HANOVER (German, Hannover), formerly an inde-pendent kingdom, but since 1866 a province of Prussia, lies between 51° 18' and 53° 52' N. lat. and 6° 43' and 11° 45' E. long., and is bounded on the N. by the North Sea, N.E. by Holstein, Hamburg, and Mecklenburg, E. and S.E. by Prussian Saxony and the duchy of Brunswick, S.W. by Hesse-Cassel and Westphalia, and W. by Holland. These boundaries include the grand-duchy of Oldenburg, which stretches southward from the North Sea nearly to the southern boundary of Hanover. A small portion of the province in the south is separated from Hanover proper by the interposition of a part of Brunswick. The area of the province extends to 14,548 English square miles.
Physical Features.The greater part of Hanover is embraced in that extensive plain which, commencing on the shores of the North Sea, terminates on the frontiers of Russia. The most fruitful districts are on the banks of the Elbe and near the North Sea, where, as in Holland, rich meadows are preserved from being immersed in water by broad dykes and deep ditches, constructed and kept in repair at great expense. It is only the southern portioi1 that is mountainous; the district of Klausthal, containing the Harz, is wholly so, as well as some parts near Göt-tingen, and in the district of Hildesheim. The Harz mountains are not a part of any chain, but rise from a plain in an isolated group, the highest points of which are nearly in the centre (see HARZ). They are covered with exten-sive forests. On their lower slopes the trees are of the deciduous kinds, but pines alone are found on the summits.
The whole of Hanover dips towards the north, and the rivers consequently flow in that direction. The Elbe, which forms the boundary on the N.E., receives the fol-lowing tributaries :the Ohre, which rises in the district of Lüneburg; the Aland and the Jetze, which come out of the province of Saxony, and are navigable in their lower course; the Ilmenau, which becomes navigable at Lüne-burg; the Este, navigable to Buxtehude; the Lühe, navigable to Hornburg ; the Schwinge, by which vessels reach Stade ; the Oste, navigable to Kirchosters; and the Medem, which runs through the Hadeln-land, and admits large vessels up to Otterndorf. The Weser enters Hanover at Münden, being there formed by the junction of the Fulda and the Werra. It is navigable for barges from the spot at which its name commences; and it receives the Hamel, the Aller, the Oertze, the Leine, the Böhme, the Eyther, the Wümme, which in the lower part of its course takes the name of Lesum, the Geeste, and the Hunte,all of them purely Hanoverian rivers. The Ems rises in the province of Westphalia, and after entering Hanover receives the waters of the Aa, the Haase, the Else, and the Leda; it falls into the Dollart near Emden, which is the principal seaport in the kingdom. It is navigable for flat-bottomed vessels from Rheina downwards, and for sea-going ships from Halte and Weener. The Vecht, a river of short course, rises in the province of Westphalia, and falls into the Zuyder Zee. A navigable canal from the Vecht to Münster connects that city with the Zuyder Zee. Navigable canals connect the various river systems.
The principal lakes are the Steinhuder Meer, about 4 miles long and 2 broad, and 20 fathoms deep, on the borders of Schaumburg-Lippe; the Dümmersee on the borders of Oldenburg, about 12 miles in circuit; the lake of Bederkesa, and some others in the moorlands of the north; the Seeburger See near Duderstadt; and the Oderteich, in the Harz, 2100 feet above the level of the sea.
Climate.The climate in the low-lying districts near the coast is moist and foggy, in the plains mild, on the Harz mountains severe and variable. In spring the prevailing winds blow from the N.E. and E., in summer from the S.W. The mean annual temperature is about 46° Fahr.; in the town of Hanover it is higher. The average annual rainfall is about 23-5 inches; but this varies greatly in different districts. In the west the Höhenrauch, a thick fog arising from the burning of the moors, is a plague of frequent occurrence.
