DUBLIN, the metropolis of Ireland, in the county of Dublin and province of Leinster, is a county in itself, and a municipal and parliamentary borough ; the area of the former is 3808 asres, It is distant 292 miles W.N".W. from London, 138 miles W. from Liverpool, and 60 miles W. from Holyhead, in 53° 20' 38" N. lat. and 6° 17' 13" W. long., and is situated in the great central limestone district which stretches across the island from the Irish Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, on the River Liffey, extending to the junc-tion of that river with the Bay of Dublin, the waters of which wash its south suburban shores.
In the reign of James II. the population of Dublin was 61,483 ; in L72S it had more than doubled; in 1753 it was 161,000; in 1798 Whitelaw estimated it at 182,000; according to the first census (taken in 1821) it was 185,881 ; it was 232,726 in 1841, 254,808 in 1861, and 246,326 in 1871. This last decrease is due to the recent increase in wealth and the consequent extra-city residence of the traders and merchants. The suburbs of Dublin have wonderfully improved within the past twenty years, and constitute at present the chief of the many attractions which the stranger is wont to admire. The outlying townships of Rathmines and Rathgar, Kingstown and Pembroke, Clontarf and Dalkey, are all inhabited by persons engaged in the commerce of the city. If we include these populations, the city may be said to contain about 330,000 souls. The par liamentary borough, whose limits are more extensive than those of the municipal borough, covers an area of 5501 acres, and contained in 1871 apopuiationof 267,717 persons. It returns two members to the imperial parliament.
The rainfall is nearly 33 inches; rain or snow falls on 200 days per annum; and the wind blows from the N. or E. for 120 days. The average death-rate is 27 per 1000.
The plan of the city is singularly simple. The Liffey flows almost through the centre from west to east, and the bridges connect long lines of streets running north and south. The communications between the two sides of the city are ample, there being 9 bridges in a distance of about a mile and a half, and ferries for the two miles of shipping between the last bridge and the mouth of the river. Sackville Street is the finest avenue in Dublin; the houses, however, are not uniform, and the street is not long enough for its width, while the Nelson Pillar, itself a beau-tiful object, blocks the view and interrupts the traffic. The memorial consists of a fluted Doric column 120 feet high, raised on a massive pedestal, the four sides of which show The Nile, Copenhagen, St Vincent, and Trafalgar. On the summit is a colossal statue of Nelson, surrounded by a balustrade, to which there is an ascent by a spiral stair. The O'Connell monument, almost completed by Foley before his decease, is destined for the southern end of Sackville Street; it will cost about £12,000. On the other side of the Liffey, across Carlisle Bridge, is Westmoreland Street, with the Bank of Ireland and Trinity College at its southern end At right angles to Westmorelaud Street is Dame Street, unquestionably the best street in the city. The houses are lofty and massive, and more than one of them colossal. At one end is Dublin Castle, and at the other the great front of the Bank and of Trinity college. The chief drawback to Dublin as a city is the sudden transition from magnificence to meanness, and in no part of it is there freedom from this displeasing contrast. Close by its every splendid edifice is a purlieu, with its unpleasant character-istics. In addition to this, the soil is so oozy that, after even a slight shower it is melted into far-spreading mud-lakes, justifying the conjecture that Dublin was in old times the " Town of the Ford of Hurdles on the Black-water." The River Liffey, too, which ought to be a source of beauty, is rendered offensive by receiving the drainage of the city. There are numerous elegant houses in the suburbs, surrounded by well-kept gardens. The slighter rivers, the Tolka, the Dodder, and the Tongue, meander through a well-cultivated country; there is a noble supply of water for domestic purposes ; and lines of tramway run from the heart of the city to every outlying district. Formerly Dublin was said to be bounded by the circular road, whieh is nine miles in extent; but the growth of the city has far outrun that limit. There are about 820 miles of streets in the borough under the control of the corpora-tion; the valuation of the borough in 1871 (excluding exemptions, Government buildings, religious houses, <fec.) amounted to £596,000 ; the number of houses inhabited was 23,896, uninhabited 1059, and building 87. The want of a Building Act in Dublin has resulted in the absence in many places of anything like uniformity in the frontage, height, or character of its buildings.
The condition of the various orders of the community is perhaps best shown by citing the census returns as to the number of families occupying the four different classes of houses. There were 5035 families in houses of the 1st class, 10,523 families in the 2d class, 16,819 in the 3d class, and 25,733 in the 4th class. The 58,110 families thus hold 23,896 houses. Another way of estimating Dublin society is by taking the occupations of the people. In 1871 there were 331 clergymen in Dublin, 286 barristers, 370 attorneys, 49 architects, 215 accountants, 4000 bootmakers, 1660 tailors, 19,500 domestic servants, 83 photographers, 1000 coachmen and cabmen, 1600 drapers and mercers, 1280 carmen and carriers, 936 cabinetmakers, 3500 clerks, 177 civil engineers, 394 fishmongers, 3S glovemakers, 1867 grocers, 11,530 labourers, 4590 milliners, 1477 printers, 31 sculptors, 223 watch and clock makers, 458 wine and spirit merchants.
