GUMBINNEN, the chief town of a government district of the same name in the Prussian province of East Prussia, is situated on the Pissa, an affluent of the Pregel, and on the Eastern Railway, 22 miles south-west of Eydtkuhnen on the Russian boundaries. The surrounding country is pleasant and fruitful, and the town is well built, with spacious and regular streets shaded by linden trees. It has three Evangelical churches, a synagogue, a gymnasium, a higher burgher school, a public library, a hospital, and an infirmary. In the market square there is a statue by Rauch of Frederick William I., who in 1724 raised Gum-binnen to the rank of a town, and in 1732 brought to it a number of persons who had been driven from Salzburg by religious persecution. On the bridge over the Pissa a monument has been erected to those of the inhabitants who fell in the Franco-German war of 1870-71. Iron founding and the manufacture of machinery, wool, cotton, and linen weaving, stocking-making, tanning, brewing, and brandy-making are the principal industries. There are horse and cattle markets, and some trade in corn and linseed. The population in 1875 was, including the garri-son, 9114.