1902 Encyclopedia > Barbados


BARBADOS, or BARBADOES, the most windward of the Caribbean Islands, is situated in lat, 13° 4' N. and long. 59° 37' W., 78 miles E. of St Vincent, the island nearest to it in the Caribbean chain. It lies in the track of vessels, and

Sketch Map of Barbado».
is well adapted to be an entrepdt of commerce. It has nearly the size and proportions of the Isle of Wight, being 21 miles in length, and about 14 J miles in its broadest part. It has a superficial area of 106,470 acres, or about 166 square miles,—70,000 acres (besides grass land) are under cultivation, and nearly 30,000 acres of sugar-cane are annually cut. The island is almost encircled by coral reefs, which in some parts extend seaward nearly three miles. There are two lighthouses, one on the south point and another on the south-east coast. A harbour light has also been placed on Needham's Point. The harbour, Carlisle Bay, is a large open roadstead. The inner harbour, or careenage, for small vessels, is protected by a breakwater called the Molehead. Barbados presents every variety of scenery,—hill and valley, smooth table-land and rugged rocks. From one point of view the land rises in a suc-cession of limestone and coral terraces, which indicate different periods of upheaval from the sea. From another there is nothing to be seen but a mass of abruptly-rising rocks. The highest elevation, Mount Hillaby, is 1104 feet above the level of the sea. The island contains but few streams or streamlets. The gullies or ravines, the result, no doubt, of volcanic agency, are, however, very numerous, radiating from the high semicircular ridge of the coralline formation in a very regular manner to the west, north, and south, but not to the east, where the coral rocks end abruptly. The chalky soil of the district called Scotland (from its assumed resemblance to the scenery of the Highlands) contains infusoria, and is altogether different from the deposits of the coral animals which form the super-ficial area of six-sevenths of the island (91,000 acres). Besides the chalk or marl, sandstone is found in this district. The climate of Barbados is healthy; the temperature equable. For eight months in the year the sea breezes keep it delightfully cool for a tropical country. The extent of cultivation, the absence of swamps (the porous character of the rock immediately underlying the soil preventing accumulations of stagnant water) account for the freedom from miasma. The destruction of the forests may have made the rainfall — upon which successful cultivation depends—somewhat uncertain, but does not seem to have affected it to such an extent as might have been anticipated. The rainfall is caused, apart from elevation, by the exposure of the land to those winds laden with moisture which strike the island at different periods of the year. The average rainfall of the four years 1753-6 was 55-89 inches; of the twenty five-years 1847-71, 57'74 inches; of the single year 1873, 51 -2 6 inches. The sugar produc-tion of the island is calculated at 800 hogsheads of 16 cwt. each for every inch of rain.
The N.E. trade-wind blows for three-fourths of the year, and most of the rain comes from the same quarter. March is the driest of the months, and October the wettest; the average rainfall for the former being \\ inch, and for the latter 9 inches. Leprosy is not uncommon among the negroes, and elephantiasis is so frequent as to be known by the name of " Barbados leg." Bridge- Bridgetown is the capital and port of the island, and the town. centre of business activity. It contains about 23,000 inhabitants. Over the creek which received the waters from the heights around the Indians had built a rude bridge. This was known for a long time after the British settlement as the Indian Bridge, but as the settlement grew, and after the old bridge had been replaced by a more solid structure, the place received the name of Bridge-town. The town was destroyed by fire in 1666, and rebuilt, principally of stone, upon a larger scale. It Buffered again from fire in 1766 and 1845. It has a large town-hall. The Government buildings are a handsome pile close to the sea. The town follows the curve of the bay. Behind it the hills begin to rise, forming the first stepping-stone to the higher lands of the interior. At the southern extremity are the extensive buildings for the garrison, Barbados being the headquarters of the troops in the West Indian command.
