GREGORY XI. (Pierre Roger de Beaufort), pope from 1370 to 1378, born in Limousin in 1336, succeeded Urban V. in 1370 as one of the Avignon popes. During his pontificate vigorous measures were taken against the "heresies " which had broken out in Germany, England, and other parts of Europe; a sincere effort was also made to bring about a reformation in the various monastic orders. The nineteen propositions of Wick-liffe and the thirteen articles of the " Sachsenspiegel " were formally condemned by him in 1373. His energy was largely stimulated by the stirring words of Catherine of Siena (see vol. v. p. 231), to whom in particular the transference of the papal see back to Italy, January 27, 1377, was almost entirely due. He did not long survive this removal, dying on March 27, 1378. His successor was Urban VI., but the antipope Clement VII. also received i much support, and the schism lasted forty years.