BOLIVIA. This name was given in honour of Bolivar (see last article) to a state in South America, formed in 1825 from the provinces of Upper Peru which formerly con-stituted part of the vice-royalty of Buenos Ayres. The bulk of the country extends from 10° to 23° S. lat., and from 58° to 71° W. long., and it is bounded on the N. by Peru and Brazil; on the E. by Brazii and Paraguay, on the
S. by the Argentine Republic and Chili, and on the W. by the Pacific Ocean and Peru. The greater part of Bolivia is a mountainous and elevated country, more particularly at its western and central parts ; but towards the east it becomes much less so, and at length terminates in extensive plains, which are bounded on the east by Brazil. From the Pacific coast the southern boundary of Bolivia runs along the 24th parallel of latitude (the limit decided by treaty with Chili in August 1866), to as far as the crest of the Andes; turning S. it follows the line of the mountains to 26° S. lat., in which parallel it crosses the plateau to the inner Cordillera, along which it lies N.N.E. to the 22d parallel. This line of latitude forms the boundary of territory which is certainly Bolivian, as far as the River Paraguay; but Bolivia, in common with the Argentine Republic and Paraguay, has claims on the unexplored territory of the Gran Chaco, which lies south of this line, and between the rivers Pilcomayo and Paraguay. From 22° on the River Paraguay, the frontier with Brazil was decided, by treaty of March 1867, to be a line following that river northward to the Bahia Negra in 20° 11', along the Negra to its termination, and thence through the midst of the lagoons of Caceres, Mandior6, Gaiba, and Uberaba (lying immediately west of the Paraguay River), to Corixa Grande; thence in a straight line to Boa Vista and the source of the Verde; down that river to the Guapore, and along the latter to where the Beni joins it in 10° 20' S.; thence in a straight line towards the source of the River Javary (in 7° S.) The present Government of Bolivia appears inclined, however, to repudiate this treaty, and to return to the older frontier, which included the tributaries of the Amazons as far as 6° 28' S. On the Peruvian or western frontier the boundary follows a more or less northerly direction from the mouth of the River Loa in Atacama, along the Cordillera, crossing Lake Titicaca, and passing north thence to the line running from the Beni to the Javary.
Before the formation of the republic, Bolivia, or the former province of Charcas, consisted of four great districts or " intendencias," which were under the rule of the viceroy of Rio de la Plata. These were
1. Santa Cruz, formed of the districts of its bishopric Mojos, Chiquitos, Santa Cruz, Valle Grande, Misque, and the special jurisdiction of its capital Cochabamba;
2. La Paz, consisting of the dioceses of its bishopric ;
3. Potosi, comprising Tarija, Chichas, Lipez, Atacama, Porco, and Chayanta;
4. The province of La Plata, which embraced all remain-ing portions of the archbishopric.
At the present time the republic is divided politically into departments, provinces, and cantons. The departments, which are named La Paz de Ayacucho, Cochabamba, Potosí, Chuquisaca, Oruro, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tarija, Beni, and Atacama, have each one or two capital towns ; the provinces and cantons have also each its chief place. Each department has a governor, who stands in direct communication with the Government; the subdivisions have their corregidors and alcaldes, who are subject to the governor.
The westerly departments of La Paz, Oruro, and Potosi are situated in the highest regions of the plateau of Bolivia, and are more valuable on account of their mineral riches than for their vegetable products, of which a coarse grass is characteristic. The first consists of a series of high ranges and deep valleys, in which the climate and produc-tion vary with the elevation; the second lies also in the high table-land or Puna region; both are rich in veins of gold, silver, and tin, but the mining of these has not yet been fully developed. The third, Potosi, belongs entirely to the highest regions of Bolivia, and is bare and dry, with a cold and rude but healthy climate; this is the greatest mining region of the country.
The central departments of Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, and Tarija lie partly on the high plateau, partly on the lower slopes and plains eastward, and pass thus through the whole series of changing climates and zones of production, from the bare high land to the tropical regions of the low lands. The first is eminently the granary of Bolivia and southern Peru, excelling in the cultivation of wheat; the industries of woollen and cotton manufactures are also most highly developed in the department, but its mines are not worked. Chuquisaca, of which only a third part lies in the high land, is also a vegetable growing region, in which wheat, barley, rice, peas, vines, and all sorts of vegetables are cultivated ; cattle and horses are also numerous. The forests of this department and of Tarija, which slope down to the wooded and pastoral plains of the tributaries of the Paraguay, afford many species of valuable timber.
The departments of Beni (or Veni) and Santa Cruz de la Sierra lie altogether in the low lands of the east, stretching to the Rio Maderia and the Paraguay. The former is as yet little explored, but is a land of tropical forests, rivers, and swamps, with an unhealthy climate. Santa Cruz is also characterized by a hot, damp atmosphere, but produces garden and field fruits in astonishing richness,coffee, cocoa, vanilla, sugar-cane, maize, and cotton. The forests of both of these departments afford an infinity of valuable
timber trees, and in the latter there is much pasture land well fitted for cattle breeding.
The department of Atacama, which belongs geographically either to Peru or Chili, forms the only part of Bolivia which comes into contact with the ocean, and is situated between the Andes and the Pacific coast. It is almost entirely desert and sterile, has many volcanoes, and is characterized by rapid changes of temperature; it is almost destitute of population, and is only inhabited in those parts of the coast in which valuable guano deposits are found, or where the nitrate deposits and silver mines in the interior are worked. Near its northern limit is situated the small port of Cobija, the only avenue by which foreign articles of commerce can enter the Bolivian Republic without the payment of transit duties. It has obtained peculiar and valuable privileges as an encouragement to the introduction of merchandise by this route, in preference to the more convenient routes by the Puerto* Intermedios, belonging to the Republic of Peru. But the arid nature of the surrounding country, and the great scarcity of water, must greatly retard its advancement, since not only are the inhabitants scantily supplied with this necessary of life, but the mules employed in transporting goods into the interior are exposed to great hardships. Mountains. Western Bolivia is the highest and most mountainous country of the two Americas. Five separate systems of mountains, curving from Peru in the north-west and passing south into Chili, may be distinguished as forming its high land. Nearest the Pacific is the range of the outlying coast mountains, which does not exceed 5000 feet in altitude. The range of the true Andes rises farther inland, forming part of the vast chain which extends along the whole of America ; in Bolivia it attains an average height of 15,000 feet, and has a general width of 20 miles, having its highest known point here in the volcano of Sahama, 23,000 feet in elevation. Next follows the central system of the Cordil-lera Real, also named the eastern Cordillera, presenting a succession of sharp, rugged peaks, reaching up into the region of eternal ice and snow, higher generally than the Andes, but less massive: the peaks of Illimani (21,300 feet) and Sorata(24,800 feet)are its culminating points. Between the Andes and the Cordillera Real there are various Serrania or isolated groups of mountains, and single cerros of less altitude, rising from the enclosed plateau to 17,000 feet in some instances. The last system is that of the numerous minor Cordilleras, which run south-eastward from the Cordillera Real into the lowlands of eastern Bolivia, of which the most important is that of Cochabamba, stretching out to 62° 40' E. long. The elevation of the snow line in the highlands of Bolivia appears to vary between 16,000 and 18,000 feet, modified in many cases by the aspect of the mountains and the nature of the country surrounding them, being raised where heat is powerfully reflected from the surface of the bare high plains, or lowered where the mountains are exposed to cold southerly winds. Volcanoes are frequent in the Andes and coast ranges; those of Sahama and Isluga, with Tua, Olca, and Ollagua farther south, are constantly smoking.