Opinions differ as to the derivation of the name of the island. It is probably the Spanish word for the hanging branches of a vine which strike root in the earth. In maps of the 16th century the island appears under various names, among which are St Bernardo, Bernardos, Barbu-doso, Baruodos, and Baruodo. The traces of Indians in this island are more numerous than in any other of the History. Caribbees. The first recorded visit of Englishmen was in the year 1605, when the crew of the "Olive Blossom" landed, and erected a cross as a memorial of the event, cutting at the same time uponthe bark of a tree the words "James, king of England and of this island." This party of adventurers did not settle, but from the time of their dsit the history of Barbados begins. That history has -_some special features. It shows the process of peaceful uolonization, for the island, acquired without conquest or bloodshedding, has never since been out of the possession of the British It was the first English colony where the sugar-cane was planted. Its colonists have almost from the beginning enjoyed representative institutions, and the full measure of English freedom. They have always defended their rights with spirit, and shown consistent loyalty to the Crown. The prominence and accessibility of the island have made it important as a military station in the wars with the French and Dutch. And its varying fortunes show the effects of the commercial legislation of England, from the stringent Navigation Laws of Cromwell down to the repeal of the sugar duties in 1874.
The first patent conveying a proprietary interest in Barbados was granted by James I. to Lord Leigh, after-wards earl of Marlborough. In 1624 a ship, belonging to Sir William Courteen, a rich merchant of London, called at Barbados. The country was found to be thickly wooded, and uninhabited, except by a great number of wild hogs. Sir William Courteen, having received a description of the place, sent out two large ships under the authority of Marlborough's patent. One of these, the " John and William," commanded by John Powell, arrived in February 1625, which is therefore the date of the earliest English settlement in the island. The thirty settlers laid the foundation of a town which they called Jamestown, and chose Captain William Deane their governor. But the earl of Carlisle, having obtained from King James in 1624 the warrant for a grant of all the Caribbean Islands, twenty-two in number, agreed, in 1627, to pay the earl of Marlborough £300 a year for his right to Barbados. The patent in favour of Lord Carlisle passed the great seal on 2d July 1627; but during his absence on a diplomatic mission soon after, William, earl of Pembroke, the Lord Chamberlain, obtained in the interest of Sir William Cour-teen a grant of several islands, including Barbados. Upon Lord Carlisle's return he obtained the revocation of Lord Pembroke's grant, and the full confirmation of his own rights, upon which he acted in offering to sell parcels of land for an annual payment of 40 lb of cotton. The Society of London Merchants then obtained from Lord Carlisle a grant of 10,000 acres, and they appointed Charles Wolferstone, a native of Bermuda, to proceed with sixty-four persons, and to govern the settlement under a com-mission from the earl. Wolferstone and his party arrived in July 1628 in the bay, known thenceforth as Carlisle Bay. The antagonism between the earlier settlers under Courteen's auspices and Wolferstone's party broke out into actual fighting. Finding that the validity of his patent was still being disputed, Lord Carlisle obtained a further confirmation of it by the king in April 1629, and at once despatched Sir William Tufton as commander-in-chief with a sufficient force to subdue the rival settlers. In 1645 Philip Bell became governor, and the real progress of the colony began. Good laws were passed, a judicial system was elaborated; the island was-divided into eleven parishes, and a general assembly formed by two represen-tatives of each parish, elected by a majority of freeholders. A council had been in existence since the time of Wolfer-stone.
The first settlers cultivated maize, sweet potatoes, plan-tains, and yams for their own consumption, and indigo, cotton wool, tobacco, ginger, and aloes for export. Quan-tities of logwood, fustic, and lignum vitae were also shipped. But the adaptability of the soil for cane becoming known, and the necessary knowledge for the manufacture of sugar being obtained, this article at once became the great staple of the colony. The value of property very largely increased. The half of an estate of 500 acres, 200 under cane, with buildings and appurtenances, was sold for £7000 about the I year 1650, the labourers being slaves from Africa.