Judges, lawyers, and doctors may be said to constitute the higher society of Dublin; of the 182 peers of Ireland only two have residences in the capital.
The lord lieutenant lives in Dublin Castle in whiter, and in the Viceregal Lodge, Phoenix Park, in summer. He is assisted in the executive by a privy council, nomi-nated by the Crown, and his chief secretary, who must have a seat in the House of Commons. Lords justices govern in the temporary absence of the lord-lieutenantthe lord chancellor, the commander-in-chief, and another privy councillor usually being appointed. Prior to the Act of 1869 disendowing and disestablishing the Irish branch of the Established Church, the archbishop of Dublin was invariably named a lord justice ; but in future the archbishop may or may not have a seat at the Council Board.
Dublin is the seat of the Irish courts of law and equity, from which appeal lies only to the House of Lords. The judicial functions are exercised by the lord chancellor, a lord justice of appeal, a vice-chancellor, the master of the rolls, and four judges in each of thB courts of Queen's bench, common pleas, and exchequer. There are also judges (1) in the court of admiralty, (2) in the bankruptcy court, and (3) in the landed estates court for the sale and transfer of estates in Ireland. The recorder's court determines civil bills and city criminal cases.
Local Government.The municipality is under the government of the lord mayor and corporation. Previous to the Municipal Reform Act of 1840 the corporation consisted of the lord mayor, 2 sheriffs, 24 aldermen, 124 common councilmen, 28 sheriffmen, and 96 representatives of the 25 civic guilds. At present the corpora-tion consists of 15 aldermen and 45 councillors, there being one alderman and 3 councillors for each of the 15 wards into which the city is divided. An alderman or councillor is annually elected lord mayor. The income of the body arises from rents cn property, customs, and taxes. The yield in 1875 was ¿'286,804, the expenditure £255,944, and the debt £337,476. Under an Act passed in 1875 the corporation have the right to forward every year three names of persons suitable for the office of high sheriff to the viceroy, one of which shall be selected by him. The lord mayor holds a weekly court for debts above 40s. and under £10, and for the settlement of cases between masters and servants. He is also clerk of the markets, and supervises weights and measures and deals with cases of adulteration. A court of conscience determines debts under 40s. and is presided over by the last ex-mayor. A com-petent fire-brigade is maintained by the corporation. The average number of fires per annum is between 50 and 60 ; 15 lives have been lost in ten years ; and property to the value of £485,800 saved in the same period. The city coroner is a corporate officer. There were 292 inquests in 1875. Under an Act applicable only to Dublin the local rates are collected by a collector-general, and are distributed by him to the different authorities concerned.
Police. The Dublin metropolitan police is a force peculiar to the city. The remainder of Ireland is protected civilly bv the Koyil Irish Constabulary. The police are under the control of two commissioners, and consist of 7 superintendents, 76 inspectors, 641 sergeants, and 340 constables. A local police rate of 8d. in the £1 produces about £30,000 a year; and the taxes on hackney cars, drivers' licences, pawnbrokers' licences, and publicans' certificates, and fines in the police courts, average about £16,000. These two sums (£46,000), together with a Treasury grant averaging £95,000 a year, maintain the force, and pay the commissioners and superior officers and the four police magistrates. The police are inspectors of the hackney carriages, which number nearly 2000. They carry out the laws affecting the sale of liquor, and the number of public houses in Dublin is 1012. A fair notion of the crime and offences committed in the city is afforded by the following statistics taken from official sources :Number of persons arrested (1876), 42,439 ; number convicted either summarily or after trial before a superior judge, 39,580 ; of those convicted 13,346 (8627 males and 4719 females) were charged with drunkenness ; 88 per-sons were sentenced to penal servitude (68 for five years) ; and 400 were sent to jail. Quarter sessions are held in the city by the recorder ; and a commission of oyer and terminer is held twice a year by two of the superior judges.
Military.A large military force is usually maintained in the city of Dublin which is the headquarters of the military district of Dublin and of the staff of Ireland, consisting of the commander of the forces, adjutant-general, and quartermaster-general. The troops are accommodated in several barracks, the most extensive of which is the Royal Barracks, consisting of five squares, affording quarters for 10 field officers, 83 officers, 2000 non-commissioned officers and privates, and 460 horses, together with a hospital for 260 patients. Richmond Barracks, for infantry, occupies an ele-vated healthy situation, on the banks of the Grand Canal, beyond Kilmaiuham, forming a substantial fabric, with extensive courts and yards, covering altogether an area of 18 acres, and furnishing accommodation for 76 officers and 1600 non-commissioned officers and privates, stabling for 25 horses, and a hospital for 100 patients. Portobello barracks, for cavalry and artillery, is on the bank of the same canal, near Harold's Cross, and can accommodate 30 officers and 520 men ; it has stabling for 540 horses, and a large hospital. At Island Bridge, near Kilmaiuham, there is an extensive artillery barrack, and there is another for artillery at the Pigeon House Fort in the bay. Besides these, there are barracks for infantry in Great Ship Street, near the castle; at Aldborough House, a fine massive building erected in 1765 at a cost of £45,000 ; and at Beggar's Bush, on the South Circular Road. In the Phoenix Park is Mackenzie's Fort and magazine. The magazine is surrounded by a dry ditch, and is entered by a drawbridge. It is defended by a dozen 24-pounders.
