CATEGORY (Gr. KaT-qyopla), a term first introduced into the philosophical vocabulary by Aristotle, means etymologically an accusation. Even in the writings of Aristotle the word occurs once or twice in this its primary
acceptation, but generally it has there a definite and technical signification. So also in Aristotle the verb Karriyopuv, to accuse, takes the specific logical sense, to pre-dicate ; TO KaTvyopovfj,evov becomes the predicate; and Ko.Ttiyopi.Kr) irporao-is may be translated as affirmative pro-position. But though the word thus received a new signi-fication from Aristotle, it is not on that account certain that the thing it was taken to signify was equally a novelty in philosophy. We do find in the records of Oriental and early Greek thought something corresponding to the Aris-totelian classification.
Our knowledge of Hindu philosophy, and of the rela-tions in which it may have stood to Greek speculation, is not yet adequate to give decisive answers to various ques-tions that naturally arise on observation of their many resemblances , and it might therefore appear irrelevant to introduce into an historical notice of a peculiarly Western doctrine any reference to its Eastern counterpart. Yet the similarity between the two is so striking that, if not historically connected, they must at least be regarded as expressions of similar philosophic wants. The Hindu classification to which we specially refer is that of Kanada, who lays down six categories, or classes of existence, a seventh being generally added by the commentators. The term employed is Padartha, meaning " signification of a word." This is in entire harmony with the Aristotelian doc-trine, the categories of which may with truth be described as significations of simple terms, TO. Kara p-rjSepiav avpnrXoKTjv \eyopeva. The six categories of Kanada are Substance, Quality, Action, Genus, Individuality, and Concretion or Co-inherence. To these is added Non-Existence, Priva-tion, or Negation. Substance is the permanent sub-strate in which Qualities exist. Action, belonging to or inhering in substances, is that which produces change. Genus belongs to substance, qualities, and actions; there are higher and lower genera. Individuality, found only in substance, is that by which a thing is self-existent and marked off from others. Concretion or Co-inherence denotes inseparable or necessary connection, such as that between substance and quality. Under these six classes, yivt) TOV OVTOS, Kanada then proceeds to range the facts of the universe.
Within Greek philosophy itself there were foreshadow-ings of the Aristotelian doctrine, but nothing so important as to warrant the conclusion that Aristotle was directly influenced by it. Doubtless the One and Many, Being and Non-Being, of the Eleatic dialectic, with their sub-ordinate oppositions, may be called categories, but they are not so in the Aristotelian sense, and have little or nothing in common with the later system. Their starting-point and results are wholly diverse. Nor does it appear neces-sary to do more than mention the Pythagorean table of principles, the number of which is supposed to have given rise to the decuple arrangement adopted by Aristotle. The two classifications have nothing in common ; no term in the one list appears in the other ; and there is absolutely nothing in the Pythagorean principles which could have led to the theory of the categories.
travris, ascribed to ARCHYTAS (g.v.), has been proved to be an error. The treatise itself dates in all probability from the Neo-Pythagorean schools of the 2d century A.D.
One naturally turns to Plato when endeavouring to dis-cover the genesis of any Aristotelian doctrine, and un-doubtedly there are in the Platonic writings many detached discussions in which the matter of the categories is touched upon. Special terms also are anticipated at various times, e.g., 7uoiÓTr¡<; in the Theostetus, Troieiv and jrácr^eiv in the Gorgias, and Ti-pds TI in the Sophist.B But there does not seem to be anything in Plato which one could say gave occasion directly and of itself to the Aristotelian doctrine; and even when we take a more comprehensive view of the Platonic system and inquire what in it corresponds to the widest definition of categories, say as ultimate elements of thought and existence, we receive no very definite answer. The Platonic dialectic never worked out into system, and only in two dialogues do we get anything like a list of ultimate or root-notions. In the Sophist, Being, Best, and Motion (TO OV avrb Kai oráo-is KOI KI'VIJO-I?) are laid down as peyiara tu¡v yívwv.. To these are presently added the Same and the Other (ravrbv KOI Báitpov), and out of the consideration of all five some light is cast upon the obscure notion of Non-Being (TÓ /J.T¡ ov). In the same dialogue (262, sq.) is found the important distinction of ovopa and prjp.a, noun and verb. The Philebus presents us with a totally distinct classification into four elementsthe In-finite, the Finite, the Mixture or Unity of both, and the Cause of this unity (TO aireipov, TO Tiépas, r¡ crvp.pi^i<¡, r¡ ama). It is at once apparent that, however these classifica-tions are related to one another and to the Platonic system, they lie in a different field from that occupied by the Aristotelian categories, and can hardly be said to have anything in common with them.