It was while the rapid progress of the colony was attracting especial attention, and many persons of family and means, adherents of the royal cause, were finding it a refuge from the troubles at home, that Francis Lord Willoughby of Parham went out as governor, with the con-sent of King Charles IL, who had been proclaimed in Barbados as soon as the news of the execution of Charles I. had arrived. Lord Carlisle had died, and his heir had been entrusted with the duty of paying his debts out of the revenue from the island. Lord Willoughby agreed to take a lease from the new earl of the profits of the colony for twenty-one years, to pay Lord Carlisle one-half, and to accept the governorship, including that of the other islands in the Carlisle grant. Upon his arrival in 1650, notwith-standing the active opposition of a party headed by Colonel Walrond, he procured the passing of an Act acknowledging the king's sovereignty, the proprietary rights of the earl of Carlisle, and his own interest derived from the latter. But the Parliament despatched Sir George Ayscue with a squadron and considerable land forces, to reduce the island to submission to its authority. About the same time the famous Navigation Law was enacted, by which foreign ships were prohibited from trading with British colonies, and imports into England and the dependencies were not allowed in foreign bottoms. This restriction had a great effect upon Barbados, which depended upon foreign importation for a great deal of its provisions. Sir G. Ayscue's expedition appeared off Barbados in October 1651. After one unsuccessful attempt, a landing was effected, and Lord Willoughby's force was routed. The counsels of a moderate party in the island, however, prevailed, and a compromise was effected. A treaty was made declaring the authority of the Parliament, but containing provisions not at all unfavourable to the inhabitants, and reserving even to Lord Willoughby his rights in the island. During the Common-wealth prisoners of war were sometimes sent to Barbados. The expedition of 1655 against St Domingo and Jamaica under Penn and Venables was reinforced by a troop of horse and 3500 volunteers from Barbados. At the Restora-tion Lord Willoughby went out once more to Barbados and resumed his office. Several of the faithful adherents of the royal cause in the island were made baronets and knights, but the restrictions upon commercial intercourse which had been imposed by the Parliament were made more stringent. Then doubts began to arise in the minds of the planters as to the title by which they held their estates. They had created by their exertions a very valuable property, and "the bare possibility of the earl of Carlisle stepping in and dispossessing them caused much discon-tent. The death of Lord \ Carlisle brought matters to a crisis. An arrangement was made in 1663 by which the different claimants were satisfied, the proprietary or patent interest was dissolved, and the Crown exercised directly its rights, and undertook the government, although it was not till 1672 that the nomination of the council was taken into the hands of the king. A duty of 4£ per cent, upon the produce of the island was levied in 1663 to satisfy the claims and defray the government expenses. Lord Willoughby received anew commission, and the only:practical change effected in the constitution was that all laws were thenceforward made subject to confirmation by the king. In 1665 the colony successfully resisted an attack by the Dutch; but in conducting an expedition against the French in Guadaloupe in 1666, Lord Willoughby was lost in a hurricane, and an eventful and occasionally brilliant career was thus prematurely ended. He was succeeded in the government by his brother, Lord William Willoughby, during whose governorship the division of the Caribbean Islands into Windward and Leeward was made. The hurricane of 1675 gave a serious check to the prosperity of the colony. An unsuccessful application was made to the home Government, to remit, on account of the distress that prevailed, the 4J per cent, duty, which pressed very heavily upon the planters. The island had scarcely recovered from the effects of the hurricane when the supply of labour was restricted and its expense increased by the Royal African Company, at the head of which was the duke of York, receiving a charter for the exclusive supply of slaves to the West India Islands. This company had great influence in the appointment of governors; and in consequence of oppressive proceedings and depreciation of the value of property, many families left the island. A number of persons implicated in the duke of Monmonth's rebellion were sent to Barbados and treated harshly. Duties upon sugar were imposed by the mother country, which were increased at the accession of James IL, to 2s. 4d. per cwt. on Muscovado, and to 7s. upon all sugars for common use. From the survey made by governor Sir Richard Dutton in 1683-4, it appears that the population consisted of 17,187 free, 2381 unfree and servants (prisoners of war and persons brought from England under engagements for terms of years), and 46,602 slaves. The number of acres in useful possession was 90,517, and of sugar-works 358. These figures show how rapidly, in spite of all difficulties, the colony had grown in sixty years.