Poor Law.There are two poor law unions in the cityNorth and South, governed by two boards of guardians. The average daily number of paupers in both is 4832, and the annual expendi-ture of both £75,250.
Religion.The following table shows the population of the different parishes in 1841, 1851, 1861, and 1871, and the number of Roman Catholics and Protestants of the Episcopal church in each parish (when part is mentioned, the rest of the parish is in Dublin county):
== TABLE ==
Besides the above mentioned religious denominations there were 4517 Presbyterians, 1828 Methodists, 189 Jews, and 4904 of "all other persuasions." Th e proportion of Catholics to the total popu-lation was equal to 79 per cent.
Education.The means of education in Dublin are ample. The incessant contests between the various religious denominations have had the effect of imparting energy to all engaged in teaching.
Trinity College, founded by Queen Elizabeth, is the greatest foundation in the country. The corporation now consists of a provost, 7 senior fellows, 26 junior fellows, and 70 scholars. Two studentships, one mathematical and one classical, have been recently added to the honour list. The successful competitor is entitled to ¿£100 a year for seven years; there are no duties to be fulfilled and no residence is required. A vacancy among the fellows is filled up by the provost and a select number of the fellows, after a very severe examination for ten days in metaphysics, mathe-matics, natural philosophy, ethics, history, chronology, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Fellowships are held for life. Until the year 1840 the fellows were bound to celibacy, but that restriction was then removed. The scholars are chosen from among the undergraduates, after an examination in mathematics or Greek and Latin. The pecuniary ad-vantages attaching to scholarship lasts for four years. Students, after an examination, are admitted as fellow-com-moners, pensioners, or sizars ; the last class is limited to thirty, and is partially maintained out of the College funds. Noblemen, noblemen's sons, and baronets have the privilege of forming a separate order with peculiar advantages, on the payment of additional charges. The course of general instruction extends over four years, the principal studies of each year being successively mathematics, logic, natural philosophy and astronomy, classics, and ethics ; and four commencements are held every year for the purpose of con-ferring degrees. A medical school is attached to the uni-versity, and also a school of civil engineering ; and diplomas in surgery and civil engineering are granted by the board on the completion of the prescribed courses. The library, which is one of the four scheduled in the Copyright Act, consists of about 190,000 printed volumes and 1500 manuscripts ; and the number is increased annually by about 2000 volumes, partly purchased and partly obtained free under the Act. There are also a botanic garden and a museum. The funds of the College, arising from lands and the fees of the students, are managed solely by the provost and seven senior fellows, who form a board, to which and to the Academic Council the whole government of the uni-versity, both in its executive and its legislative branches, is committed. The buildings, which include a large extent of ground, now nearly in the middle of the city, consist of one very large and two smaller squares. In these are the chapel, the hall for examinations, the museum, the library, the dining hall, the printing office, and chambers for the fellows and students. Attached to the buildings is a large park for the recreation of the students, and a smaller enclosure for the provost and fellows. The provost's resi-dence and the medical school are apart from the main body of the buildings. The college observatory is at Dunsink, about five miles north-west of Dublin; it is amply furnished with astronomical instruments. It was endowed by Dr Francis Andrews, provost of Trinity College, was erected in 1785, and in 1791 was placed by statute under the manage-ment of the Ptoyal Astronomer of Ireland, an appointment first filled by Dr Henry Ussher, and subsequently by Dr Brinkley, bishop of Cloyne. The Magnetical Observatory of Dublin was erected in the years 1837-8, in the gardens attached to Trinity College, and at the expense of the university. A series of observations was begun in 1838, and has been continued ever since. The annual incoms of Trinity College is set down as about £65,000 a year. The average number of students on the books is about 1300. By an Act passed in 1873, known as Fawcett's Act, all tests were abolished, and the prizes and honours of all grades hitherto reserved for Protestants of the Established Church were thrown open to all. Examinations for women are now held under the direction of the College.
The Queen's University, founded in 185 0, has quarters in Dublin Castle; but the three colleges are in Cork, Belfast, and Galway. Dublin has no share in the advan-tages of the university, which are considerable.
The Roman Catholic University derives its entire support from voluntary contributions. There is an annual collection on a certain Sunday in November, and this realizes about £8000. The management is in the hands of the Catholic bishops. The medical school in connection with the uni-versity has attained great repute in Ireland.
The "Royal College of Science, controlled by the Science and Art Department, is conducted by ten professors. The number of students is seldom greater than 30, amongst whom four royal scholarships and nine royal exhibitions (value £50 for two and three years respectively) are divided. The Parliamentary grant is £6902 per annum. The Royal Dublin Society and the Boyal Irish Academy are devoted to science and art. The one receives £7500 a year, and the other £2480. The Royal Hibernian Academy has £300, and the National Gallery £2340 a year. The Zoological Society, having its gardens in the Phoenix Park, has £500 a year.
