Richard II. Ecclesi- At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries Yorkshire astical possessed 28 abbeys, 26 priories, 23 nunneries, 30 friaries, 13 cells, struc- 4 commanderies of Knights Hospitallers, and 4 preceptories of the tures. Knights Templars. The principal monastic ruins still existing are St Mary's, York (see YORK) ; Bolton Priory, generally called Bolton Abbey, one of the most romantically situated ruins in the kingdom, originally founded at Embsay, two miles distant, by William de Meschines for Augustinian canons, removed to its present situation by his daughter Alice over against the spot where her only son perished in the Wharfe ; the church and other ruins in the Early English style of Byland Abbey, founded for Cistercian monks in the 12th century ; the picturesque ruins of Easby near Richmond, containing interesting examples of Norman and Early English, founded in 1152 for Pi'Eemonstratensians by Ronaldus, constable of Richmond Castle ; Egglestone on the Tees, founded in the 12th century for Prsemonstratensians ; Fountains Abbey, one of the finest and most complete among the monastic ruins of the kingdom, ex-hibiting fine specimens of various styles of architecture from Norman to Perpendicular, founded in 1132 for certain monks of the Benedic-tine abbey of St Mary's, York, who had adopted the Cistercian rule; the eastern end of the church of Guisbrough Priory in the Pointed style, founded in 1119 by Robert de Bruce, the burial-place of many illustrious nobles ; the picturesque ruins of Jervaulx, exhibiting examples of Norman and Early English, founded in 1156 for Cistercian monks by Conan, fifth earl of Richmond ; the gateway and other remains of Kirkham, founded in 1121 by Walter l'Espec ; the beautiful ruins of Kirkstall, exhibiting remarkably fine examples of Norman, founded in 1152 by Henry de Lacy for Cistercian monks from Fountains Abbey; the church, refectory, and other remains, in the Early English style with some traces of Norman, of Rievaulx Abbey, founded in 1131 by Walter l'Espec. There are other monastic remains of less importance at Bridlington, Coverham, Marrick, Meaux, Monk Bretton, Mount Grace, Old Malton, Roche, Rosedale, Sawley, Selby, Watton, and Whitby. In respect of church architecture Yorkshire excels any other county in the kingdom for variety of style, and the size and importance of many of the buildings. Space forbids entrance into minute details ; but it may be mentioned here that, in addition to the cathedral churches of York, Ripon, and Beverley, there are several other churches on a very large scale, including St Mary's, Beverley, chiefly Perpendicular, very elaborate in style, originally built by Archbishop Thurstan in the 12th century ; the parish church of Bradford, a very fine ex-ample of Decorated ; the priory church of Bridlington, containing fine examples of Norman, Early English, and Perpendicular.; Halifax parish church, chiefly of the 15th century ; St Augustine's church, Hedon, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, with some transition Norman ; Howden, one of the finest in Yorkshire, chiefly 13th century with later additions ; Holy Trinity, Hull, one of the largest parish churches in England, of the 13th century, chiefly Early English and Perpendicular; St Mary's, Masham, dating from Saxon times and having a fine Norman tower ; St Patrick's, Patrington, in the Decorated style, with a remarkably graceful spire, 189 feet in height; All Saints, Rotherham, a beautiful cruciform building, described by Rickman as " one of the finest Perpendicular churches of the north"; the abbey church, Selby, containing fine specimens of Norman, Early English, and Decorated ; the parish church, Sheffield, chiefly Perpendicular ; St Mary's, Thirsk, said to have been built out of the ruins of the old castle, chiefly Perpendi-cular ; and Wakefield parish church, chiefly of the latter part of the 15th century, with a spire 250 feet in height, rebuilt in 1860-61.
The bibliography of Yorkshire is very extensive. For histories of the several towns and districts reference may be made to Anderson's English Topography. The chief works relating to Yorkshire as a whole are Leland's Itinerary; Allen's History of Yorkshire, 3 vols., 1828-31; Baines's Yorkshire Past and Present, 4 vols., 1871-77 ; and Smith's Old Yorkshire, 5 vols., 1881-84. Among numerous works on the geology, reference may be made to Phillips's Geology of the York-shire Coast, 3d ed., 1875 ; Davis and Lees, West Yorkshire, 1878 ; Bird's Sketch of the Geology of Yorkshire, 1881; and Simpson's Fossils of Yorkshire, 1884. In the publications of the Surtees Society there are many volumes of genealogical or antiquarian interest relating to the county, and in Journ. Yorks. Arch. Soc. many valuable topographical and historical papers. See also Lefroy's Ruined Abbeys of Yorks., 1883, and Bulmer's Arch. Studies in Yorks., 1887. (T. P. H.)