The wars in Europe were reproduced upon a smaller scale, though with equal if not greater intensity, among the different nationalities in the West Indies. In such times the seas swarmed with privateers; and freights were so high as to induce the island Legislature to make a vain attempt to regulate them by law. The news of the peace of Ryswick was received with great joy, and matters remained quiet until the declaration of war against France and Spain in 1702 revived privateering in West Indian waters. Events in the first half of the 18th century do not call for detailed description. It was the custom of the assembly to supplement the salary of the governor (which was paid by the Crown out of the 4J per cent, duty) by special grants, sometimes of large amount. But this did not prevent many constitutional conflicts between the assembly and the executive. During the war which commenced! between England and France in 1756, the West Indies witnessed much fighting, with its attendant suffering. In 1761 a determined attempt was made to break the power of France in the archipelago. Barbados entered with enthusiasm into the project. Guadaloupe had been taken in 1759, and the principal effort now, under Admiral Rodney and General Monckton, was directed against Martinique. In 1762 that island surrendered. Barbados spent £24,000 in raising and equipping her pro-portion of men in the attacking forces; and in 1765 the House of Commons voted £10,000 as compensation for the expense incurred. By the Treaty of 1763, how-ever, both these islands were restored to France. The constant wars had naturally an injurious effect upon Barbados. During the governorship of the Hon Edward Hay, who was appointed in 1773, differences of opinion arose as to the state of the island. When the war between England and the American colonies began., the supply of provisions, upon which Barbados depended, necessarily stopped. The assembly addressed a petition to the king, praying for relief; through the interposi-tion of the governor the relief was not immediately granted, but in 1778, when the island was in a very depressed state, the British ministry sent a quantity of provisions for sale at prime cost. With the advent of General Cunninghame as governor another series of con-tentious years began. In the midst of disputes as to the right of the governor to exact certain fees without the consent of the assembly, a hurricane visited the island and

caused much destruction of property. Parliament in 1782 granted £80,000 for relief, but an attempt to obtain the repeal of the 4| per cent, duty was again unsuccessful The French were regaining their ascendency in the archi-pelago, and had it not been for the great naval victory won by Sir George Rodney, Barbados and the remaining British colonies might have fallen to the enemy. As the 18th century closed, the prospect of the great final struggle with France overshadowed the colonies. The Barbadians ener-getically put themselves in a state of defence, and at the same time voted and privately subscribed money to assist bis Majesty to carry on the war. The peace of Amiens, in 1802, relieved anxiety for a brief interval, but hostilities were soon renewed. When in 1805 Napoleon sent a squadron to the archipelago, with 4000 soldiers, the crisis put Barbados on her mettle. The French fleet was suc-cessful in exacting large sums of money from adjacent colonies. Admiral Villeneuve, too, was on his way with a still larger fleet and stronger force. But when Admiral Cochrane arrived off Barbados the safety of the island was secured. Even amid the intense excitement of these events constitutional questions were not forgotten. The governor could only establish martial law when the enemy's fleet was in sight. A premature declaration drew forth a protest from the assembly, and the controversy was only ended when the Home Government asserted the full prerogative of the Crown to impose martial law when necessary for the safety of the island. The most memorable event in 1805 was a flying visit from Lord Nelson in search of a French fleet. In October of the same year the battle of Trafalgar was won, and Bridgetown soon after had its Trafalgar Square and its Nelson statue. In 1809 an expedition sailed from Barbados, under Governor Beckwith, against the French in Martinique. After a bombardment of five days that place was taken. Twelve months later Beckwith similarly attacked Guadaloupe; and when that island was conquered, after some hard fighting, the power of the French in the archipelago was again reduced to its lowest ebb. When the war ended in 1810 in the West Indies, the British were supreme in that region. But danger was threatened from another source. The rupture between Great Britain and the United States in 1812 caused privateering to be resumed to an extent that almost destroyed the commerce of the island, until the abdication of Napoleon and the peace with America in 1814 again brought relief to the colonies. The military history of Barbados ceased at the close of the Peninsular War.
In the meantime Barbadian affairs had attracted notice in Parliament. In 1812 a motion was made in the House of Commons that the 4£ per cent, duty should be applied exclusively to local purposes. A considerable amount of this revenue had been devoted to pensions to persons entirely unconnected with the colony, and it was stated in the House of Commons that part of the money had been appropriated to the king's household in the reign of William III. Nor were the Barbadians themselves back-ward in stating their grievances. In 1813 they protested against the importation of East Indian sugars into Great Britain, and also against the system of patent offices, by which non-resident officials were able to draw large sums from the island for services which they never performed. By Act of the Parliament 6 Geo. IV. c. 114, 1825, foreign commodities were admitted into the British possessions at mode-rate rates of duty if the countries sending those articles would give similar privileges to British ships. As the United States refused reciprocity, the West Indian ports were closed against their vessels, and the United States retaliated by prohibiting all intercourse with British colonies. From the operation of the above-mentioned Act an important constitutional question arose. These duties, levied in the name of the king, were to be paid into the local treasury for the uses of the colony, but the customs officers, of course appointed from home, received instructions to retain their own salaries from the revenue. This was denounced by the assembly as illegal, and after a long controversy it was agreed, in 1832, that 10 per cent, should be deducted to defray the expense of collecting the tax. Another question arose which illustrates the relations between Eng-land and the colony. By an island Act of 1773, a 2s. 6d. tonnage duty was imposed, but small vessels belonging to residents were only to pay on three voyages a year. By an Act of Parliament in 1832 this oxemption was abolished, i The assembly protested and denied the right of Parliament to tax colonies which had representative institutions; but Lord Stanley, in 1833, declared that this right existed, although its exercise was a matter of expediency. After the hurricane of 1831, which was perhaps the severest the island had ever experienced, causing 1591 deaths and a destruction of property estimated at more than a million and a half sterling, another urgent appeal was made for the remission of the 4J per cent, duty, but without effect, although £100,000 was granted by Parliament in 1832 for the relief of the islands which had suffered from the visita-tion ; of this sum Barbados took half. By an Act of Parlia-ment passed in 1838, the 4J per cent, duty was at length removed, after having been in existence for 175 years.