The Aristotelian doctrinéis most distinctly formulated in the short treatise KaT^-yopi'cu, which generally occupies the first place among the books of the Organon. The authen-ticity of the treatise was doubted in early times by some of the commentators, and the doubts have been revived by such scholars as Spengel and Prantl. On the other hand Brandis, Bonitz, and Zeller are of opinion that the tract is substantially Aristotle's. The matter is hardly one that can be decided either pro or con with anything like cer-tainty ; but this is of little moment, for the doctrine of the categories, even of the ten categories, does not stand or fall with only one portion of Aristotle's works.
It is surprising that there should yet be so much uncer-tainty as to the real significance of the categories, and that we should be in nearly complete ignorance as to the process of thought by which Aristotle was led to the doctrine. On both points it is difficult to extract from the matter before us anything approaching a satisfactory solution. The terms employed to denote the categories have been scrutinized with the utmost care, but they give little help. The most importantK. TOV ¿VTOS or ríjs ova-ío.%, y¿vr¡ TOV ¿VTOS or Toil' OVTCOV, yivq simply, Ta irpCiTa. or ra noiva. Trpwra, al TTTojati's, or at Siaiptausonly indicate that the categories are general classes into which Being as such may be divided, that they are sumrna genera. The expressions y¿vr¡ TS>V KaTYjyopiwv and axgp-o-ra TWV K., which are used frequently, seem to lead to another and somewhat different view. KaT7»--yopia being taken to mean that which is predicated, ykvg TWV K. would signify the most general classes of predicates, the framework into the divisions of which all predicates must come. To this interpretation there are objections. The categories must be carefully distinguished from predicables; in the scholastic phraseology the former refer to first inten-tions, the latter to second intentions, i.e., the one denote real, the other logical connection. Further, the categories can-not without careful explanation be defined as predicates ; they are this and something more. The most important category, oicria, inoneofits aspects cannot be predicate at all.
ject and predicate. He draws attention to the fact that things are spoken of either in the connection known as the proposition, e.g., "a man runs," or apart from such con-nection, e.g., " man " and " runs." He then proceeds, " Of things spoken of apart from their connection in a proposi-tion (TWV ____. p.voep.lav ___/_______/_ Xeyopevuiv), each signi-fies either Substance (olo-ia), or Quantity (7rocroV),or Quality (TTOLOV), or Relation (____ TI), or Where (i.e. Place, 7roB), or When (i.e. Time, rrori), or Position (__.____), or Possession (i^etv), or Action (TVOU.IV), or Passion (____-^__). Oicrla, the first category, is subdivided into rrpurrrj ovcria. or primary substance, which is defined to be __8_ TI, the singular thing in which properties inhere, and to which predicates are at-tached, and SevTepat. oio-lai, genera or species which can be predicated of primary substances, and are therefore ovuia only in a secondary sense. Nevertheless, they too, after a certain fashion, signify the singular thing, __8_ TI (K., p. 3b, 12, 13). It is this doctrine of ______ ovo-ia that has raised doubts with regard to the authenticity of the ____;-oyoptai. But the tenfold classification, which has also been captiously objected to, is given in an acknowledged writing of Aristotle's (see Topica, i. 9, p. 103b, 20). At the same time it is at least remarkable that in two places where the enumeration seems intended to be complete (Met., p. 1017a, 25; An. Pos., i. 22, p. 83a, 21), only eight are men-tioned, 9("v au<^ Kfia-___ being omitted. In other passages six, five, four, and three are given, frequently with some addition, such as ___ at aAAat _. It is also to be observed that, despite of this wavering, distinct intimations are given by Aristotle that he regarded his list as complete, and he uses phrases which would seem to indicate that the divi-sion had been exhaustively carried out. He admits cer-tainly that some predicates which come under one category might be referred to another, but he declines to deduce all from one highest class, or to recognize any relation of sub-ordination among the several classes.