These mountain systems divide Bolivia into a high region, containing many very elevated plains stretching between the enclosing heights of the west, and a low land forming the eastern side of the country, beneath the moun-tains, and at a comparatively small elevation above the sea. The high plains or basins of the plateau enclose a conti-nental water system, from which there is no outlet to the ocean, the rivers terminating in lakes, of which Lake Titicaca is the chief, or in swamps, or in vast dried up salt fields,rapid evaporation disposing of and balancing the supply of water flowing to these by the mountain streams.
The valley or plateau which is occupied by the Lake of Titicaca and the Rio Desaguadero forms the most ele-vated table-land in the globe, with the exception of that of Thibet, which presents only mountain pastures, covered with sheep; while this table-land of the New World pre-sents towns and populous cities, affords support to nume-rous herds of cattle, llamas, guanacos, and sheep, and is covered with harvests of maize, rye, barley, and wheat, at an elevation which has nothing to equal it in any other part of the world. The Lake of Titicaca or Chuquito, which occupies its northern extremity, is 12,600 feet above the level of the sea, and its extent is equal to 'fourteen times that of the Lake of Geneva, or 3220 square miles, the greatest depth being upwards of 700 feet. It is sur-rounded by numerous towns and villages, and a rich and fertile country, and contains several islands, the largest of which is called Titicaca, and was long held in great venera-tion by the Peruvian Indians, in consequence of its hav-ing been the place whence Manco Capac and his consort Manco Oello Huaco, the great founders of the empire of the Incas, issued, to spread civilization, industry, and good government among the surrounding nations. The Lake of Titicaca is very irregular in its form. It admits of exten-sive navigation for small vessels, though not unattended with danger, as it is subject to sudden storms and violent gusts of wind from the neighbouring mountains. This lake communicates with the smaller Lake of Pansa, or of the " Pampa Aullagas," situated at the southern extremity of the valley, by means of the Rio Desaguadero, which flows out of the Lake of Titicaca, and has a breadth of from 80 to 100 yards. This river and lake form part of the western boundaries between the Republics of Bolivia and Peru. Over the river was formed, in the time of the Incas, a suspension bridge, composed of cables and cords made of the grass and rushes which grow on its borders ; and the work was constantly renewed from time to time, to obviate the effects of decay, as it constituted the only line of communication between the opposite sides of the valley. These lakes, with the Desaguadero, form the only receptacles for the water of those rivers and streams which descend from the surrounding mountains and enter this extensive plain, which has no visible outlet whereby its contents can escape otherwise than by evaporation.
Those rivers which take their rise from the western Rivers, declivity of the Andes, and flow into the Pacific, are so inconsiderable in magnitude, and so short in their course, as scarcely to merit observation, and are only useful in supplying the means of a partial irrigation to the arid plains which separate these mountains from the Pacific. But those numerous rivers taking their origin on the eastern declivity of the Cordillera Real, which is the main water-parting of Bolivia, present a very different aspect, and are of much greater importance, since they communicate with large navigable rivers, which terminate in the Atlantic Ocean.
The River Paro or Beni, which takes its origin in the neighbourhood of the city of La Paz, and the Guapey, which rises near Cochabamba, and, sweeping round the southern and eastern bases of the Cordillera of Cochabamba, unites itself to the Mamore, flow to the north-east to mingle with the waters of the Madeira and the mighty Maranon or Amazons ; while the Pilcomayo, which rises near Potosi and Chuquisaca, and the Vermejo, from the valley of Tarija, bend their courses, at a considerable dis-tance from each other, to the south-east, until they join the Paraguay, which terminates in the Rio de la Plata. Possess-ing only a small extent of sea-board, and that in a perfect desert difficult of passage, and behind which the lofty range of the Andes forms a huge barrier, the whole of the rich provinces of eastern Bolivia are land-locked and almost-isolated from communication with the outer world. The most natural outlets of the country appear to be in the
rivers flowing to the great mediterranean navigation sys-tem of the Amazons in the north, or to the Rio de la Plata. More than forty years ago the importance of opening up a river highway from eastern Bolivia to the Rio Paraguay had impressed itself strongly on the Government, and large grants and privileges were offered in encouragement of this object, the rivers Otuquis, Tucabaca, and Latirequiqui, flowing to the Paraguay about the 20th parallel, being looked to as probably affording the desired navigable way. As yet, however, though this plan has been frequently revived, no definite progress has been made in this direction. An expedition sent down the Rio Pilcomayo in 1844 reported it innavigable. On the side of the Amazons, the rapids of the River Madeira, 18 in number, and extending over a distance of 230 miles, form a great natural barrier ; to overcome this and to connect the navigable upper tributaries in Bolivia with the navigation of the lower Madeira, a company was recently formed for the construc-tion of a railroad along the interrupted portion of the course of the Madeira : this scheme also is for the present in abeyance. It seems probable, however, that the recent opening of regular navigation on the Rio Vermejo from the Paraguay to the upper Argentine province of Jujuy on the southern frontier of Bolivia may to some extent afford an outlet, and tend to develop the resources of that part of the country.