Schools.In 1871 there were in the city 336 schools257 primary and 79 superior. In attendance at the primary were 19,782 Roman Catholics, 4602 Episcopalians, and 842 Presbyterians and others ; in attendance at the superior are 1491 Roman Catholics, 2334 Protestants, and 566 Presbyterians and others. This give3 a general total of 29,617
The education of all classes in Dublin is shown in the following figures:in 1871, 150,581 of seven years and upwards could read and write, 24,224 could read but could not write, and 35,633 were illiterate.
Charities. Dublin can boast a goodly number of charities. There are 113 charitable institutions, some for the deaf and dumb, the blind, the destitute, the distressed, the unemployed ; some for the education of the reduced, and for the sons and daughters of clergy-men ; and some for orphans, for idiots, for convalescent patients. The Drummond Institution, for the orphan daughters of soldiers, was established in 1864 by a Scotch gentleman named Drum-mond, who left £20,000 to found the asylum. The Hospital and Free School of King Charles I., commonly called the Blue Coat School, was founded 1670. The school buildings are very handsome, and cost £21,0C0. The annual income is £4000 a year. The education afforded to 120 boys is of a very superior character. Be-fore the Irish Parliament Houses were erected the parliament met in the school building. Molyneux Asylum for the blind, a splendid building near the city boundary, affords refuge and instruction to 70 females. There are 30 hospitals, of which the chief areThe Westmoreland Lock, parliamentary grant £2600; Steevens, parliamentary grant £1300, donations, &c, £4177; the Meath, parliamentary grant £600, city grant £750, donations £1913 ; Cork Street Fever, parliamentary grant £2500, donations £1293; House of Industry Hospitals (3), parliamentary grant £7472, donations £693 ; Rotundo Lying-in, parliamentary grant, £700, city £300, donations £2342 ; Coombe Lying-in, parliamentary grant £200, city £260, donations £2167; Incurables, parliamentary grant £250, city £150, donations £6000; St Mark's Eye and Ear, parlia-mentary grant £100, city £100, donations £735. These 11 hospitals in 1875 admitted 9645 patients, and received from Parliament £15,722, from the city authorities £1560, from subscriptions £19,353. Total income of all £36,635. Of the houses supported by voluntary contributions the Adelaide (Protestant), the Mater Misericordia?, St Vincent's, and the City of Dublin hospitals are the most important. Lunatics are maintained in St Patrick's Hospital, founded in 1745, pursuant to the will of Dean Swift, and conducted by governors appointed under the charter of incorporation. The Richmond Lunatic Asylum, erected near the House of Industry, and placed under the care of officers appointed by Government, receives patients from a district consisting of the counties of Dublin, Louth, Meath, and Wicklow, each of these contributing towards its expenses in proportion to the number of patients sent in. Besides these public establishments for the recovery and safe custody of lunatics, there are in the vicinity of Dublin various private asylums.
The principal institution for the blind is Simpson s Hospital, founded by a merchant of Dublin. The income is upwards of £2500 per annum, by which fifty patients are maintained in a large plain edifice situate in Great Britain Street. The apartment can accommodate a hundred inmates. The Richmond National Institu-tion in Sackville Street was founded in order to instruct the blind in some of the more useful handicraft occupations. The principal branches taught are weaving, netting, and basket-making. An institution for the maintenance and education of children born deaf and dumb is maintained at Clarcmont, near Glasnevin. The plan of the Royal Hospital, for decayed and maimed soldiers, was first suggested by the earl of Essex, when lord lieutenant, and carried into effect through the repeated applications of the duke of Ormond to Charles II. The site chosen for it was that of the ancient priory of Kilmainham, founded by Strongbow for Knights Templars. The building, completed in 1684, according to a plan of Sir Christopher Wren, is an oblong 306 feet by 288, three sides of which are dwelling-rooms, connected by covered corridors. The fourth contains the chapel, the dining hall, and the apartments of the master, who is always the commander of the forces for the time being. The Roman Catholic Church has charge of a number of special charities, some of them educational and some of them for the relief of suffering.
Libraries, &c.The principal library in Dublin, for the number and value of its books, is that of Trinity College. It is open #f right only to graduates of that university, but admission is obtain-able by others by special favour. It contains about 190,000 printed volumes, and 1500 manuscripts. The King's Inns Library is next in value. The right of reading in it is con-fined to the members of the King's Inns Society,that is, to barristers, attorneys, and law students. Marsh's Library, attached to St Patrick's Cathedral by the munificent bequest of Primate Marsh, archbishop of Armagh, and incorporated in 1707, contains a good collection of theological works, and is open to the public ; but, from the very small portion of its funds appropriated to purchase, it is very deficient in modem publications. It possesses some valuable manuscripts. The want of a library easily accessible, and provided with the works most in request, was attempted to be supplied by a society formed in 1791 (the Dublin Library Society), which collected a large number of books in a handsome and well-arranged building in D'Olier Street. Attached to the library is a fine reading-room, well supplied with newspapers. The Library of the Royal Dublin Society contains upwards of 12,000 volumes. It is particularly rich in works on botany, and in those relating to Ireland. It has likewise a gallery of statuary, in which are casts from the Elgin marbles. The library, museum, and gallery are open to the public,in happy contravention of the rules, which have been strained in the laudable direction of popularizing self-instruction. The Royal Irish Academy's Library is valuable of its kind. It contains many ancient manuscripts, and works dealing with science and anti-quities.