The full import of the categories will never be ade-quately reached from the point of view taken up in the KaTvyopiai, which bears all the marks of an early and pre-liminary study. For true understanding we must turn to the Metaphysics, where the doctrine is handled at large. The discussion of Being in that work starts with a distinc-tion that at once gives us a clue. Td ov is spoken of in many ways; of these four are classified__ ov ____ _-__-______, __ ov <Ls _\_]6__, __ ov oWap.et ___ evepyeta, and __ ov ____. __ _\_]____. TUIV ___-gyopiow. It is evident from this that the categories can be regarded neither as purely logical nor as purely metaphysical elements. They indicate the general forms or ways in which Being can be predicated ; they are determinations of Being regarded as an object of thought, and consequently as matter of speech. It be-comes apparent also why the analysis of the categories starts from the singular thing, for it is the primary form under which all that is becomes object of knowledge, and the other categories modify or qualify this real individual. _____ o\ __. yiyvo/xeva viro __ Ttvos yiyvera.1. __! IK Ttvos /cat Tt. To oi TI ____ ___' ________ ___-gyopiav i) yap ____ r) TTOOOV r) TTOLOV i) TTOV (Met., p. 1032a, 13-15). . . . The categories, therefore, are not logical forms but real predi-cates ; they are the general modes in which Being may be expressed. The definite thing, that which comes for-ward in the process from potentiality to full actuality, can only appear and be spoken of under forms of individual-ity, quality, quantity, and so on. The nine later categories all denote entity in a certain imperfect fashion.
The categories then are not to be regarded as heads of predicates, the framework into which predicates can be thrown. They are real determinations of Beingailgemeine Bestimmtheiten, as Hegel calls them. They are not summa genera of existences, still less are they to be explained as a classification of nameable things in general. The objections Mill has taken to the list are entirely irrelevant, and would only have significance if the categories were reallywhat they are notan exhaustive division of concrete existences. Grote's view (Aristotle, i. 108) that Aristotle drew up his list by examining various popular propositions, and throw-ing the different predicates into genera, " according as they stood in different logical relation to the subject," has no foundation. The relation of the predicate category to the subject is not entirely a logical one ; it is a relation of real existence, and wants the essential marks of the prepositional form. The logical relations of TO OV are provided for otherwise than by the categories.
Aristotle has given no intimation of the course of thought by which he was led to his tenfold arrangement, and it seems hopeless to discover it. Trendelenburg in various essays has worked out the idea that the root of the matter is to be found in grammatical considerations, that the categories originated from investigations into grammatical functions, and that a correspondence will be found to obtain between categories and parts of speech. Thus, Substance corre-sponds to noun substantive, Quantity and Quality to the adjective, Relation partly to the comparative degree and per-haps to the preposition, When and Where to the adverbs of time and place, Action to the active, Passion to the passive of the verb, Position (K£Ío-#at) to the intransitive verb, éxeiv to the peculiar Greek perfect. That there should be a very close correspondence between the categories and grammatical elements is by no means surprising; that the one were deduced from the other is both philosophically and historically improbable. Reference to the detailed criticisms of Trendelenburg by Bitter, Bonitz, and Zeller will be sufficient.
Aristotle has also left us in doubt on another point. Why should there be only ten categories 1 and why should these be the ten? Kant and Hegel, it is well known, signalize as the great defect in the Aristotelian categories the want of a principle, and yet some of Aristotle's expressions would warrant the inference that he had a principle, and that he thought his arrangement exhaustive. The leading idea of all later attempts at reduction to unity of principle, the division into substance and accident, was undoubtedly not overlooked by Aristotle, and Brentano has collected with great diligence passages which indicate how the complete list might have been deduced from this primary distinction. His tabular arrangements (pp. 175, 177) are particularly deserving of attention. The results, however, are hardly beyond the reach of doubt.