Climate Bolivia Hes, as has been noticed, for the most part within
and vegeta- the tropical zone ; but from its peculiar formation, its
tion. climate and productions are dependent rather upon the
elevation of different parts of the land than upon its geographical situation. In descending from the highest region of snow and ice to the low plains of rich tropical vegetation several zones or stages are distinguished. The namePMKCI brava is given to the uppermost mountain regions which rise above 12,500 feet to the snow limit: these are scarcely inhabited by man, and are characterized by mosses and hardier grasses,the animal kingdom being represented by the vicuna, guanaco, llama, alpaca, viscacha, chinchilla, besides the condor and other birds of prey. The region be-tween an elevation of 11,000 feet and the lower Puna brava is termed the Puna ; less cold than the former, it is suited for the growth of potatoes, barley, and rush-like grasses, upon which sheep, llamas, vicunas, <fcc., may feed. This division embraces the whole of the high plains of Bolivia, which are but scantily peopled or cultivated. Several species of cactus are found in these elevated regions, and especially the Cactus peruvianas, which sometimes grows to a height of from 20 to 30 or even 40 feet, and is serviceable for many purposes. Under the general name Cabezera de Valle are grouped the heads of the valleys descending to the lower lands, between 9500 and 11,000 feet in elevation, where the climate is temperate. These cultivable districts produce wheat, maize, and the ordinary vegetables. The Valle or Medio Yunga is the general name of the deeper portions of the valleys, between 9500 and 5000 feet, with warm climate, affording field and garden fruits in abundance. The Yunga, lastly, is the low tropical region, comprising all beneath 5000 feet, and producing all kinds of tropical fruits and vegetation.
In the punas the air is always dry and perceptibly cold, though the temperature may rise high in the sun, and cold, cutting blasts of air from the mountains are of frequent occurrence. In the Valle and upper Yunga a perpetual spring seems to reign, and night frosts are rare. The western side of the Andes is completely rainless, all moisture-bearing clouds rolling up from the ocean being quickly evaporated, or condensed in the higher mountain regions in snow or hail; but the whole of the remaining eastern region of Bolivia has a rainfall. In the lowlands this is irregular in season; but in the upper regions of the
Puna and the Cabezera de Valle, <* mmy season generally begins in the middle of November and concludes in the beginning of March, often accompanied by furious thunder-storms, with hail and snow in the higher regions. The climate of Potosi, at an elevation of 13,300 to 13,600 feet, is so various that in one day it frequently exhibits the vicissitudes of the four seasons of the year. Thus, during the night and the early part of the morning it is piercingly cold; in the forenoon it resembles our fine weather in March; in the afternoon the rays of the sun in so pure and attenuated an atmosphere are very powerful and scorchingly hot; while towards evening the air usually becomes mild and serene. Strangers on first arriving in these higher plains are usually affected with difficulty of breathing, owing to the extreme rarity of the atmosphere ; they are likewise sufferers from dysentery, which, however, for the most part soon disappears, and in general the highlands are by no means unhealthy. Travellers in the higher regions are exposed to great danger and hardships owing to the storms which occasionally prevail, especially snow storms, which frequently produce the surumpi, or snow blindness, an affection which has proved fatal to some travellers. An infectious fever called " fiebre amarilla " sometimes breaks out in the Indian villages of the Puna, causing great loss of life ; coughs and lung diseases are prevalent among the children in the punas, and do much injury among grown people in the Valle and Yungas. In descending through the eastern provinces towards the plains of Mojos and Chiquitos, all the gradations of climate are experienced down to that which characterizes the equinoctial regions of America, where intermittent " terciana " or cold fevers, dysenteries, and other diseases peculiar to warm climates prevail.
The animals which distinguish the more elevated parts Animals, of Bolivia are the guanaco, the llama, the alpaca (the first supposed to be the original from which the second and third varieties have been domesticated), and the vicuna. These animals, in their structure and habits, are all closely allied to the camel of Africa. Thus, an examination of the structure of the stomach shows that they are capable of existing during a considerable time without any supply of water, and in fact they are seldom seen to drink from the streams of their native mountains. The camel seems peculiarly well calculated to live in the arid and burning deserts of the Old World, and the form of its feet is singularly adapted for traversing rapidly these extensive plains ; whilst, on the other hand, the guanaco and the llama have their feet so constructed as to enable them with facility to ascend and descend the abrupt declivities, and to traverse the rugged and uneven passes which abound in these mountains. They seem likewise to frequent particularly those parts of the Cordillera of the Andes which are the most dry and arid, and which are least clothed with forests and shrubbery. Thus, in the Cordillera which separates the Argentine Republic from Chili, the guanacos are found in great numbers on the summits and eastern declivities, which are exceedingly arid and bare when compared with the western or Chili side, where the Andes in their whole extent are clothed to a certain elevation with a broad belt of forest trees and evergreens, and where, at certain seasons of the year, there are heavy and continued rains. On this side guanacos are of comparatively rare occurrence. Their flesh is savoury when young, but not very palatable when full grown ; their wool, however, is very valuable to the Indians, who manu-facture it into hats and various kinds of woollen stuffs ; and their skins, when tanned, are useful in making shoes and harness. The number of these animals in the country is, estimated at not less than three millions ; about a third part of them, the full-grown males, are employed as
beasts of burden, all the traffic of Bolivia being carried on by means of them.
The vicuna (Oamelus vicugna) is a smaller animal than the guanaco or the llama, and only useful for its fleece. The wool is long and fine, and forms a valuable article of commerce ; it is of a brownish colour, somewhat resembling that of a dried rose leaf ; it has a soft, silky, and close texture, and is well adapted for the manufacture of hats and warm clothing. The vicuna very much resembles the llama and guanaco in its habits and dispositions, but cannot be usefully employed as a beast of burden. It usually frequents the highest parts of the mountains, is extremely timid, is gregarious, and runs very swiftly. The chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) is also an inhabitant of the moun-tainous parts of Bolivia. The skins, however, are of an inferior quality, although larger than those obtained from the northern parts of Chili; but still they form a very valuable article of commerce, on account of the great fineness and delicacy of their furs.
The sheep pasturing in the highlands of Bolivia are supposed to number about seven millions, and in the lower regions of the east horned cattle are very numerous. The eastern or more thickly-wooded parts of Bolivia are inhabited by a variety of wild animals, such as the jaguar and the tapir, which are more or less common in Brazil and the other parts of intertropical America of incon-siderable elevation.
Geology. The geological structure of the colossal mountains situated in Bolivia has hitherto been very imperfectly examined. We learn from Humboldt, however, that the metalliferous mountains near Potosi are principally composed of trachytic porphyries; and Mr Pentland discovered trachyte also in the mountain of Pichu, one of the most elevated of the western Cordillera. In the same chain there likewise exist various volcanic mountains, some of which are in an active state. There is perhaps no part of the world which affords a more interesting field for the investigations of the geologist than Bolivia, not only on account of the great elevation which it attains, but also from the exhibitions of internal structure presented by volcanic agency and otherwise, not to mention the aid afforded by such inquiries in the prosecution of mining enterprises.