Public Buildings.Dublin has several noble edifices. The first and greatest is the Bank of Ireland, formerly the House of Parliament, which occupies five acres. There are three fronts. The principal, towards College Green, a colonnade of the Ionic order, formed of a façade and two projecting wings, is much admired for the noble simplicity of its elevation. The western front, a portico of four Ionic columns, is connected with the other by a colonnade of the same order, forming the quadrant of a circle. The eastern front, which was the entrance of the House of Lords, was, by their special wish, a colonnade of the Corinthian order, which the architect found great difficulty in uniting with the other parts. The apartment for the lords, a fine room, is hung with tapestry. That of the commons, having been burned in 1792, was reconstructed after a more ele-gant design, in the form of a circle surrounded by pillars, between which was a gallery for hearers. This fine hall was taken down by the bank directors, and converted into a square room, now the cash-office. The House of Lords remains in its original condition, and is but seldom used.
Trinity College is in itself a source of legitimate pride to the city. The front is plain and massive. The inner courts are large and well proportioned. On the left is the examination hall, containing full length portraits of the queen founder, of Molyneux, of Edmund Burke, Bishop Berkeley, and other celebrities. On the right stand the chapel and the dining hall, side by side, the former having a very handsome interior, and the latter having portraits of Grattan, Flood, Yelverton, Lord Ross, Lord Kihvarden, and other famous Irishmen. In the centre of the court stands a beautiful campanile. The library contains a gallery 210 feet in length, 41 in breadth, and 40 in height. There are also new buildings in the inner court, in character with the general splendour of the place. The provost's house close by is one of the finest in the city.
Dublin Castle presents a rather motley appearance. The greater portion of it is dingy, being built of brick ; but the chapel and tower are very handsome. The castle stands on ten acres, but the apartments are small, with the exception of St Patrick's Hall, which is used on the occasion of investing knights of the order of St Patrick.
The custom-house is considered one of the chief ornaments of the city. It was erected at a cost of about £400,000, and opened in 1791. It stands on the north side of the river below Carlisle Bridge, and presents four fronts, three of which may be seen to advantage. The south front, facing the river, 375 feet in length, is built of Portland stone, finished in the Doric order, with an entablature and bold projecting cornice. The other three fronts are composed of granite, and from the centre rises a dome to the height of i 25 feet, surmounted by a figure of Hope.
The Four Courts, in which the superior courts are held, stands on the site of the ancient Dominican monastery of St Saviour, on King's Inn Quay. It is an extensive and imposing structure, erected between the years 1786 and 1800, at a cost of £200,000.
The city hall, formerly the royal exchange, is a handsome building. It is in possession of the corporation, and is used for municipal purposes. The centre hall contains statues of George III., of Grattan by Chantrey (a superb work), of O'Connell by Hogan, of Lucas, and of Drummond.
The post-office stands in Sackville Street. It is built of granite, and is about 120 feet high, 225 in length, and 150 in depth. The centre of the front consists of a boldly projecting portico of six fluted Ionic columns, supporting an entablature and cornice ; on the apex is a figure of Hibernia, and Mercury and Fidelity at the sides. The first stone was laid in 1815, and the cost of the pile was £50,000.
Churches.St Patrick's Cathedral, a noble edifice, was restored by the late Sir Benjamin L. Guinness, Bart, at a cost of £130,000; Christ Church Cathedral is now in course of restoration by Mr Henry Roe, and the estimated cost is much over £100,000 ; Mr Roe has also presented a synod house to the Church of Ireland at a cost of £27,000; the late Mr Findlater gave the Presbyterian body a beautiful church which he erected at a cost of £16,000; the Roman Catholics have raised about 16 mag-nificent edifices in the last twenty years; most of the Protestant parish churches have been either rebuilt or re-stored ; the Unitarians have two houses, one of them of noble aspect; and the Methodists, the Moravians, the Friends, the Baptists, and the Jews have all provided themselves with suitable places of worship. There are no less than 93 churches of all denominations and a syna-gogue in Dublin, and at least 70 of these are beautiful modern buildings.
The two cathedral churches of St Patrick and Christ Church are superior to all other edifices in character and interest. The foundation of Christ Church, the older building of the two, is attributed to the Danes in 1038 ; but it dates its elevation to a deanery and chapter from 1541. The entire length of the nave and choir is 260 feet, that of the transept 110 feet, and the extreme breadth of either 80 feet. Christ Church does not contain many monuments. Among the most interesting is that of Strongbow, the invader of Ireland, whose tomb was long the place at which the tenants of the church lands were accustomed to pay their rents. The monument was injured by the fall of one of the cathedral walls ; but it was afterwards repaired, and is still to be seen in good preservation, with a smaller tomb by its side, supposed to be that of Strongbow's son, who was killed by his father. Synods were occasionally held in this church, and parliaments also, before the Commons' Hall was destroyed in 15 66 by the accidental explosion of 144 barrels of gunpowder in a neighbouring street. Here also the impostor Lambert Simnel was crowned.