There was no fundamental change in the doctrine of the categories from the time of Aristotle to that of Kant, and only two proposed re-classifications are of such import-ance as to require notice. The Stoics adopted a fivefold arrangement of highest classes, ytvLKwrara. To ov or TI, Being, or somewhat in general, was subdivided into ÍTTOKÚ-p.eva or subjects, 7rotct or qualities in general, which give definiteness to the blank subject, 7rcos e^ovra, modes which further determine the subject, and irpós TI TTUH e^ovTa, definite relative modes. These categories are so related that each involves the existence of one higher than itself, thus there cannot be a upds Tt mus Zxpv which does not rest upon or imply a TTWS t^ov, but TTU><¡ üxpv is impossible without 7rotdv, which only exists in vrroKeip.evov, a form or phase of TÓ ¿V.
Plotirms, after a lengthy critique of Aristotle's categories sets out a twofold list. To eV, KLVT/O-K, orao-ts, TavTorrji, erepoTrjs are the primitive categories (wpwro. yivrj) of the intelligible sphere. Oicria, 7rpos n, irota, 7roo-dV, KIVTJO-I? are the categories of the sensible world. The return to the Platonic classification will not escape notice.
Modern philosophy, neglecting altogether the dry and tasteless treatment of the Aristotelian doctrine by scholastic writers, gave a new, a wider, and deeper mean-ing to the categories. They now appear as ultimate or root notions, the metaphysical or thought elements, which give coherence and consistency to the material of know-ledge, the necessary and universal relations which obtain among the particulars of experience. There was thus to some extent a return to Platonism, but in reality, as might easily be shown, the new interpretation was, with due allow-ance for difference in point of view, in strict harmony with the true doctrine of Aristotle. The modern theory dates in particular from the time of Kant, who may be said to have re-introduced the term into philosophy. Na-turally there are some anticipations in earlier thinkers. The Substance, Attribute, and Mode of Cartesianism can hardly be classed among the categories ; nor does Leibnitz's chance suggestion of a fivefold arrangement into Substance, Quantity, Quality,Action and Passion,and Relations,demand any particular notice. Locke, too, has a classification into Substances, Modes, and Relations, but in it he has manifestly no intention of drawing up a table of categories. What in his system corresponds most nearly to the modern view of these elements is the division of kinds of real predica-tion. In all judgments of knowledge we predicate either (1) Identity or Diversity, (2) Relation, (3) Co-existence, or necessary connection, or (4) Real existence. From this the transition was easy to Hume's important classification of philosophical relations into those of Resemblance, Identity, Time and Place, Quantity or Number, Quality, Contrariety, Cause and Effect.
These attempts at an exhaustive distribution of the necessary relations of all objects of knowledge indicate the direction taken by modern thought, before it received its complete expression from Kant.
The doctrine of the categories is the very kernel of the Kantian system, and, through it, of later German philo-sophy. To explain it fully would be to write the history of that philosophy. The categories are called by Kant Root-notions of the Understanding (Stammbegrife des Verstandes), and are briefly the specific forms of the a priori or formal element in rational cognition. It is this distinction of matter and form in knowledge that marks off the Kantian from the Aristotelian doctrine. To Kant knowledge was only possible as the synthesis of the material or a posteriori with the formal or a priori. The ma-terial to which a priori forms of the understanding were applied was the sensuous content of the pure intuitions, Time and Space. This content could not be known by sense, but only by intellectual function. But the under-standing in the process of knowledge makes use of the universal form of synthesis, the judgment; intellectual function is essentially of the nature of judgment or the reduction of a manifold to unity through a conception. The specific or type forms of such function will, therefore, be expressed in judgments ; and a complete classification of the forms of judgments is the key by which one may hope to discover the system of categories. Such a list of judgments Kant thought he found in ordinary logic, and from it he drew up his well-known scheme of the twelve categories. These forms are the determinations of all objects of experience, for it is only through them that the manifold of sense can be reduced to the unity of consciousness, and thereby con-stituted experience. They are a priori conditions, sub-jective in one sense, but objective as being universal, ne-cessary, and constitutive of experience.