Minerals. The great variety, extent, and value of the mineral productions of the mountainous districts of Bolivia have given to this part of America an importance and celebrity which it would not otherwise have obtained, and have caused large and populous cities and towns to be built at elevations where the rigours of the climate and the deficient vegetation would otherwise have afforded very few inducements for fixing the abodes of industry. Mining is, however, at the present time in a ruinous state.
Gold. Gold is found in considerable quantities in the moun-
tainous parts of Bolivia ; but, owing to the expense of extracting the metal from the ore, the mines which produce it have not been worked to the extent of which they are capable. In these it is usually found in the form of grains or nodules, or intermixed with antimony, silver, and other substances, and is separated by reducing the whole to a fine powder, and by amalgamation with quicksilver. The mountain of Illimani is believed to contain great quantities of gold, in consequence of that metal having been found in a native state in considerable quantities in the lake of Illimani, situated at its base. In the 17th century, likewise, an Indian found here, at a short distance from the city of La Paz, a mass of native gold, which was said to have been detached from the mountain by the agency of lightning, and which, having been purchased for the sum of 11,269 dollars, was afterwards deposited in the cabinet of natural history at Madrid. But by far the greater part of the gold procured in Bolivia is obtained by means of the lavaderos or gold-washingo, m the beds of rivulets, where it is found in the form of grains. The most produc-tive of these are the celebrated lavaderos of Tipuani, consisting of streams descending from the snow-capped summits of the Cordillera of Ancuma, situated about sixty leagues to the north-east of the city of La Paz, in the province of Larecaja. The gold is found in the form of grains or pepitas, at the depth of 10 or 12 yards below the surface, embedded in a stratum of clay of several feet in thickness. The gold-washings at Tipuani were worked in the time of the Peruvian Incas, as is evinced by their tools, which are occasionally found embedded in the alluvial soil, and almost invariably in such situations as prove the most productive. The gold-washings and quartz veins of Cho-queeamata, in the province of Ayopaya in Cochabamba, are also famous, and their yield up to 1847 was valued at £8,000,000. Several districts of the departments of Potosi, Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, are also rich in gold, but the greater part of the mines formerly worked have now been abandoned, or the known veins have not been explored.
Silver, however, has hitherto been the staple metallic Silver, production of Bolivia, and has given to it that celebrity which it has long possessed. In the rich mountains of Potosi alone, according to the records kept at Potosi of the quintas or royal duties from the year 1545 to the year 1800, no less than 823,950,509 dollars were coined dur-ing that period; and if the other produce of the mines be taken into account, it is estimated that not less than 1,647,901,018 dollars must have been obtained from this source alone during those 255 years.
The Cerro de Potosi, or argentiferous mountain of Potosi, has a somewhat conical form, resembling a colossal sugar-loaf ; its base being about three leagues in circumfer-ence, and its summit 15,977 feet above the level of the sea, and 2697 above the level of the great square or plaza of the city of Potosi, which is situated at its base. At the foot of the Cerro is a smaller mountain called Huayna Potosi, or the Younger Potosi, likewise containing silver, but in less abundance than the other, and less accessible, from the numerous springs which there impede the opera-tions of mining. The principal mountain has been worked as high up as within 125 feet of its summit. The labours of the miners have been principally confined to the upper half of the mountain, which has been perforated by nume-rous excavations, with at least 5000 openings of mines, the greater number of which are however abandoned. The upper part of the mountain is exhausted to a considerable extent of its valuable contents ; but the lower part is still in a great measure untouched, as the springs are there more numerous, and the water accumulates in such quantities as materially to interrupt the further progress of the miners. The mines of Potosi, according to Humboldt, rank next in importance to those of Guanaxuato in Mexico. The exist-ence of silver in this place was first accidentally discovered by an Indian in the year 1545, and ever since that time its mines have been worked. In 1858, twenty-two companies were working 46 silver mines and 4 tin shafts in the pro-vince of Potosi, and the yield in 1856 amounted to a value of nearly a million dollars.
The silver mines of Portugalete, in the province of Chichas, have acquired considerable celebrity on account of the richness as well as quantity of their ores, which yield from 60 to 80 merks of silver to the caxon, while those of Potosi only afford about 10 merks from the same quantity of ore. Besides these there are various other silver mines in the province of Chichas, but their value is much dimi-nished by the scarcity of water, and by their being situated in an almost desert and unproductive country. The mines of Laurani, in the province of Sicasica in La Paz, once famous,
are now abandoned; and those of the province of Arque in Cochabamba are not now regularly worked. The rich silver mines of Lipez also lie fallow, as do those of the department of Oruro. In 1870 great silver deposits were discovered at Caracoles, about 120 miles inland, in the desert province of Atacama, drawing thither a rush of miners from all parts of Chili and Peru.
Among the other mineral riches of P>olivia copper takes the next rank, and is also widely distributed The province of Ingavi in La Paz possesses mines from which 15,000 to 20.000 cwts. of copper are annually taken. The departments of Potosi, Chuquisaca, Oruro, and Atacama are also rich in copper. Tin is mined to some extent in Potosi and Oruro, where it is found along with the silver. Lead is also frequently found in the neighbourhood of silver, as well as quicksilver. The methods hitherto employed for the reduction of the ores of this country are exceedingly imperfect and inefficient. More skill and capital are requisite to render them productive and remunerating Coal and iron have been found in the departments of Chuquisaca, Oruro, and Beni, though the extent or value of these products is yet unknown. Precious stones, chiefly the hyacinth and opal, have been found in the department of Santa Cruz, and diamonds in Beni.
Very valuable beds of guano extend along the Pacific coast between 23° and 25° S., those of Mexillones being specially famous. Nitrate of soda also exists in great quantity in the deserts of Atacama, and is profitably worked.