But a social revolution had begun which was destined Slave to change not so much the prosperity of the colony, as the labour, conditions under which that prosperity arose. From the first settlement, of course, the one great want was labour. As the labour supply increased and became more certain the cultivation expanded, wealth was created, and the importance of the colony grew. In the early days white labour was employed, assisted by Indians obtained from other islands and the mainland of South America, but when the sugar-cane began to be cultivated, negro slaves were imported from Africa. This slave trade, mostly conducted by companies or persons in England, continued until the year 1806, when it was stopped by Act of Parlia-ment. In that year there were 60,000 negroes in the island. This measure was, of course, the first step to the abolition of slavery itself. On the 1st August 1834, the great Act of Emancipation came into force, and four years of apprenticeship began. Out of the 20 millions granted for compensation, Barbados received £1,720,345, being an average payment of £20, 14s. on 83,176 slaves. Inconse-quence of the large population and small extent of uncultivated land, emancipation had not in Barbados such a relaxing effect upon the industry of the negroes as it had in the more thinly-populated colonies. An efficient system of town and rural police was, however, essential From the time of emancipation the negroes multiplied rapidly. In 1844, out of a total population of 122,198, at least 90,000 were negroes, among whom females were largely in excess. The population, notwithstanding an occasional epidemic and almost continuous emigration, has continued to increase, as the following census returns will show:—
Tear. White. Coloured. Black.
1851 15,824 30,059 90,056
1881 16,594 36,128 100,005
1871 16,560 89,578 105,904
The density of the population in 1871 was therefore 966 to the square mile. The gross population at the end of 1873 was estimated at 170,000.
Production and commerce have undergone great fluctuations. Trade, Before the navigation laws the Dutch were good customers, but subsequently the greater part of the produce has been exported to England. In 1767 the total exports of sugar were 24,000 hhda.; in 1805 they were 19,805 hhds. In 1808, probably in consequence of the stoppage of the slave trade, the exports fell to 13,996 hhds. In 1834 they were 28,341 hhds., and in 1846, with the prospect of the equalization of the English sugar duties upon slave and free grown sugar, they fell to 21,996 hhds. From 1850 to 1872, the average quantity exported annually was 44,000 hhds. The crop of 1873 yielded only 37,337 hhds. The total values of imports and exports in 1850, 1860, and 1873 were as follows :—
Imports. Exports.
1850 £734,358 £831,534
1860 941,761 984,294
1873 1,193,814 1,024,083
Of the imports £365,189 were from theUnited Kingdom, £171,592 from British Colonies, £485,275 from the United States, and the remainder' from other foreign countries. The exports were thus distributed:—£471,175 to the United Kingdom, £388,791 to British Colonies, and £164,166 to foreign countries, including £125,640 to United States. Of the total exports 65 per cent, consisted of native productions, sugar, molasses, and rum. The balance consists of the transit trade, which contributes largely and increasingly to the commercial business of the island. The number of ships entered from the United Kingdom in 1873 was 74, tonnage, 22,590 ; from United States, 181, tonnage, 40,725 ; from British North American Colonies, 125, tonnage, 19,283 ; from West Indies and Guiana, 851, tonnage, 44,323. The total number of ships entered was 1406, with a tonnage of 153,400 tons. But in 1873 the crop was defi-cient. The figures for 1875 will show the employment of a much larger quantity of shipping.
