CHARLES AUGUSTUS (1757-1828), grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, having been early deprived of his father, was educated under -the governorship of Count Gortz, and among his tutors were Wieland, Knebel, Seidler, and Hermann. At seventeen he commenced his friendship with Goethe, who afterwards joined Schiller, Wieland, and Herder in forming the company of men of genius that distinguished his court. Charles assumed the direction of the government at the age of eighteen ; and in the next year entered the Prussian army, in which he remained till after the defeat at Jena (1806), when he became a member of the Rhenish confederacy, and furnished aid to the French. In 1813, he joined the coalition against Napoleon, and took the command of an army of Saxons, Hessians, and Russians. He fought among the Allies in 1815 ; and at the Congress of Vienna he received as reward for his services the enlargement of his principality, and its erection into a grand-duchy. Charles died in 1828. His correspondence with Goethe was published in 1863 at Leipsic.