The roads which form the means of communication between Bolivia and the surrounding countries, and between the various provinces of the republic, are in no respect sufficient for the important purposes which they are destined to serve. By inattention to the formation and preservation of roads, the Spaniards and their descendants have fallen greatly behind the ancient Peruvians, whose industry and civilization they affected to despise, and laboured hard to depreciate. The present route, for it can scarcely be designated by the name of road, from Potosi to Jujuy, the first city belonging to the Argentine Republic, is about 310 miles in length ; and this place forms the point where a road commences for carriages and waggons as far as Buenos Ayres, an additional extent of land carriage of about 1617 geographical miles. The various routes from Bolivia to the coast of the Pacific, by the way of Cobija, by Tarapaca, and by Oruro to Tacna, can only be passed on mules or horseback ; and travellers are sometimes exposed to great perils and hardships from exposure to the storms which occasionally prevail at such great elevations. The President Ballivian, however, while in office, did much to obviate these difficulties, and initiated a new era of things by the construction of a splendid highway, which leads from Sucre, and passing Santa Cruz, connects Mojos and Chiquitos and the fertile plains of the Beni and Madeira. Although railroads are as yet unknown in the greater part of Bolivia, and though the country presents the most formidable natural difficulties in the way of engineering, a beginning has been made in this direction. The only line at present constructed in Bolivian territory is a short one from the bay of Autofagasta, south of that of Mexillones on the Pacific coast, in Atacama, to the nitrate of soda works of Salar el Carmer; it is intended to extend this line inland to the nitrate fields and to the silver mines of Caracoles. It is also proposed to extend one of the southern Peruvian coast lines, starting from near the point of Iquique to Oruro in Bolivia. At present one of the main outlets of western Bolivia is by the Peruvian railroad from the port of Mollendo and Arequipa to Puno, on Lake Titicaca, completed in 1870. Puno, its inland terminus, is connected with Bolivia by steam navigation across Lake Titicaca.
The productions furnished by Bolivia as articles of Products commerce are chiefly the precious metals, vicuna and alpaca an(i traQ,& wool, guano, nitrate of soda, leather, coffee, cacao, and chinchona bark; but from the fact that no direct com-mercial intercourse has ever existed with the outer world, these products are frequently ascribed to the countries through which they must pass. Thus the metals and wools of Bolivia are looked upon as Peruvian, and the cinchona bark and gums passing out eastward are credited to Brazil or the Argentine Republic. The rude and simple fabrics manufactured by the Peruvian Indians are usually appropriated to their own domestic uses ; while the valu-able vegetable productions, and the herds of cattle and mules which are reared in the eastern parts of the republic, have hitherto scarcely been sufficient for the supply of the inhabitants of those populous mining districts that are principally dependent on them for subsistence.
Before the war of independence a very extensive traffic was maintained between the upper provinces of Peru (or Bolivia) and the provinces of the Rio de la Plata for supplies of cattle and mules. These were reared in great numbers in all the interior Argentine provinces expressly for the use of those countries, and were first sent by easy journeys to the luxuriant pastures of Salta and Jujuy, where they were carefully fed and tended during the winter, previous to their being conveyed to their final destination in Bolivia and Peru. Some idea may be formed of the extent of this traffic from the statement that, besides all those furnished by the other Argentine provinces, the province of Salta alone supplied annually to Upper and Lower Peru from 60,000 to 80,000 mules, on all of which they realized considerable profits, the prices being proportioned to the distance to which they were conveyed. The customs derived from the import of cattle from the Argentine Republic still form an important source of revenue. The trade is now in a great degree diverted from the Argentine provinces to the ports of the Pacific called the Puertos Intermedios. Tacna and Arequipa, with their respective ports, have now become the principal channels through which Bolivia receives the produce and manufactures of other countries, the Bolivian port of Cobija being of little value, owing to the difficulties of transport from it by mules and llamas across the desert track and the mountains. There are no certain returns of the value of the trade of Bolivia; the importation by Tacna and Arica is valued at 5 or 6 millions of dollars, that of Cobija at 1^ to 2 millions. A new and very important channel of communication for commerce will be opened between Bolivia and the Atlantic, whenever commercial enterprise and increasing civilization shall have established steam navigation on the Rio de la Plata and its tributary streams, or from the mouth of the Amazons to its distant tributaries the Beni and the Mamore.
The population of Bolivia consists of a mixture of Population various races, chiefly of the Spaniards with the Indian natives. A third of their number live in towns or " villas," the rest in smaller villages, or in the open camp. Besides the native Indians there are in the country some descendants of African negro slaves, and not a few Guaranis, who came over from the regions east of the Paraguay, and settling in the plains, have increased in numbers. The Indian population may be considered as the civilized, the half civilized, and the wild. To the first class belong the Quichua and Aymara, or the Inca Indians, who are by far the most numerous, who have come most closely into contact with the Spanish invaders, and who occupy chiefly the highlands of the west. The Indians of Mojos and Chiquitos may be considered as representing the half-civilized class,retaining part of the civilization introduced among them in the 17th century by the Jesuits-The nomadic or wild Indians of the eastern lowlands in
Bolivia belong to the following tribes :The Sirionos, who inhabit the banks of the Rio Grande or Guapay, and of the Rio Pirai; the Hichilos, who occupy the pampas north of San Carlos in the department of Beni; the Penoqulquias, living in the upper or southern districts of the River Itonama or San Miguel; the Guaranocas, inhabiting the western portion of the space between the rivers Tucabaca and Latiriquique ; the Potororos in the north-west of the same district; and the Chiriguanos, occupying the country along the north of the upper Pilcomayo below the con-fluence of the Pilaya. To these may be added the Tobas, who though they generally occupy the lower basin of the Rio Vermejo in the Argentine portion of the Chaco, occasionally make raids into the departments of Tarija and Chuquisaca, plundering and destroying the villages, and carrying off women and cattle. The Quichuaand Aymara have no relations or sympathies with the Indians of the plains, who in their turn hold the civilized Indians in great contempt. These descendants of the Peruvians under the empire of the Incas are still numerous, notwithstanding the many causes which have tended to diminish their numbers, and form a distinct race, preserving the language and manners of their ancestors, their habits having been only somewhat modified by the circumstances in which they have been placed since they came under the dominion of the Spaniards. The Quichuas are mild in character, apparently subdued and apathetic,qualities which are but the natural result of the state of subjection and debasement in which they were long held by their conquerors; they are, however, robust and muscular, and capable of great endurance, though little inclined to labour; their customs are rude and simple, their mode of living poor in the extreme. The Aymara are perhaps more mobile in char-acter, but in other respects similar. Both are cultivators of the land according to their rude notions of husbandry; vegetables, especially maize and potatoes, form the staple of their food, and they indulge freely in their favourite chicha, an intoxicating liquor prepared from maize; many are employed as drivers of llama trains, or are breeders of the llama, sheep, or goats, which they possess in great numbers. Among the half-bred population of Bolivia, who stand in relation of numbers to the Inca Indians as about one to two, there are distinguished the zambo, or half-negro half-Indian, powerful in frame and intelligent, but unfaithful and cunning; the mulatto, or offspring of the Spaniard and negro ; and the cholo, the descendant of the alliances of the Spaniards with the Inca Indians. The last generally resemble their fathers in character, and occupy themselves chiefly in mining. It is to the Cholos that Bolivia owes its political independence.
