1902 Encyclopedia > Galls


GALLS. In animals galls occur mostly on or under the skin of living mammals and birds, and are produced by Aearidea, and by dipterous insects of the genus CEstrus. Signor Moriggia has described and figured a horny excrescence, nearly 8 inches in length, from the back of the human hand, which was caused by Acarus domeslicus. What are commonly known as galls are vegetable deformities or excrescences, due to parenchymatous hypertrophy, and, according to the definition of Lacaze-Duthiers, comprise " all abnormal vegetable productions developed on plants by the action of animals, more particularly by insects, what ever maybe their form, bulk, or situation." For the larvae of their makers the galls provide shelter and sustenance. The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her ovi-positor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants. This virus causes the rapid enlargement and subdivision of the cells affected by it, so as to form the tissues of the gall. Oval or larval irritation also, without doubt, plays an im-portant part in the formation of many galls. Though, as Lacaze-Duthiers remarks, a certain relation is necessary between the "stimulus" and the "supporter of the stim-ulus," as evidenced by the limitation in the majority of cases of each species of gall-insect to some one vegetable structure, still it must be the quality of the irritant of the tissues, rather than the specific peculiarities or the part of the plant affected, that principally determines the nature of the gall. Thus the characteristics of the currant-gall of Spathegaster baccarum, L., which occurs alike on the leaves and on the flower-stalks of the oak, are obviously due to the act of oviposition, and not to the functions of the parts producing it; the bright red galls of the saw-fly Nematus gallicola are found on four different species of willow, Salix fragilis, S. alba, S. caprea, and S. cinerea ; and the galls of a Cynipid, Biorhiza aptera, usually developed on the rootlets of the oak, have been procured also from the deodar. Often the gall bears no visible resemblance to the struc-tures out of which it is developed; commonly, however, outside the larval chamber, or gall proper, and giving to the gall its distinctive form, are to be detected certain more or less modified special organs of the plant. The gall of Cecidomyia strobilina, formed from willow-buds, is mainly a rosette of leaves the stalks of which have had their growth arrested. The small, smooth, seed-shaped gall of the American Gynips seminator, Harris, according to Mr W. F. Bassett, is the petiole, and its terminal tuft of woolly hairs the enormously developed pubescence of the young oak-leaf. The moss-like covering of the "bedeguars" of the wild rose, the galls of a Cynipid, Rhodites rosce, represents leaves which have been developed with scarcely any parenchyma between their fibro-vascular bundles; and the " artichoke-galls " or " oak-strobile," produced by Aphilothrix gemmae, L., which insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists of a cupule to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached, with a peduncular, oviform, inner gall. Mr E. Newman held the view that many oak-galls are pseudobalani, or false acorns : " to produce an acorn has been the intention of the oak, but the gall-fly has frustrated the attempt." Their formation from buds which normally would have yielded leaves and shoots is explained by Parfitt as the outcome of an effort at fructification induced by oviposition, such as lias been found to result in several plants from injury by insect-agency or otherwise. Galls vary remarkably in size and shape according to the species of their makers. The polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radieis, found on the roots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls of another Cynipid, Andrieus occidtus, Tschek, which occurs on the male flowers of Quercus sessiliflora, is 2 millimetres, or barely a line, in length. Many galls are brightly coloured, as, for instance, the oak-leaf hairy galls of Spathegaster tricolor, which are of a crimson hue, more or less diffused according to exposure to light. The variety of forms of galls is very great. Some are like urns or cups, others lenticular. The "knoppern" galls of Gynipspolycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex, upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge. Of the Ceylonese galls " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs." The characters of galls are constant, and as a rule exceedingly diagnostic, even when, as in the case of ten different gall-gnats of an American willow, Sctlix humilis, it is difficult or impossible to tell the full-grown insects that produce them from one another. In degree of complexity of internal structure galls differ considerably. Some are monothalamous, and contain but one larva of the gall-maker, whilst others are many-celled, and numerously inhabited. The largest class are the unilocular, or simple, external galls, divided by Lacaze-Duthiers into those with and those without a superficial protective layer or rind, and composed of hard, or spongy, or cellular tissue. In a common gall-nut that authority distinguished seven constituent portions :— an epidermis ; a subdermic cellular tissue ; a spongy and a hard layer, composing the parenchyma proper; vessels which, without forming a complete investment, underlie the parenchyma; a hard protective layer; and lastly, within that, an alimentary central mass inhabited by the growing larva.