Agriculture.Though agriculture constitutes the most important branch of industry in the province, it is still in a very backward state. The greater part of the soil is of inferior quality, and much that is susceptible of cultivation is still lying waste. Of the entire area of the country 28'2 per cent, is arable, 16 '6 in meadow oi pasture land, 13 percent, in forests, 37'2 per cent, in uncultivated moors, heaths, &c.; from 17 to 18 per cent, is in possession of the state. The best agriculture is to be found in the districts of Hildesheim, Calenberg, Göttingen, and Grubenhagen, on the banks of the Weser and Elbe, and in East Friesland. Of the whole area under cultivation in 1878 there was under wheat 1'9 per cent. ; rye, 10'9 ; barley, 0'9 ; oats, 57 ; buckwheat, 1'4 ; pease, 0'4 ; potatoes, 2'8 ; andmeadow, 10'4 percent. The extent of tillage was 3,295,752 acres of a total area of 9,464,446 acres. The total yield for the season 1878 waswheat, 2,298,543 cwt.; rye, 10,843^726 cwt.; barley, 1,350,417 cwt.; oats, 7,054,389 cwt.; buckwheat, 1,150,515 cwt.; pease, 348,934 cwt.; potatoes, 17,828,490 cwt.; hay, 34,238,480 cwt. Rye is generally grown for bread. Flax, for which much of the soil is admirably adapted, is extensively cultivated, and forms an important article of export, chiefly, however, in the form of yarn. Hemp, turnips, and hops are also among the exports. There were in 1877 805 acres planted with tobacco, the produce of which was 12,207 cwt., valued at £15,150. Of beet there were 27,700 acres, yielding 5,376,480 cwt. of beet-root, from which was manufactured in 27 sugar-mills with 211 engines of 2433 horse-power 581,707 cwt. of raw sugar. Apples, pears, plums, and cherries are the principal kinds of fruit grown. Red bilberries (Vaccinium Vitis idcca) from the Harz and black bilberries (V. Myrlillus) from the Lüneburg Heath form an important article of export.
Live Stock.By the returns of 1873 there were in Hanover 191,006 horses, 132 mules, 404 asses, 894,158 head of horned cattle, 1,856,962 sheep (including 511,892 heidschnucken, a very coarse breed), 510,550 pigs, 172,902 goats, and 217,045 beehives. Bees are principally kept on the Lüneburg Heath. The number of sheep was larger before 1867, but the number of horned cattle has increased. Horses are reared in the marshes of Aurich aud Stade, in Hildesheim and Hanover ; the cattle of Aurich (East Friesland) are famous for their size and quality. The best sheep belong to the country lying between the capital and the Harz. Large flocks of geese are kept in the moist lowlands ; their flesh is salted for domestic consumption during the winter, and their feathers are prepared for sale.
Mining.Minerals occur in great variety and abundance. The Harz mountains are rieh in silver, lead, iron, and copper ; coal is found around Osnabrück, on the Deister, at Osterwald, &c., lignite in various places; salt-springs of great richness exist at Egestorfshall and Neuhall near Hanover, and at Lüneburg ; and petroleum may be obtained south of Celle. Tn the cold regions of the northern lowlands, peat occurs in beds of immense thickness. The mining returns for the year 1878 give the following quantities and values : coal, 301,728 tons (£118,765); lignite, 126,714 tons (£33,724); asphalt, 26,000 tons (£28,000); iron ores, 170,969 tons (£16,000); zinc, 5141 tons (£16,944) ; lead ore, 32,866 tons (£188,785); copper ore, 16,793 tons (£45,286); silver ore, 35 cwt. (£1420); manganese ore, 3070 cwt. (£719); salt from springs, 73,007 tons (£91,493).
Manufactures.Works for the manufacture of iron, copper, brass, wire, silver, lead, vitriol, and sulphur are carried on to a large extent. About 40,000 persons are employed in these works and in the mines, the yearly revenue from which amounts to £1,200,000. The production of 1878 consisted ofiron, 1,562,231 tons; lead, 8774 tons; copper, 2556 cwt. ; silver, 53,932 lb; gold, 171 lb ; sulphuric acid, 573 tons ; blue vitriol, 788 tons. The iron works are very important: smelting is carried on in the Harz and near Osnabrück; there are extensive foundries and machine factories at Hanover, Linden, Osnabrück, Hameln, Geestemünde, Harburg, Osterode, &c, and manufactories of arms at Herzberg, and of cutlery in the towns of the Harz and in the Sollinger Forest. The textile industries are prosecuted chiefly in the towns. Linen yarn and cloth are largely manufactured, especially in the south about Osnabrück and Hildesheim, and bleaching is engaged in extensively ; woollen cloths are made to a considerable extent in the south about Einbeck, Göttingen, and Hameln ; cotton-spinning and weaving have their principal seats at Hanover and Lin-den. Glass houses, paper-mills, potteries, tile works, and tobacco-pipe works are numerous. Wax is bleached to a considerable extent, and there are numerous tobacco factories, tanneries, breweries, vinegar works, and brandy distilleries. Shipbuilding is an important industry. especially at Papenburg, Emden, Leer, Stade, and Har-burg ; and at Münden river barges are built.