The cathedral of St Patrick was founded in 1190 by John Comyn, archbishop of Dublin. It was burnt about a hundred years after its first erection, but was again raised from its ruins in increased splendour. At the Reformation it was dissolved, and the building was used for some of the purposes of the courts of justice. Edward VI. con-templated its change into a university, but the project was defeated and a university established elsewhere. In the succeeding reign of Mary, St Patrick's Cathedral was restored to its primary destination. The installations of the knights of St Patrick, the first of which took place in 1783, were originally held here. This cathedral contains the monuments of several illustrious persons, among which the most celebrated are those of Dean Swift; of Mrs Hester Johnson, immortalized under the name of " Stella;" of Archbishop Marsh ; of the first earl of Cork; and of Duke Schömberg, who fell at the battle of the Boyne. The tablet over Schomberg's grave contains what Lord Macaulay calls a " furious libel." In the cathedral may be seen the chain ball which killed St Ruth at the battle of Aughrim, and the spurs which he wore when shot. A fine statue of Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness, Bart., the restorer of the cathedral, stands in the aisle.
The Roman Catholic churches are for the most part old and in poor localities. The new churches are, however, of greater proportions and of considerable beauty. The principal is the church of the Augustinians in Thomas Street. This is perhaps the loftiest building in the city. The pro-cathedral in Marlborough Street is a building of great dimensions, highly ornamented internally in the Grecian style, and having a fine Doric portico forming the principal front. The building was commenced in 1816, at an estimated cost of £52,000. St Paul's, on Arran Quay, is an elegant building in the Ionic style. The church of St Francis Xavier was erected at a cost of £18,000, from a Roman Ionic design.
Places of Amüsement, &c.Dublin has a winter palace, on the plan of the London Crystal Palace. The scheme advancing public entertainment failed, and Sir Arthur Guinness, Bart., purchased it from the shareholders for £13,000. It is used now for various purposes. There are three theatresthe Royal (second in size only to Drury Lane and Covent Garden), the Gaiety, and the Queen's Theatre. There are two or three musical societies, which are supported by the middle classes; but very little music of a superior character is afforded to the citizens at large.
The Phoenix Park, just touching the north-west boundary, is seven miles in circumference, and includes an area of 1759 acres. The park is in itself beautiful, and the near-ness of the Dublin and Wicklow mountains adds greatly to its attractions. The Viceregal Lodge and the Chief Secretary's Lodge are the only buildings inside the gates. They have little pretension beyond their size.
Monuments.There are nine of Foley's best statues in Dublinthe Prince Consort, Grattan, Burke, Goldsmith, Guinness, Stokes, Corrigan, and Lord Carlisle; and that to O'Connell may be added. Three of the Georges have memorials; Wellington's monument stands in the Phoenix Park, an obelisk 200 feet high, bearing on the sides the names of his victories, and scenes in relief from the greater battles on the pedestal. There are statues to King William to Smith O'Brien, to Lord Eglinton, to William Dargan, to Nelson (already noticed), and to Thomas Moore.
Commerce.Dublin has little of the bustle which should mark so large a city, and as a matter of fact Belfast is said to transact a greater general trade. There is, too, a spirit of foolish pride which seeks to disown trade; and the tendency to be poor and genteel m the civil service, at the bar, in the constabulary, in the army, in professional life, rather than prosperous in business, is one of the most unfortunate and strongly marked characteristics of Dublin society That this is attributable to the lingering yet potent influence of an unhappy past is held by some; while others attribute the weakness to the viceregal office and the effects of a sham court. About the time of the Revolution, the woollen trade flourished in Dublin, and the produce attained a great celebrity. The cheapness of labour attracted capitalists, who started extensive factories in that quarter of the town known even now as the Liberties. This quarter was inhabited altogether by workers in wool, and, as the city was small, the aristocracy lived close by in noble mansions which are now miserable memorials of past prosperity. About 1700 the English legislature prevailed on William III. to assent to laws which directly crushed the Irish trade. All exportation except to England was peremptorily forbidden, and the woollen manufacture soon decayed. But even 100 years ago there were 5000 persons at work in the looms of the Liberties, where now there are not a score. About 1715 Parliament favoured the manufacture of linen, and the Linen Hall, now an empty wreck, was built. The cotton trade was soon after introduced; and silk manufacture was begun by the Huguenots, who had settled in Dublin in considerable numbers after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Acts favourable to these enterprises were passed, and they flourished apace. But the old jealousy arose in the reign of George I., and in the reign of George III. an Act was passed which tended directly to the ruin of the manufac-ture. The linen trade shared the same fate. Commerce has increased during the past few generations; but Dublin produces nothing for exportation save whisky and porter. The whisky trade has been greatly extended. Of the 22 distillers and 43 rectifiers in Ireland, the prin-cipal are in Dublin; the three houses of Jameson and Roe and Power may be specially mentioned. In 1874, when the duty was at 10s. per gallon, £322,950 was received by the customs. The porter trade is also very large. The exports in 1875 were 361,465 hogsheads.