Barbados is gradually becoming the central mart for all the Wind-
ward Islands, even Trinidad finding it more advantageous to derive
her hreadstuffs, &c, from this quarter, than to import them direct
from the continent. There was formerly an extensive whale-fishery
round the island, and recently attempts have been made to revive
its importance. Many other fishes would afford an excellent return,
but this source of wealth is in great measure neglected. The anchovy
is frequently driven up in shoals on the coast. The flying-fish is
one of the principal articles in the Bridgetown market; barracoudas,
sharks, and conger-eels are also exposed.
Govern- The local government consists of a governor (who is also governor-
ment. in-chief of St Vincent, Grenada, Tobago, and St Lucia); a legisla-tive council (the members of which form as well an executive council), appointed by the sovereign, and holding office during pleasure, and the house of assembly. In former times the council exercised judicial functions, but in 1841 a chief-justice was ap-pointed, and recent improvements have relieved the council of their equity and nearly all their appellate jurisdiction. The island is still divided into 11 parishes, each of which sends two representatives to the assembly. In addition to the parishes, Bridgetown sends two members. The number of voters, with the necessary property qualification, is about 1350. The business of the legislature is con-ducted according to the forms of the English Parliament, even to the election of a speaker to preside over the assembly, the initia-tion of money hills in that house, and the assertion of the right to Revenue. exclude strangers. The assembly is elected annually. The revenue of the island in 1873 was £123,676, derived mainly from import duties, tonnage and port-dues, licences, and rum duty. The ex-penditure was £121,796. The total parochial taxation in 1873 was £31,569, which brings the gross amount of general taxation to £155,245, being at the rate of £1, 9s. Id. per acre, or 17s. 6d. per head of population. The island is free from debt. The judicial establishment includes a court of chancery, which is conducted according to the rules, and follows the decisions, of the English court; a court of common pleas, criminal sessions, &c. The common law of England, modified by local enactments, is in force inBarbados. Religion. The Church of England is the prevailing form of religion in the island. In 1871 the population was thus classified:—Church of England, 144,080; Wesleyans, 12,267 ; Moravians, 4733 ; and Roman Catholics, 513. Each parish has a rector, and there are twenty-eight curates in the island, all paid by the colonial revenue. The other denominations are also now entitled to grants. In the early days of the plantation, the clergy were paid by one pound of sugar for every acre of land in their parish. The first bishop of Barbados (the diocese including other colonies) was the Right Rev. W. Hart Coleridge, who arrived in 1825, and remained till 1842, when the diocese was divided, and the bishopric of Antigua founded. Trinidad has recently withdrawn from the diocese of Barbados and Education, the Windward Islands, and founded a separate bishopric. Education is extending in Barbados. There were in 1873, 79 primary schools with 8000 scholars on the register, and 67 infant schools, with 5500 scholars, but the average attendance is much smaller. The Government expenditure on these schools for the year was £4000. The principal educational establishment is Codrjhgton College, founded by Colonel Christopher Codrington. He bequeathed two estates, known as Consett's and Codrington's, to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. They consisted of 763 acres, 3 wind-nulls, sugar buildings, 315 negroes, and 100 head of cattle. The society came into possession in 1712. The will declared that the plantations were to be continued, and 300 negroes always kept upon them; that professors and scholars were to be maintained; and physic, chirurgery, and divinity were to be studied and practised. The college was commenced in 1716, and has seen many vicissitudes. One of its principal objects has been the preparation of candidates for holy orders. There are several theological scholarships of the value of £30 per annum from the college funds, and three of similar value paid by the Colonial treasury. There is a school, recently assisted, by the public funds, called the Codrington Collegiate Grammar School, in close connection with the college. Harrison's College, in Bridgetown, established on an old foundation, has been liberally supported by the Legislature, and promises useful results.
Ligon's History of Barbados, 1657 ; Oldmixon's British Empire
in America, 1741; A Short History of Barbados, 1768^; Remarks
upon the Short History, 1768 ; Foyer's History of Barbados, 1808 ;
Capt. Thorn. Southey's Ohron. Hist, of W. Indies, 1827 ; Schom-
burgk's History of Barbados, 1848 ; Griffith Hughes, Nat. History
of Barbados; Maycock's Flora Barbadensis ; Patent Bolls, Public
Record Office ; Annual Reports, " Colonial Possessions;" Colonial
Office List; Governor Rawson's Report on Population, 1872, and
Rainfall, 1874. (J. L. O.)

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