Galls are formed by insects of several orders. Among the Hymenoptera are the gall-wasps (Cynips and its allies), which infect the various species of oak. They are small insects, having straight antennae, and a compressed, usually very short abdomen, with the second, or second and third segments greatly developed, and the rest imbricated, and concealing, the partially coiled ovipositor. The transformations from the larval state are completed within the gall, out of which the imago, or perfect insect, tunnels its way,— usually in autumn, though sometimes, as has been observed of some individuals of Cynips Kollari, after hibernation.

The phenomena of development in Cynips and associated genera present many features of interest. Not fewer than 12,000 living specimens of 0. Kollari, Gir. (C. lignicola, Hart.), from Devonshire galls, were examined by the late Mr Frederick Smith, of the British Museum, and proved to be all females, as also were the flies obtained in two successive years from some of these by breeding on isolated oak trees in the neighbourhood of London. The same observer detected among about 1200 flies of the gregarious species Aphilothrix (Cynips) radieis not a single male. In many thousands of Oynipids, representing 28 species, Hartig failed to discover any male. Von Schlectendal, on the other hand, between 24th April and 1st May 1871, from three galls of Rhodites rosce, L., obtained in the pre-vious year, bred only 2 females and 32 males. These males were of the normal coloration and shape; but some which appeared in the latter part of May, when the females were in larger numerical pro-portion, were varieties of three kinds, partly resembling the females in coloration.8 Walsh9 ascertained with respect to the galls of the American Black Oak, that their growth commences in May, and is completed in a few weeks, and that near the middle of June about a fourth of them yield both male and female fully developed gall-flies of the species Gynips spongifiea, Osten-Sacken. In the re-mainder of the galls the larvae do not attain their pupal condition till more than two months later, and the flies they produce, which appear about October, are all females. This autumnal brood has been experimentally ascertained to cause the generation of oak-apples in the following spring on trees not previously infected. Mr W. F. Bassett10 considers that most, if not all, species of Cynips are double-brooded, and that one of the two broods consists of females only. "There are," he remarks, "so many one-gendered species, that we may reasonably suppose each to be the progenitor of the equally numerous double-gendered species, whose relation-ships have not yet been observed."

Among the commoner of the galls of the Cynipidce are the "oak-apple" or "oak-sponge" of Andrieus terminalis, Fab.; the "currant" or "berry galls" of Spathegaster baccarum, L., above mentioned; and the " oak-spangles "_ of Neuroterus lenticularis, Oliv., generally reputed to be fungoid growths, until the discovery of their true nature by Mr Frederick Smith ;12 and the succulent " cherry-galls " of Dryophanta scutellaris, Oliv. The " marble " or " Devonshire woody galls" of oak-buds, which often destroy the leading shoots of young trees, are produced by Cynips Kollari,13 already alluded to. They were first introduced into Devonshire about the year 1847, had become common near Birmingham by 1866, and two or three years later were observed in several parts ©f Scotland.14 They contain about 17 per cent, of tannin.15 On account of their regular form they have been used, threaded on wire, for making ornamental baskets. The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah galls,16 produced on a species of oak by Cynips insana,. Westw., have been regarded by many writers as the Dead Sea fruit, mad-apples (mala insana), or apples of Sodom (poma sodomitiea), alluded to by Josephus and others, which, however, are stated by E. Bobinson (Bibl. Researches in Palestine, vol. L pp. 522-4, 3d ed., 1867) to be the singular fruit called by the Arabs 'Usher, produced by the Asclepias gigantea or procera of botanists. What in Cali-fornia are known as " flea seeds " are oak-galls made by a species of Cynips; in August they become detached from the leaves that bear them, and are caused to jump by the spasmodic movements of the grab within the thin-walled ' gall-cavity.1