The population of Bolivia has greatly increased since the year of independence, 1825, when the whole number did not exceed 979,000; in 1831 it exceeded 1,000,000 ; at the census of 1846 it had risen to 1,380,000. The follow-ing table shows the population of each department, as given by Ondarza in 1858. This is the most recent detailed statement of the population of Bolivia, but an estimate of the population of the ecclesiastical divisions of the country for 1874 is appended to it; the provinces into which each department is divided are also named, on the authority of Herr Reck :
La Paz Omasuyos Ingavi Sicasica Muñecas Yungas Larecaja . Inquisivi
Carry forward, 475,322
Population, 8158. 475,322
SANTA CRUZ DE LA SIERRA.
1,742,352 . 245,000
Brought forward, ( Cochabamba I Cliza Tapacari Mizque i Arque LAyopaya ( Potosí I Porco \ Chayanta I Chichas I Lipez ( Yamparaes I Tomina-azero ( Cinti
ÍSanta Cruz Valle Grande Chiquitos Cordillera Í Oruro
< Paría or Poópo ( Carangas Í Tarija I Salinas ( Concepción
Caupolican or Apolobamba >
Upper and Lower Deserts
The Archbishopric of La Plata, including the departments of Potosi, Chuquisaca, Oruro, Tarija, and Atacama, con-tained in 1874 706,989 inhabitants ; the Bishopric of La Paz, the department of La Paz, 519,465 ; the Bishopric of Santa Cruz, the department of Santa Cruz, 205,131 ; and the Bishopric of Cochabamba, the department of Cocha-bamba, 379,783,total, 1,811,368. Decrees of 1866 and 1867 ordered the formation of two new departments, viz., Melgarejo, to be formed of part of the existing department of Cochabamba, and including the town of Tarata, and Mexillones, on the coast.
The populations of the chief towns, in 1858, were as follows:La Paz, 76,372; Cochabamba, 40,678; Chu-quisaca or Sucre, 23,079; Potosi, 22,580; Santa Cruz, 9780 ; Oruro (the sea. of Government since 1869), 7980; Tarija, 5680; Trinidad, 4170; Cobija, 2380. Among the small number of foreigners in the country, Italians, Spaniards, and French are in a majority.
The area of Bolivia, hitherto very uncertain, on account Area, of the indefinite state of the frontier on the east and south, has been calculated at Gotha, on the basis of the recent determination of the boundary with Brazil, at 536,200 English square miles, or about ten times the extent of England.
The religion of the people is Roman Catholic. Since Religion, the commencement of the republican government a con- Education, siderable part of the revenues of the minor convents and monastic establishments in Bolivia has been diverted from their original purposes to form a fund for the establish-ment and support of seminaries of education. Colleges on improved modern principles are formed in each of the departments. A university having long existed at Chu-quisaca for the education of the youth of Upper Peru, the utility of the establishment was greatly augmented, during the administration of General Sucre, by an im-provement in the modes of instruction, and an increase in the number of the departments of education. In Potosi, likewise, efficient means were adopted by General Miller, while prefect of that department, to establish there a college for the study of mineralogy,a branch of education of great importance in a place wholly dependent on mining.
The constitution given to the country by Bolivar, which, in the frequent revolutions of later times has often been modified and altered, and sometimes set aside altogether, is founded on the strictest principles of justice, in as far as regards the civil rights and privileges of the community; but in other respects, and particularly in reference to the supreme executive authority, its provisions savour strongly of a monarchical spirit. The supreme authority is vested in a presidente vitalicio, or president for life, with the power of naming his successor. It guarantees to the Bolivians civil liberty, security of persons and property, and equality of rights; the free exercise and communication of thoughts and opinions, either by the press or otherwise; liberty to remain or leave the territory of the republic with their property, at their pleasure, but without prejudice to others ; equality in the imposition of taxes and contributions, from the payment of which none can be exempted; and the abolition of all hereditary employments, privileges, and entails. No profession, trade, or employment can be prohibited, unless repugnant to public feeling, or injurious to the health and security of the community; and every inventor is secured in the benefits of his discovery. No one can be arrested without previous information of the alleged fact of delinquency, unless when taken flagranti delicto. All trials and judgments are public; and in criminal cases none can be imprisoned more than forty-eight hours without having presented to him the charges preferred against him, and being delivered over to the proper tribunal or judge.
By this constitution all legitimate power emanates directly from the people, and is in the first instance exercised by all who can justly claim the privilege of citizens. Of these every ten nominate an elector, who exercises his delegated authority for a period of four years. At the commencement of each year all the electors assemble in the capitals of their respective provinces, and regulate their proceedings and the exercise of their various functions by a plurality of votes. They elect the members of the three legislative chambers, the number of each amounting to thirty ; those for the chamber of tribunes being nominated for four years, and renewed by moieties every two years ; those for the senate for eight years, and renewed by moieties every four years ; and those for the chamber of censors being nominated for life.
The executive government consists of a president, vice-president, and three secretaries of state. The president of the republic is named for the first time by a majority of the collective legislature, and retains the dignity during life, with the power of naming his successor. He is the chief of the administration of the state, and is not responsible for the acts of his administration. The constitutional privileges of the president are the most limited that have been intrusted to the supreme chief of any nation. They extend only to the nomination of the officers of the revenue, of peace, and of war, and the command of the army. The administration belongs wholly to the ministry, which is responsible to the senate, and is subject to the jealous vigilance of the legislators, magistrates, judges, and citizens. The judicial department enjoys the most perfect independence, the members composing it being proposed by the people, and chosen by the legislature. Slavery in every form has long been abolished, and the exercise of religion is free from all restraints. The armed force is composed of the regular army, amounting to about 3000 officers and men, to garrison and defend the frontiers; of the national militia to preserve internal order; of the preventive service to protect the revenue; and of a navy when circumstances may require its formation.
The financial budget of Bolivia for 1873-74 was as follows, the amount being given in Bolivian dollars of the value of about 3s. 3d. sterling :
Customs j £.a oKn'nno
I Cobija 250,000
Export of Silver 193,676
Sale of Guano 300,000
Cattle Customs (Argentine Republic) 20,880
English Loan 650,000
Indian Tribute 686,307
Public debt 1873 = 16,428,329 bolivianos, including £1,700,000 sterling of the loan for railways.
The early history of that part of the empire of the Incas which now forms the Republic of Bolivia is so intimately connected with that of Peru, that the consideration of it may with propriety be deferred until we come to treat of that country, in which Cuzco, the capital of the Incas, is situated. Attention will therefore at present be directed chiefly to that period of its history which is more recent, and which has so materially influenced its present condition.