The docks in the river have been improved consider-ably within the last quarter of a century. The river has been deepened, wharves have been built, new docks have been constructed; and a basin now almost com-pleted, at a cost of £276,000, will add greatly to the accommodation. The two great lines of railway, the Midland and the Great Southern, have extended their ways to the river's edge, so that traffic is much easier and swifter between the provinces and the boats for England than in former times. In 1875, 544 British and foreign vessels entered, and 213 cleared the port of Dublin; while 6850 vessels engaged in the coasting trade entered. The customs dues received in the same year amounted to £1,030,000 ; these have remained almost stationary for ten years. 1
The total value of all exported articles from Dublin in 1875 was £44,157 ; while the exports from Belfast were valued at £253,340. The exports of grain from the city need not be set down, inasmuch as they are intended for other parts of Ireland, and are sent by water. In the following returns for 1868 and 1875, a very remarkable decline in the exports of provisions will be observed, while the exportation of live stock has remained pretty stationary :
== TABLE ==
The exports in wool and in horses have declined in recent years.
History.The early history of Dublin is, like the early history of Ireland generally, made up chiefly of legends. It is recorded that the inhabitants of Leinster were defeated by the people of Dublin in the year 291; but what so bare a fact can signify is not easy to discover. Christianity was introduced by St Patrick, about 450. We may pass on to the 9th century, when we find the Danes attacking Dublin and taking it. When Tor-Magnus, the Danish king, was slain by Malachy the king of Ireland, the Danes were swept out of Dublin by the Irish from Meath. Then the Danes regained their power, and the contests were incessant until, in 1014, Brian Boroihme, king of Munster, attacked the enemy and fought the battle of Clontarf, in which he and his son and 11,000 of his followers fell. The Irish, however, won the battle, but the Danes re-occupied the city and held footing in Ireland until 1170. Then came the Anglo-Normans. In 1172 Henry II. landed at Waterford, and came to Dublin and held his court there in a pavilion of wicker-work made " after the country manner," where the Irish chiefs were entertained with great pomp, and alliances entered into with them," the plenty of the English table and the goodly courtesy of the attendants " having done much to reconcile them to their new allies. Previous to his departure for England, Henry bestowed the government on Hugh de Lacy, having granted by charter " to his subjects of Bristol his city of Dublin to inhabit, and to hold of him and his heirs for ever, with all the liberties and free customs which his subjects of Bristol then enjoyed at Bristol and through all England." In 1177 Strongbow, earl of Pembroke, and the chief leader of the Anglo-Norman forces, died in Dublin of a mortification in one of his feet, and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, where his monument still remains well preserved. A fresh charter was granted in 1207 by King John to the inhabitants of Dublin, who had not yet made their peace with the neighbour-hood, but, like the settlers in other towns, were at constant feud with the native Irish; so that two years after the date of this charter, whilst the citizens of Dublin were celebrating Easter at Cullens-wood, they were set upon by the Irish of the neighbouring moun-tains, and 500 of them killed. The scene of slaughter is still called the Bloody Fields, and Easter Monday denominated Black Monday. On each succeeding anniversary of that day, with the desire unfortunately so prevalent of perpetuating a feud, the citizens marched out to Cullenswood with banners displayed"a terror to the nativj Irish." In 1216 Magna Charta, a copy of which is to be found in the Ked Book of the Exchequer, was granted to the Irish by Henry III. In 1217 the fee farm of the city was granted to the citizens at a rent of 200 marks per annum; and about this period many monastic buildings were founded. In 1227 the same monarch con-firmed the charter of John fixing the city boundaries and the jurisdiction of its magistrates.
During the invasion of Ireland by Edward Bruce, who landed at Carriekfergus with 6000 men, in the commencement of the reign of Edward II., some of the suburbs were burnt to prevent them from falling into his hand. The inroad of Bruce had been coun-tenanced by the native Irish ecclesiastics, whose sentiments were recorded in a statement addressed to Pope John XXII. Some notion of the defence made against Brace's invasion may be gained from the fact that the churches were torn down to supply stones for the building of the city walls. Bruce had seized Greeneastle on his march ; but the natives re-took the town, and brought to Dublin the governor who had yielded to Bruce. He was starved to death.
Eichard II. erected Dublin into a marquisate in favour of Robert de Vere, whom he also created duke of Ireland. The same monarch entered Dublin in 1394 with 30,000 bowmen and 4000 cavalry, bringing with him the crown jewels ; but after holding a parliament and making much courtly display before the native chieftains, on several of whom he conferred knighthood, he returned to England. Five years later, enriched with the spoils of his uncle, John of Gaunt, Richard returned to Ireland, landing at Waterford, whence he marched through the counties of Kilkenny and Wicklow, and subsequently arrived in Dublin, where ho remained a fortnight, sumptuously entertained by the provost, as the chief magistrate of the city was then called, till intelligence of the invasion of his kingdom by Bolingbroke recalled him to England.