== TABLE ==
The table of logical judgments with corresponding cate-gories is as follows :
== TABLE ==
Kant, it is well-known, criticises Aristotle severely for having drawn up his categories without a principle, and claims to have disclosed the only possible method by which an exhaustive classification might be obtained. What he criticized in Aristotle is brought against his own procedure by the later German thinkers, particularly Fichte and Hegel. And in point of fact it cannot be denied that Kant has allowed too much completeness to the ordinary logical dis-tribution of propositions; he has given no proof that in these forms are contained all species of synthesis, and in consequence he has failed to show that in the categories, or pure conceptions, are contained all the modes of a priori synthesis. Further, his principle has so far the unity he claimed for it, the unity of a single function, but the specific forms in which such unity manifests itself are not themselves accounted for by this principle. Kant himself hints more than once at the possibility of a completely rational system of the categories, at an evolution from one single movement of thought, and in his Remarks on the Table of the Categories gave a pregnant hint as to the method to be employed. From any complete realization of this suggestion Kant, however, was precluded by one portion of his theory. The categories, although the neces-sary conditions under which alone an object of experience can be thrown, are merely forms of the mind's own activity; they apply only to sensuous and consequently subjective material. Outside of and beyond them lies the thing-in-itself, the blankest and emptiest of abstractions, which yet to Kant represented the ultimately real. This subjectivism, was a distinct hiatus in the Kantian system, and against it principally Fichte and Hegel directed criticism. It was. manifest that at the root of the whole system of categories there lay the synthetizing unity of self-consciousness, and it was upon this unity that Fichte fixed as giving the pos-sibility of a more complete and rigorous deduction of the pure notions of the understanding. Without the act of the Ego, whereby it is self-conscious, there could be no knowledge, and this primitive act or function must be, he saw, the position or affirmation of itself by the Ego. The first principle then must be that the Ego posits itself as the Ego, that the Ego = Ego, a principle which is uncondi-tioned both in form and matter, and therefore capable of standing absolutely first, of being the prius in a system. Metaphysically regarded this act of self-position yields the> categories of Reality. But, so far as matter is concerned, there cannot be affirmation without negation, omnis deter-minatio est negatio. The determination of the Ego pre-supposes or involves the Non-Ego. The form of the pro-position in which this second act takes to itself expression, the Ego is not = Not-Ego, is unconditioned, not derivable from the first. It is the absolute antithesis to the primitive thesis. The category of Negation is the result of this second act. From these two propositions, involving absolutely opposed and mutually destructive elements,there results a third which reconciles both in a higher synthesis. The notion in this third is determination or limitation; the Ego and Non-Ego limit, and are opposed to one another. From these three positions Fichte proceeds to evolve the catego-ries by a series of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
In thus seizing upon the unity of self-consciousness as the origin for systematic development, Fichte has clearly taken a step in advance of, and yet in strict harmony with, the Kantian doctrine. For, after all that can be said as to the demonstrated character of formal logic, Kant's procedure was empirical, and only after the list of categories had been drawn out, did he bring forward into prominence what gave them coherence and reality. The peculiar method of Fichte, also, was nothing but a con-sistent application of Kant's own Remark on the Table of the Categories. Fichte's doctrine, however, is open to some of the objections advanced against Kant. His method is too abstract and external, and wants the unity of a single principle. The first two of his fundamental propositions stand isolated from one another, not to be resolved into a primitive unity. With him, too, the whole stands yet on the plane of subjectivity. He speaks, indeed, of the universal Ego as distinct from the empirical self-consciousness; but the universal does not rise with him to concrete spirit. Nevertheless the Wissenschafts-lehre contains the only real advance in the treatment of the categories from the time of Kant to that of Hegel. This, of course, does not imply that there were not certain elements in Schelling, particularly in the Transcendental Idealism, that are of value in the transition to the later system; but on the whole it is only in Hegel that the whole matter of the Kantian categories has been assimi-lated and carried to a higher stage. The Hegelian philo-sophy, in brief, is a system of the categories; and as it is not