FIG. 1.—a, Aleppo "blue" gall; 6, ditto in section, showing central cavity for grub; c, Aleppo "white" gall, perforated by insect; d, the same in section (natural size).
5 E. J. Waring, Pharm. of India, p. 463, 1868.
Common gall-nuts, nut-galls, or oak-galls, the Aleppo, Turkey, or Levant galls of commerce (German, Galldpfel, Levantische Gallen; French, Noix de Galle), are produced on Qucrcus in-fecioria, a variety of Q. Lusitanica, Webb, by Gynips (Diplolepis, Latr.) tinctoria, L., or C. gallce tinctorial, Oliv. Aleppo galls (gallce halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, f-t-inch in diameter, ridged and warty on the upper half, and light brown to dark greyish-yellow within. What are termed " blue, " black,"or "green" galls contain the insect; the inferior "white" galls, which are lighter coloured, and not so compact, heavy, or astringent, are gathered after its escape (see fig. 1). Less valued are the galls of Tripoli (Taraplus or Tarabulus, whence the name " Tarablous galls"). The most esteemed Syrian galls, according to Pereira, are those of Mosul on the Tigris. Other varieties of nut-galls, besides the above mentioned, are employed in Europe for various purposes. Commercial gall-nuts have yielded on analysis from 26 (H. Davy) to 77 (Buchner) per cent, of tannin (see Vinen, loc. cit.), with gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, water, and minute quantities of proteids, chlorophyll, resin, free sugar, and, in the cells around the inner shelly chamber, calcium oxalate. Oak-galls are mentioned by Theophrastus, Dioscorides (i. 146), and other ancient writers, including Pliny (Nat. Hist., xvi. 9, 10; xxiv. 5), according to whom they may be produced "in a single night." Their insect origin appears to have been entirely unsuspected until within comparatively recent times, though Pliny, indeed, makes the observation that a kind of gnat is produced in certain excrescences on oak leaves. Bacon describes oak-apples as " an exudation of plants joined with putrefaction." Pomet thought that gall-nuts were the fruit of the oak, and a similar opinion obtains among the modern Chinese, who apply to them the term Mu-shih-tsze, or " fruits for the foodless." Hippo-crates administered gall-nuts for their astringent properties, and Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxiv. 5) recommends them as a remedy in affections of the gums and uvula, ulcerations of the mouth, and some dozen more complaints. The drug has been used in the treatment of intermittent fevers, but appears to be adapted only for their mildest phases. In India it is given also in chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrhoea, and several other diseases. In British pharmacy gall-nuts are used in the preparation of the two astringent ointments unguentum gallce and unguentum gallce cum opto, and of the tinctura gallce, and also as a source of tannin and of gallic acid (q.v.). They have from very early times been resorted to as a means of staining the hair of a dark colour, and they are the base of the tattooing dye of the Somali women. On the Continent they are employed in tanning. With respect to the technical appli-cation of gall-nuts, see further BLASTING, vol. iii. p. 808, DYEING, vol. vii. p. 579, and INK. In consequence of the increased consump-tion in dyeing of sumach, myrobalans, and new chemical sub-stances, the British importations of gall-nuts have on the whole declined considerably.

The quantities and values of galls imported into the United Kingdom in 1877 were as follows:—From Germany, 1963 ewts., £7759 ; Turkey, 6420 cwts., £20,712; Egypt, 1702 cwts., £6244: China, 11,748 cwts., £32,715; British India (Bombay and Scinde)| 2181 cwts., £2230 ; other countries, 2411 cwts., £7176 ; total, 26,425 cwts., of the value of £76,834, against 25,884 cwts., value £64,704, in 1876.

The gall-making Hymenoptera include, besides the Cyni-pidce proper, certain species of the genus Eurytoma (Iso-soma, Walsh) and family C/ialcididce, e.g., E. hordei, the "joint-worm" of the United States, which produces galls on the stalks of wheat ; also various members of the family Tenthredinidce, or saw-flies. The larvae of the latter usually vacate their galls to spin their cocoons in the earth, or, as in the case of Athalia abdominalis, Klg., of the clematis, may emerge from their shelter to feed for some days on the leaves of the gall-bearing plant.

