F. FURTHER READING
Further Reading on the Bible
Literature.-- Full discussion of some of the topics glanced at in this article must be sought in treatises on individual books or critical problems of the Old and New Testaments. But on most points it will be sufficient to refer to works on Biblical Introduction. The history of this branch of theology with lists of the principal older bookssome of which, including the writings of R. Simon, Carpzov, and Eichhorn, are still of valueis given in most recent works on the subject. Of these it may be sufficient to mention for the Old TestamentDe Wettes Einleitung, rewritten by Schrader (Berlin, 1869), full of condensed information ; Bleeks posthumous Einleitung (3rd edition, 1870), less complete in detail and now rather behind date, but very clear and instructive, Keils Einleitung (3rd edition, 1873), which is strictly conservative. The two last are translated. Kuenens Historisch-Kritisch Onderzoek, of which there is a French translation, is very full, but the author has considerably changed his views in the History of the Religion of Israel (Haarlem, 1869 70) of which there is an English translation. Ewalds History of Israel is important, and is also accessible to the English reader; with it must be taken his books on the Prophets and Poets of the Old Covenant. Recent English literature on the Old Testament is not very remarkable, but Dr S. Davidsons Introduction gives a full account of foreign investigations. The history of the Old Testament in the Christian church has been written by L Diestel (Geschichte des Alten Testamentes, u.s.w., Jena, 1869). For the New Testament, De Wette, Bleek, and Davidson may again be consulted. A very instructive book is Reusss Geschichte der Heiligen Schriften Neuen Testaments (5th edition, Brunswick, 1874). The most recent general work proceeding from the Tübingen school is Hilgenfelds Historisch-Kritische Einleitung in das Neue Testament (Leipsic [Leipzig], 1875). On the canon there are several important works by Credner in German, and an English History of the Canon of the New Testament, by Dr Westcott (4th edition, 1875.) On the text of the New Testament the English reader may consult Tregelles volume, contributed to Hornes Introduction (1856) and Scriveners Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (2nd edition, 1874). Le Longs Bibliotheca Sacra, continued by Masch (Halle, 17781790) gives a full account of editions of the original text and versions, which may be supplemented by reference to De Rossis Annales Hebraeo-typographici (XV. Cent., Parma,1795: MDI. To MDXL., Parma, 1799), and Reusss Bibliotheca Novi Testamenti Graeci (Brunswick, 1872). Detailed references to other recent books will be found in the works already cited. (W. R. S.)
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The above article was written by William Robertson Smith; joint editor of the Ninth Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Professor of Oriental Languages and Old Testament Exegesis, Free Church College, Aberdeen, 1870-81; one of the Old Testament Revisers, 1875; Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic at Cambridge, 1883; University Librarian, 1886; author of Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia and Lectures on the Religion of the Semites.