intended here to expound that philosophy, it is impos-sible to give more than a few general and quite external observations as to the Hegelian mode of viewing these elements of thought. With Kant, as has been seen, the categories were still subjective, not as being forms of the individual subject, but as having over against them the world of noumena to which they were inapplicable. Self-consciousness, which was, even with Kant, the nodus or kernel whence the categories sprang, was nothing but a logical centre,the reality was concealed. There was thus a dualism, to overcome which is the first step in the Hegelian system. The principle, if there is to be one, must be universally applicable, all-comprehensive. Self-consciousness is precisely the principle wanted; it is a unity, an identity, containing in itself a multiplicity. The universal in absolute self-consciousness is just pure think-ing, which in systematic evolution is the catagories; the particular is the natural or multiform, the external as such; the concrete of both is spirit, or self-consciousness come to itself. The same law that obtains among the categories is found adequate to an explanation of the external thing which had so sadly troubled Kant. The categories themselves are moments of the universal of thought, type forms, or definite aspects which thought assumes; determinations, Bestimmungen, as Hegel most frequently calls them. They evolve by the same law that was found to be the essence of ultimate realityi.e., ot self-consciousness. The complete system is pure thought, the Universal par excellence.
After the Hegelian there can hardly be said to have been a philosophical treatment of the categories in Ger-many, which is not more or less a criticism of that system. It does not seem necessary to mention the unim-portant modifications introduced by Kuno Fischer, Erdmann, or others belonging to the school. In the strongly-opposed philosophy of Herbart, the categories can hardly be said to hold a prominent place. They are, with him, the most general notions which are psychologically formed, and he classifies them as follows:(1) Thing, either as product of thought, or as given in experience ; (2) Property, either qualitative or quantitative; (3) Relation; (4) The Negated. Along with these, he posits as categories of inner process (1) Sensation, (2) Cognition, (3)Will, (4) Action. George, who in the main follows Schleiermacher, draws out a table of categories which shows, in some points, traces of Her-bartian influence. His arrangement by enneads, or series of nine, is fanciful, and wanting in inner principle.
The most imposing recent attempt at a reconstruction of the catagories is that of Trendelenburg. To him the first principle, or primitive reality, is Motion, which is both real as external movement, and ideal as inner construction. The necessary conditions of Motion are Time and Space, which are both subjective and objective. From this point onwards are developed the mathematical (point, line, &c.) and real (causality, substance, quantity, quality, &c.) cate-gories which appear as involved in the notion of motion. Matter cannot be regarded as a product of motion; it is the condition of motion, we must think something moved. All these categories, " under the presupposition of motion as the first energy of thought, are ideal and subjective relations; as also, under the presupposition of motion as the first energy of Being, real and objective relations." A serious difficulty presents itself in the next category, that of End (Zweck), which can easily be thought for inner activity, but can hardly be reconciled with real motion. Trendelenburg solves the difficulty only empirically, by pointing to the insufficiency of the merely mechanical to account for the organic. The consideration of Modality effects the transition to the forms of logical thought. On the whole, Trendelenburg's unique fact of motion seems rather a blunder. There is much more involved than he is willing to allow, and motion per se is by no means adequate to self-consciousness. His theory has found little favour.
Ulrici works out a system of the categories from a psychological or logical point of view. To him the funda-mental fact of philosophy is the distinguishing activity (unterscheidende Thatigkeit) of thought. Thought is only possible by distinction, difference. The fixed points in the relations of objects upon which this activity turns are the categories, which may be called the forms or laws of thought. They are the aspects of things, notions under which things must be brought, in order to become objects of thought. They are thus the most general predicates or heads of predicates. The categories cannot be completely gathered from experience, nor can they be evolved a priori; but, by attending to the general relations of thought and its purely indefinite matter, and examining what we must predicate in order to know Being, we may attain to a satis-factory list. Such list is given in great detail in the Sys-tem der Logik (1852), and in briefer, preciser form in the Compendium der Logik (2d ed., 1872); it is in many points well deserving of attention.