The dipterous gall-formers include the gall-midges, or gall-gnats (Cecidomyidce), minute slender-bodied insects, with bodies usually covered with long hairs, and the wings folded over the back. Some of them build cocoons within their galls, others descend to the ground to become pupas. The true willow-galls are the work either of these or of saw-flies. Their galls are to be met with on a great variety of plants of widely distinct genera, e.g., the ash, maple, hornbeam, oak, grape-vine, alder, gooseberry, blackberry, pine, juniper, thistle, fennel, meadowsweet, common cabbage, and cereals. In the northern United States, in May, " legions of these delicate minute flies fill the air at twilight, hovering over wheat-fields and shrubbery. A strong northwest wind, at such times, is of incalculable value to the farmer." Other gall-making dipterous flies are members of the family Trypetidce, which disfigure the seed-heads of plants, and of the family Mycetophilidce, such as the species Sciara lilicola, Low, the cause of the oblong or rounded green and red galls of theyoung shoots and leaves of the lime.

Galls are formed also by hemipterous and homopterous insects of the families Tingidce, Psyllidce, Coccidce, and Aphidce. Coccus pinicorticis causes the growth of patches of white flocculent and downy matter on the smooth bark of young trees of the white pine in America. The galls of examples of the last family are common objects on lime-leaves, and on the petioles of the poplar. An American Aphid of the genus Pemphigus produces black, ragged, leathery, and cup-shaped excrescences on the young branches of the hickory.
The Chinese galls of commerce (Woo-pei-tsze) are stated to be produced by Aphis Chinensis, Bell, on Rhus semialata, Murr. (R. Bucki-amela, Roxb.), an Anacardiaeeous tree indigenous to N. India, China, and Japan. They are hollow, brittle, irregularly pyriform, tuberculated or branched vesicles, with thin walls, covered externally with a grey down, and internally with a white chalk-like matter, and insect-remains (see fig. 2). The escape of the insect takes place on the spontaneous bursting of the walls of the vesicle, probably when, after viviparous (thelytokous) reproduction for several generations, male winged insects are developed. The galls are gathered before the frosts set in, and are exposed to steam to kill the insects.1
Chinese galls examined by Viedt2 yielded 72 per cent, of tannin, and less mucilage than Aleppo galls. Several other varieties of galls are produced by Aphides on species of Pistacia.

M. J. Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anoplewra lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of

FIG. 2.—a, Chinese gall (half natural size), 6, ditto, broken, showing thin-walled cavity; c, Japanese gall (natural size).

apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupi-fera). These last issuing from the ground fly to the Pistachio, and on it deposit their pupae. From the pupa;, again, are developed sexual individuals, the females of which lay fecundated eggs pro-ductive of gall-founders, thus recommencing the biological cycle (see Compt. Bend., Nov. 18, 1878, p. 782, quoted in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hüt., 1879, p. 174).

Of otter insects which have been recognized as gall-makers there are, among the Coleóptera, certain Curculionids (gall-weevils), and species of the exotic Sagridos and LamiadoB, and an American beetle, Saperda inornata (Cerambycidce), which forms the pseudo-galls of Salix longifolia and Populus angulata, or cottonwood. Among the Lepidoptera are gall-forming species belonging to the Tineidce, JSgeriidce, Tortricidce, and Pterophoridce. The larva of a New Zealand moth, Morova subfascictta, Walk.

(Cacoeciagallicolens), of the family Drepanulidce, causes the stem of a creeping plant, on the pith of which it apparently subsists, to swell up into a fusiform gall.3

Mite-galls, or acarocecidia, are abnormal growths of the leaves of plants, produced by microscopic Acaridea of the genus Phytoptus (gall-mites), and consist of little tufts of hairs, or of thickened portions of the leaves, usually most hypertrophied on the upper surface, so that the lower is drawn up into the interior, producing a bursiform cavity. Mite-galls occur on the sycamore, pear, plum, ash, alder, vine, mulberry, and many other plants; and formerly, e.g., the gall known as Erineum quercinum, on the leaves of Quercus ÍJerris, were taken for cryptogamic structures. The lime-leaf "nail-galls" of Phytoptus tilice closely resemble the "trumpet-galls" formed on American vines by a species of CecidomyiaA Certain minute Nematoid worms, as Anguillula scandens, which infests the ears of wheat, also give rise to galls.
Besides the larva of the gall-maker, or the householder, galls usually contain inquilines or lodgers, the larvae of what