The Peruvians, ever since the conquest of their country by the Spaniards in the 16th century, have been sub-jected to a system of tyranny and oppression which has few parallels in the history of the universe. They were treated little better than beasts of burden. By their toil the gold and silver were obtained from the mines, the lands were cultivated, the flocks and herds were attended to, and all the domestic and menial offices performed. Yet the fruits of their labour, especially that of mining, which was attended with numerous privations, and often with great loss of life, were altogether devoted to enriching their oppressors.
One of their principal grievances was the mita, a compulsory kind of personal labour, either in the working of the mines or in the cultivation of the fields, exacted from the Indians generally for the space of one year. The proprietors of mines and land to be worked or cultivated were privileged to claim as their undoubted right the personal services of the Indian population of the district surrounding that in which their property was situated. By the regulations of the mita a proportional number of the Indians of the district were annually chosen by lot for the purposes required; and some idea may be formed of the effects of such a regulation from the fact that 1400 mines were registered in Peru alone, and that every mine which remained unworked a year and a day became the property of the first claimant. So much was the labour of the mines dreaded by those persons on whom the lot fell, that they considered it as equivalent to a sentence of death, and made all their arrangements accordingly, carrying with them their wives and families to their new and dreaded place of abode. An estimate may be formed of the extent of this evil from 12,000 Indians having been annually required by the mita of Potosi alone ; and it is calculated that, in the mines of Peru, no less than 8,285,000 Indians have perished in this manner. Besides the mita for the service of the mines, the Indians were also compelled to labour for their superiors on their cultivated estates, their estaucias or grazing farms, and also in their obrages or manufactories.
The tribute exacted by the Government from every Indian between the age of eighteen and fifty-five was a capitation tax of 8 dollars. This was levied with the greatest rigour, and the official persons charged with its collection frequently committed great injustice in doing so,obliging the Indians to commence these payments at fifteen, and continue them until seventy years of age, and putting the amount of tribute for the years before and after the legal period into their own pockets. In proof of
the extent to which this evil was carried, and of the rapacity of the Spanish Government, it may be stated that a law was enacted for the express purpose of augmenting the number of the people liable to pay tribute. By it the Indians were obliged to marry, the men at the age of fifteen, the women at thirteen. The governor of each province was responsible to the Government for the amount of the tribute, which was regulated by a census of the tributary Indians, taken every seven years; and in this many frauds were practised, the actual number being often underrated.
Besides all these, the Peruvian Indians were long sub-jected to another system of extortion no less grievous and unjust,the law of repartamienlo. This was originally established with the best intentions,the governors or corregidors of the districts being intrusted with the charge of supplying the inhabitants under their care with such articles as they might require at a fair and equitable price. But the law, which had so plausible an origin, was shame-fully abused ; and it was made compulsory on the Indian population to purchase worthless articles at an extrava-gant price.
The constant and extensive operation of these demoraliz-ing practices, although more immediately affecting the aboriginal population, could not fail to produce the most pernicious effects on the Creoles or descendants of the Spaniards ; but, in addition to these causes of debasement, the latter were subjected to numerous unjust and oppres-sive laws, all tending to paralyze their advancement.
The raising of those vegetable products which form the principal objects of culture in Spain, as articles of com-merce, was strictly prohibited to the South Americans, however favourable the soil and climate of their native country might be for the production of them. No kind of manufacture of cloth or articles of clothing was permitted which could interfere with the commerce of Old Spain, excepting only the coarse fabrics manufactured and worn by the Indians. Even the valuable mines of mercury and iron found in South America were, in a great measure, hermetically sealed by prohibitory decrees, lest they might interfere with the traffic carried on by Spain in these articles. And, not only was the commerce of South America confined entirely to Spain and prohibited with other nations, under the severest penalties, but the colonies were not per-mitted to have any commerce with each other.
The grievances under which they suffered at length ex-ceeded even the powers of endurance possessed by the pacific Indians, and gave rise to the insurrection of 1780-81, led by the Inca Tupac Amaru, who spread fire and sword against everything Spanish from Cuzco to Jujuy; twice the city of La Paz was besieged by a force of 20,000 Indians ; and in the battle before that town Tupac Amaru was made prisoner and put to death in the most barbarous manner by the Spaniards. The insurrection was finally put down in 1782, and with it ended the last power of the Incas. The aboriginal population, having failed in their arduous under-taking, after the destruction of great numbers of their nation, and finding their chains now rivetted with double force, never again recovered their wonted energies. This accounts for the comparative indifference with which they viewed the rise and progress of the war of independence.
From the causes already stated, the war of independence was principally carried on, as regards Bolivia, by the resources of, and in concert with, the neighbouring pro-vinces of the Rio de la Plata and Peru, all of which had equal cause to avenge themselves on their oppressors, but were placed in circumstances somewhat more fortunate for accomplishing their purpose. When the patriots of Buenos Ayres had succeeded in liberating from the dominion of Spain the interior provinces of the Rio de la Plata, they turned their arms against their enemies who held Upper
Peru. An almost uninterrupted warfare followed, from July 1809 till August 1825, with alternate successes on the side of the Spanish or royalist and the South American or patriot forces,the scene of action lying chiefly between the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy and the shores of Lake Titicaca. The first movement of the war was the successful invasion of Upper Peru by the army of Buenos Ayres, under General Balcarce, which, after twice defeating the Spanish troops, was able to celebrate the first anniver-sary of independence near Lake Titicaca, in May 1811. Soon, however, the patriot army, owing to the dissolute conduct and negligence of its leaders, became disorganized, and was attacked and defeated, in June 1811, by the Spanish army under General Goyeneche, and driven back into Jujuy. Four years of warfare, in which victory was alternately with the Spaniards and the patriots, was ter-minated in 1815 by the total rout of the latter in a battle which took place between Potosi and Oruro. To this suc-ceeded a revolt of the Indians of the southern provinces of Peru, and the object being the independence of the whole country, it was joined by numerous Creoles. This insur-rection was, however, speedily put down by the royalists. Inl816the Spanish general Laserna, having been appointed commander-in-chief of Upper Peru, made an attempt to invade the Argentine provinces, intending to march on Buenos Ayres, but he was completely foiled in this by the activity of the irregular gaucho troops of Salta and Jujuy, and was forced to retire. During this time and in the six succeeding years a guerilla warfare was maintained by the patriots of Upper Peru, who had taken refuge in the moun-tains, chiefly of the province of Yungas, and who frequently harassed the royalist troops. In June 1823 the expedition of General Santa Cruz, prepared with great zeal and activity at Lima, inarched in two divisions upon Upper Peru, and in the following months of July and August the whole country between La Paz and Oruro was occupied by his forces ; but later, the indecision and want of judgment displayed by Santa Cruz allowed a retreat to be made before a smaller royalist army, and a severe storm converted their retreat into a precipitate flight, only a remnant of the expedition again reaching Lima. In 1824, after the great battle of Ayacucho in Lower Peru, General Sucre, whose valour had contributed so much to the patriot success of that day, marched with a part of the victorious army into Upper Peru. On the news of the victory a universal rising of the patriots took place, and before Sucre had reached Oruro and Puno, in February 1825, La Paz was already in their possession, and the royalist garrisons of several towns had gone over to their side. The Spanish general Olaiieta, with a diminished army of 2000 men, was confined to the province of Potosi, where he held out till March 1825, when he was mortally wounded in an action with some of his own revolted troops.