The definition of the categories by the able French logi-
cian Renouvier, in some respects resembles that of Ulrici. To him the primitive fact is Relation, of which all the cate-gories are but forms. " The categories," he says, " are the primary and irreducible laws of knowledge, the fundamen-tal relations which determine its form and regulate its movements." His table and his criticism of the Kantian theory are both of interest.
The criticism of Kant's categories by Cousin and his own attempted classification are of no importance. Of more interest to us, though not of much more value, is the elaborate table drawn out by Sir W. Hamilton. The generalized category of the Conditioned has but little meaning, and the subordinate categories evolve them-selves by no principle, but are arranged after a formal and quite arbitrary manner. They are never brought into connection with thought itself, nor could they be shown to spring from its nature and relations.
J. S. Mill has presented, " as a substitute for the abortive classification of Existences, termed the categories of Aris-totle," the following as an enumeration of all nameable things :(1) Feelings, or states of consciousness ; (2) The minds which experience these feelings; (3) Bodies, or external objects which excite certain of those feelings ; (4) Successions and co-existences, likenesses and unlikenesses, between feelings or states of consciousness. This classi-fication proceeds on a quite peculiar view of the categories, and is only presented here for the sake of completeness.
Trendelenburg, Geschichte der Kategorienlehre, 1846 ; Ragnisco, Storia critica delle Categoric, 2 vols. 1871. For Aristotle's doctrine the most important, in addition to Brandis, Zeller, and the above, are Bonitz, Sitzuugsber. d. kon. Akad. d. Wissen., Wicn,
1853, pp. 591-645 ; Prantl, Ges. d. Logik, i. ; and Brentano, Bedeutung des Seienden nach Aristoteles, 1862. See also Sehuppe, Die Kategorien des Aristoteles, 1866 ; Grote's Aristotle, i. ; and the translations of the Categories by Maimon, 1794, and Heydenreich
1835. (R. AD.)
For details of this and other Hindu systems see Colebrooke, Essays ; H. H. Wilson, Essays ; Williams, Indian Wisdom ; Gougli's Vaiseshika-Sutras; M. Miiller, Sanskrit Literature, and particularly his Appendix to Thomson's Laws of Thought.
The supposed origin of that theory in the treatise irepi TOO
For details of this and other Hindu systems see Colebrooke, Essays ; H. H. Wilson, Essays ; Williams, Indian Wisdom ; Gougli's Vaiseshika-Sutras; M. Miiller, Sanskrit Literature, and particularly his Appendix to Thomson's Laws of Thought.
objection of any moment; see Ges. der Logik, i. 206, n.
See Bonitz, Index ArUtotdieus, s.v., and Prantl, Ges. d. Log., i. 207.
For detailed examination of the Stoic categories, see Prantl, Oes. d. Logik, i. 428, sqg.; Zeller, Ph. d. Gri., iii. 1, 82, sqq.; TrendeleD-burg, Katcg., p. 217.
It does not seem necessary to do more than refer to the slight alterations made on Kant's Table of Categories by Herder (in the Metakritik), by Maimon (in the Propädeutik zu einer neuen Theorie des Denkens), by Pries (in the Neue Kritik der Vernunft), or by Schopen-hauer, who desired to reduce all the categories to onethat of Causa-lity. We should require a new philosophical vocabulary even to translate the extraordinary compounds in which Krause expounds his theory of the categories. Notices of the changes introduced by
Rosmini, and of Gioberti's remarkable theory, will be found in Rag-
nisco's work referred to below.
' Essais de Critique Generate, 2d ed.; La Logique, i, pp. 184, 190, 207-225.
Discussions, p. 577.
8 Logic, i. 83; cf. Bain. Ded. Log., App. C.
3 Prantl, Oes. d. Logik, i. 74- 5 ; Trendelenburg, KategorienUhte,
209, n. 4 Soph., 254, 1).
3 Brentano, Bedeutung des Seienden nacKA., pp. 148-178.
2 Lehrbuch der Metaphysik, 1844.
3 Logische Untersuchungen, i. 376-7.