1 See E. Doubleday, Pharin. Joum., 1st ser., vol. vii. p. 310; and Pereira, ib., vol. iii. p. 377.
2 Dingier's Polyt. Joum., ccxvi. p. 453 ; cf. supra GALLIC ACID.
3 For figure and description see Zoology of the Erebus and Terror, ii. pp. 46, 47, 1844-75.
4 On the mite-galls and their makers, see F. Low, '' Beitrage zur Naturgesch. der Gallmilben (Phytoptus, Duj.)," Verhandl. d. zoolog.-lot. Oes. in Wien, xxiv., 1874, pp. 2-16, with plate ; and " Ueber Milbengallen (Acarocecidien) der Wiener-Gegend," ib., pp. 495-508 ; Andrew Murray, Economic Entomology, Áptera, pp. 331-374, 1876 ; and F. A. W. Thomas, Aeltere und neue Beobachtungen über Phytopte-Cecidien, Halle, 1877.

are termed guest-flies or cuckoo-flies. Thus the galls of Cynips and its allies are inhabited by members of other cynipideous genera, asSynergus,Amblynotus, and Synophrys; and the pine-cone-like gall of Salix strobiloides, as Walsh has shown, is made by a large species of Cecidomyia, which inhabits the heart of the mass, the numerous smaller ceci-domyidous larvae in its outer part being mere inquilines. In many instances the lodgers are not of the same order of insects as the gall-makers. Some saw-flies, for example, are inquilinous in the galls of gall-gnats, and some gall-gnats in the galls of saw-flies. Again, galls may afford harbour to insects which are not essentially gall-feeders, as in the case of the Curculio beetle Conotrachelius nenuphar, Hbst., of which one brood eats the fleshy part of the plum and peach, and another lives in the "black knot" of the plum-tree, re-garded by Walsh as probably a true cecidomyidous gall. The same authority (loc. cit., p. 550) mentions a willow-gall which provides no less than sixteen insects with food and pro-tection ; these are preyed upon by about eight others, so that altogether some twenty-fonr insects, representing eight orders, are dependent for their existence on what to the com-mon observer appears to be nothing but " an unmeaning mass of leaves." Among the numerous insects parasitic on the inhabitants of galls are hymenopterous flies of the family Proctotrypidce, and of the family Chalcididce, e.g., Callimome regius, the larva of which preys on the larvae of both Cynips glutinosa and its lodger Synergus facialis. The oak-apple often contains the larvae of Braconidce and Ichneumonidee, which Von Schlechtendal (loc. sup. cit., p. 33) considers to be parasites not on the owner of the gall, Andricus termin-alis, but on inquilinous Tortricidce. Birds are to be in-cluded among the enemies of gall-insects. Oak-galls, for example, are broken open by the titmouse in order to obtain the grub within, and the "button-galls" of Neuroterus numismatis, Oliv., are eaten by pheasants.

On galls and their makers and inhabitants see further—J. T. C. Ratzeburg, Die Forst-Insecten, Th. iii. pp. 53 sq., Berlin, 1844 ; T. W. Harris, Insects injurious to Vegetation, Boston, U.S., 2d ed., 1852 ; C. L. Koch, Die Pflanzenläuse Aphiden, Nuremberg, 1854; T. Hartig, Die Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen, Berlin, 1860 ; Walsh, " On the Insects, Coleopterous, Hymenopterous, and Dipterous, inhabiting the Galls of certain species of Willow," Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, iii., 1863-4, pp. 543-644, and vi., 1866-7, pp. 223-288 ; T. A. Marshall, " On some British Cynipidae," Ent. Month. Mag., iv. pp. 6-8, &c; H. W. Kidd and Albert Müller, "A List of Gall-Bearing British Plants," ib., v. pp. 118 and 216 ; G. L. Mayr, Die mitteleuropäischen Eichengallen in Wort und Bild, Vienna, 1870-71, and the translation of that work, with notes, in the Entomologist, vols. vii. sq. ; also, by the same author, " Die Einmiethler der mitteleuropäischen Eichengallen," Verhandl. d. zoolog.-
bot. Ges. in Wien, xxii. pp. 669-726 ; and " Die europäischen Torymiden," ib., xxiv. pp. 53-142 (abstracted in Cistula Entomologica, i., Lond., 1869-76); F. Low, "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der
Gallmücken," ib., pp. 143-162, and 321-328 ; J. E. von Bergenstamm and P. Low, "Synopsis Cecidomyidaium," ib., xxvi. pp. 1-104 ; Perris, Ann. Soc. Entom. dc France, 4th ser., vol. x. pp.
176-185; R. Osten-Sacken, "On the North American CecidomyidaV' Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. vi., 1867, p. 173; E. L. Taschenberg, Entomologie für Gärtner und Gartenfreunden, Leipsic, 1871 ; J. W. H. Traill, " Scottish Galls," Scottish Naturalist, i., 1871, pp. 123, &c; Albert Müller, " British Gall Insects," The Entomologist's Annual for 1872, pp. 1-22; B. Altum, Forstzoologie, iii., " Insecten," pp. 250 sq., Berlin, 1874; J. H. Kaltenbach, Die Plauzen Feinde aus der Classe der Insecten, Stuttg., 1874; A. d'Arbois de Jubainville and J. Vesque, Les Maladies des Plantes Cultivées, pp. 98-105, Paris, 1878. (F. H. B.)