General Sucre was now invested with the supreme com-mand in Upper Peru, until the requisite measures could be taken to establish in that country a regular and constitu-tional government. Deputies from the various provinces to the number of fifty-four were assembled at Chuquisaca, the capital, to decide upon the question proposed to them on the part of the Government of the Argentine provinces, whether they would or would not remain separate from that country. In August 1825 they decided this question, declar-ing it to be the national will that Upper Peru should in future constitute a distinct and independent nation. This assembly continued their session, although the primary object of their meeting had thus been accomplished, and afterwards gave the name of Bolivia to the country,issuing at the same time a formal declaration of independence.
The first general assembly of deputies of Bolivia dissolved itself on the 6th of October 1825, and a new congress
was summoned and formally installed at Chuquisaca on the 25th May 1826, to take into consideration the consti-tution prepared by Bolivar for the new republic. A. favourable report was made to that body by a committee appointed to examine it, on which it was approved by the congress, and declared to be the constitution of the republic ; and as such, it was sworn to by the people. General Sucre was chosen president for life, according to the con-stitution, but only accepted the appointment for the space of two years, and on the express condition that 2000 Colombian troops should be permitted to remain with him.
The independence of the country, so dearly bought, did not, however, secure for it a peaceful future. Repeated risings occurred, till in the end of 1827 General Sucre and his Colombian troops were driven from La Paz. A new congress was formed at Chuquisaca in April 1828, which modified the constitution given by Bolivar, and chose Marshal Santa Cruz for president; but only a year later a revolution, led by General Blanco, threw the country into disorder and for a time overturned the Government. Quiet being again restored in 1831, Santa Cruz promulgated the code of laws which bore his name, and brought the finan-cial affairs of the country into some order; he also con-cluded a treaty of commerce with Peru, and for several years Bolivia remained in peace. In 1835, when a struggle for the chief power had made two factions in the neigh-bouring republic of Peru, Santa Cruz was induced to take a part in the contest; he marched into that country, and j after defeating General Gamarra, the leader of one of the i opposing parties, completed the pacification of Peru in the ! spring of 1836, named himself its protector, and had in i view a confederation of the two countries. At this juncture j the Government of Chili interfered actively, and espousing j the cause of Gamarra, sent troops into Peru. Three years | of fighting ensued, till in a battle at Jungay in June 1839 Santa Cruz was defeated and exiled, Gamarra became pre-sident of Peru, and General Velasco provisional chief in Bolivia. The Santa Cruz party, however, remained strong in Bolivia, and soon revolted successfully against the new j head of the Government, ultimately installing General i Ballivian in the chief power. Taking advantage of the disturbed condition of Bolivia, Gamarra made an attempt to annex the rich province of La Paz, invading it in August 1841 and besieging the capital; but in a battle with Bal-livian his army was totally routed, and Gamarra himself was killed. The Bolivian general was now in turn to in-vade Peru, when Chili again interfered to prevent him. Ballivian remained in the presidency till 1848, when he retired to Valparaiso, and in the end of that year General Belzu, after leading a successful military revolution, took the chief power, and during his presidency endeavoured to
promote agriculture, industry, and trade. General Jorge Cordova succeeded him, but had not been long in office when a new revolt in September 1857, originating with the garrison of Oruro, spread over the land, and compelled him to quit the country. His place was taken by Dr José Maria Linares, the originator of the revolution, who taking into his own hands all the powers of Government, and act-ing with the greatest severity, caused himself to be pro-claimed dictator in March 1858. Fresh disturbances led to the deposition of Linares in 1861, when Dr Maria de Acha was chosen president. In 1862 a treaty of peace and commerce with the United States of North America was ratified, and in the following year a similar treaty was concluded with Belgium; but new causes of disagreement with Chili had arisen in the discovery of rich beds of guano on the eastern coast-land of the desert of Atacama, which threatened warfare, and were only set at rest by the treaty of August 1866, in which the 24th parallel of latitude was adopted as the boundary between the two republics. A new military revolution, led by Maria Mel-garejo, broke out in 1865, and in February of that year the troops of President Acha were defeated in a battle near Potosi, when Melgarejo took the dominion of the country. After defeating two revolutions, in 1865 and 1866, the new president declared a political amnesty, and in 1869, after imposing a revised constitution on the country, he became its dictator till 1871.
Such, in brief, are the rapidly succeeding political changes and internal conflicts which have kept Bolivia far behind its neighbouring republics, and have prevented the de-velopment of its natural wealth. Notwithstandingthese wars and revolutions which rent the country, Bolivia had main-tained itself without foreign credit until the presidency of Melgarejo, when it was drawn into disastrous speculations and contracts which have compromised its credit and loaded the country with a heavy foreign debt.
President Morales was elected in 1871 ; since that time a civilian Government has succeeded to the military sys-tem, and attempts are being made to reform the disordered affairs of the republic.
A. Dessalines d'Orbigny, Voyages dans VAmerique méridionale,
1826-1833, Paris, 1835, and Descripción geográfica, histórica, y
estadística de Bolivia, París, 1845 ; Dalence, Statistical Account of
Bolivia, 1846 ; H. A. Weddell, Voyage dans le nord de la Bolivie,
Paris, 1853 ; Manoel José Cortés, Ensayo sobre la Historia de Bo-
livia, Sucre, 1861 ; David Forbes, Report on the Geology of South
America, London, 1861; Hugo Reck, "Geographie und Statistik
der Republik Bolivia," in Geogr. Mittheilungen, Gotha, 1865, 1866,
1867 ; Avelino Aramayo, Projecto de una nueva via de communi-
cation entre Bolivia y el océano Pacifico, London, 1863,also
Bolivia (extracts from the last work, translated, with additions
to 1874), London, 1874 ; José Domingo Cortés, Bolivia, Paris,
1875. (K. J.)