In 1534 Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, better known as Silken Thomas (so called because of a fantastic fringe worn in the helmet of his followers), a young man of rash courage and good abilities, son of the Lord Deputy Kildare, believing his father, who was imprisoned in the Tower of London, to have been beheaded, organized a rebellion against the English Government, and marched with his followers from the mansion of the earls of Kildare in Thomas Court, through Dame's Gate to St Mary's Abbey, where, in the council chamber, he proclaimed himself a rebel. On his appear-ing before the wall with a powerful force, the citizens were induced through fear to give admission to a detachment of his troops to be-siege the castle; but, on hearing that he had met with a reverse in another quarter, they suddenly closed their gates and detained his men as prisoners. He then attacked the city itself; but, find-ing it too strong to be seized by a coup de main, he raised the siege on condition of having his captured soldiers exchanged for the children of some of the principal citizens who had fallen into his hands. After much vicissitude of fortune, Lord Thomas and others concerned in this rebellion were executed at Tyburn in 1536.
At the breaking out of the civil war in 1641, a conspiracy of the Irish septs, under the direction of Roger Moore, to seize Dublin Castle, was disclosed by one Owen Connolly on the eve of the day on which the attempt was to have been made, and the city was thus preserved for the king's party ; but the Irish without commenced an indiscriminate extermination of the Protestant population. In 1646 Dublin was besieged, but without success, by the Irish army of 16,000 foot and 1600 horse, under the guidance of the Pope's nuncio Rinuccini and others, banded together " to restore and establish in Ireland the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion." The city had been put in an efficient state of defence by the marquis of Ormond, then lord-lieutenant; but in the following year, to prevent it falling into the hands of the Irish, he sur-rendered it on conditions to Colonel Jones, commander of the Parliamentary forces. In 1649 Ormond was totally defeated at the battle of Baggotrath, near Old Rathmines, in an attempt to recover possession. The same year Cromwell landed in Dublin, as commander-in-chief under the Parliament, with 9000 foot and 4000 horse, and proceeded thence on his career of conquest.
"When James II. landed in Ireland in 1689, to assert his right to the British throne, he held a parliament in Dublin, which passed acts of attainder against upwards of 3000 Protestants. The governor of the city, Colonel Luttrell, at the same time issued a proclamation ordering all Protestants not housekeepers, excepting those following some trade, to depart from the city within 24 hours, under pain of death or imprisonment, and restricting those who were allowed to remain in various ways. In the hope of relieving his financial difficulties, the king erected a mint, where money was coined of the "worst kind of old brass, guns, and the refuse of metals, melted down together," of the nominal value of £1,586,800, with which his troops were paid, and tradesmen were compelled to receive it under penalty of being hanged in case of refusal. Under these regulations the entire coinage was put into circulation. After his defeat at the battle of the Boyne, James returned to Dublin, but left it again before daybreak the next day ; and William III. advancing by slow marches, on his arrival encamped at Finglas, with upwards of 30,000 men, and the following day proceeded in state to St Patrick's Cathedral to return thanks for his victory.
In 1783 a convention of delegates from all the volunteer corps in Ireland assembled in Dublin for the purpose of procuring a reform in parliament; but the House of Commons refused to enter-tain the proposition, and the convention separated without coming to any practical result. In May 1798 the breaking out of a conspiracy planned by the United Irishmen to seize the city was prevented by the capture of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, son of the duke of Leinster and husband of the celebrated "Pamela." Lord Edward died in prison of the wounds received in the encounter which preceded his capture.
In 1800 the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was passed in both parliaments, and on the 1st January following the imperial standard of the United Kingdom was hoisted on Dublin Castle.
In 1803 an insurrection, headed by Robert Emmett, a young barrister of much promise, broke out, out was immediately quelled, with the loss of some lives in the tumult, and the death of its leaders on the scaffold. In 1848 William Smith O'Brien, M.P. for Limerick, raised a rebellion in Tipperary, and the lower classes in Dublin were greatly agitated. Owing, however, to timeous and judicious disposition of the military and police forces the city was saved from much bloodshed. In 1867 the most serious of modern conspiracies, that known as the Fenian organization, came to light. The reality of it was proved by a ship being found laden with gunpowder in the Liverpool docks, and another with £5000 and 2000 pike heads in Dublin. The Habeas Corpus Act was suspended at one sitting by both Houses of Parliament and about 960 arrests were made in Dublin in a few hours. Dublin castle was fortified ; and the citizens lived in a state of terror for several weeks together.
Thorn's Irish Almanac; Lewis's Topographical Dictionary; D'Alton's History of the Co. Dublin ; Gilbert's History of the City of Dublin, 3 vols. 1854-59 ; History of the City of Dublin, by Rev. J. Whitelaw and Rev. R. Walsh, 2 vols. 4to. Lond. 1818. (E. T. L.)
Dublin (County), Ireland