Quoted in Zoological Record, iv., 1867, p. 192.
' P. Cameron, Scottish Naturalist, ii. pp. 11-15.
Mntomologist, vii. p. 47.

See iu Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the year 1873, p. xvi.
See A. Miiller, Gardener's Chronicle, 1871, pp. 1162 and 1518 ; and E. A. Fitch, Entomologist, xi. p. 129.
Entomologist, vi. pp. 275-8, 339-40.
Verhandl. d. zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien, xxi. p. 799.
6 Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication, ii. p. 282.
" Beeherches pour servir a l'Histoire des Galies," Ann. des Sci.
Nat., xix. pp. 293 sqg.
7 Zoologist, xix., 1861, pp. 7330-3.
8 Jahresber. des Vereins f. Nakirk. zu Zwickau, 1871, p. 34.
9 American Entomologist, i., 1868, p. 103.
10 Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the year 1873, p. xv.
7 Zoologist, xix., 1861, pp. 7330-3.
8 Jahresber. des Vereins f. Nakirk. zu Zwickau, 1871, p. 34.
9 American Entomologist, i., 1868, p. 103.
10 Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the year 1873, p. xv.

According to Dr Adler, alternation of generations takes place between N. lenticularis and Spathegaster baccarum (see E. A. Ormerod, Entomologist, xi. p. 34).
12 See Westwood, Introd. to the Mod. Classif. of Insects, ii., 1840, p. 130.
13 For figures and descriptions of insect and gall, see Entomologist, ir. p. 17 ; vii. p. 241 ; ix. p. 53 ; xi. p. 131.
14 Scottish Naturalist, 1,1871, p. 116, &c.
15 Vinen, Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., xxx., 1856, p. 290; " English Ink-Galls," Pharm. Journ., 2d ser., iv. p. 520.
16 See Pereira, Materia Medica, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 347 ; Pharm. Journ., 1st ser., vol. viii. pp. 422—4.

A Complete History of Drugs (translation), p. 169, Lond., 1748.
F. Porter Smith, Contrib. towards the Mat.Medica . . . of China,
p. 100, 1871. 4 Cullen, Mat. Med., ii. p. 46, 1789.
E. J. Waring, Remarks on . . . Bazaar Medicines . . . of India, Lond., 3d ed., 1875.
E. J. Waring, Remarks on . . . Bazaar Medicines . . . of India, Lond., 3d ed., 1875.
R. F. Burton, First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 178, 1856.
A. S. Packard, jun., Guide to the Study of Insects, v. 205, Salem, 1870.
On the Cecidomyids of Quercus Cerris, see Fitch, Entomologist, xi. p. 14.
See, on Cecidomyia oenephila, Von Haimhoffen, Verhandl. d. zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien, xxv., 801-10.
See Entomologist's Month. Mag., iv., 1868, p. 233; and for figure and description, Entomologist, xi. p. 13.
A. S. Packard, jun., Our Common Insects, p. 203, Salem, U.S., 1873. On the Hessian fly, Cecidomyia destructor, Say, the May brood of which produces swellings immediately above the joints of barley attacked by it, see Asa Fitch, The Hessian Fly, Albany, 1847, re-printed from Trans. New York State Agric. Soc., vol. vi.
J. Winnertz, Beitrag zu einer Monographie der Sciarinen, p. 164, Vienna, 1867.
Asa Fitch, First and Second Rep. on the Noxious .... Insee.tr of the State of New York, p. 167, Albany, 1856.

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia, iii., 1864, p. 549.

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