Commerce.Although the carrying trade of Hanover is to a great extent absorbed by Hamburg and Bremen, the shipping of the province counts 867 sea-going vessels, the larger vessels all belonging to Geestemünde. Emden is destined to become a very important seaport when the extensive harbour improvements have been completed.
Administration.The province is divided into six landdrosteien or counties, and these again have been subdivided, since the annexa-tion by Prussia, into smaller districts. There is a provincial assembly representing 43 towns and 101 bailiwicks. A court of appeal for the whole province sits at Celle, and there are 12 superior courts. To the German parliament (reichstag) Hanover sends 19 members ; to the Prussian house of assembly (abgeordnetenhaus) 36. The debts of the province, contracted before the occupation by Prussia, amount to £226,622.
Population.The censusof 1871 gave the population as 1,963,618 ; 1,713,664 belonged to the Evangelical Church, 233,633 were Roman Catholics, and 12,790 Jews. The urban population numbered
Counties. Extent in English sq. miles. Population, 1st Dec. 1875. Inhabitants to the sq. mile.;
Males. Females. Total.
Stade 2197-4 1941-7 4375-6 2493-7 2358-6 1181-0 215,364 204,010 194,586 154,694 139,761 99,310 214,695 209,587 192,128 153,515 138,000 101,743 430,059 413,597 3S6,714 30S,209 277,761 201,053 196 213 88 123 118 170
14548-0 1,007,725 1,009,668 2,017,393 139
503,102, and the rural 1,454,587. By the census of 1875 the population had reached 2,017,393. There are 114 towns, but only 9 have a population exceeding 10,000, viz., Hanover, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Linden, Harburg, Lüneburg, Celle, Göttingen, and Emden.
Education.Amongst the educational institutions the university of Göttingen stands first, with an average yearly attendance of 900 students. There are besides 18 gymnasiums, a progymnasium, _9 first-class grammar schools, 11 normal and training schools, a polytechnic school at Hanover, a school of mines and forestry at Klausthal, several naval academies and schools of arts, 3 asylums for the deaf and dumb, 2 for the blind, and numerous other charitable institutions.
History.The word Hanover originally applied only to the city so called. It was gradually, however, extended to the country of which Hanover was the capital; and it was officially recognized as the name of the state when in 1814 the electorate of Lüneburg was made a kingdom.
In ancient times the country formed part of Saxony, which remained independent until the time of Charlemagne; and afterwards it was included in the duchy of Saxony. After the extinction of the Billing family, which ruled Saxony for about two centuries, the duchy was granted to Lothair of Supplinburg, who in 1125 was elected emperor. He gave his daughter in marriage to Henry the Proud, duke of Bavaria, of the ancient house of Guelph, which already had important allodial possessions in Saxony. Henry the Proud became duke of Saxony as well as of Bavaria ; and his son Henry the Lion, after a time of bitter dispute, was installed by Frederick Barbarossa in his father's great position. In the latter part of Frederick's reign, in 1180, Henry was deprived of both his duchies, but was allowed to keep the allodial possessions of his family, viz., Brunswick and Lüneburg. In 1235 these lands were yielded by Henry's grandson, Otto Puer, to the emperor Frederick IL, who granted them to him in fief as a duchy. Otto's two sons divided their inheritance into two duchies in 1267, and thus were formed the old Lüneburg and the old Brunswick lines. There was a fresh division in 1428, whereby were formed the so-called middle lines of Brunswick and Lüneburg. From 1527 Lüneburg was under the sole government of Duke Ernest the Confessor, who was an ardent adherent of Luther, and so persistently laboured to promote the Reformation in his country that it has been essentially Pro-testant ever since. He died in the same year as his friend Luther, 1546 ; and from him descended the younger lines of Brunswick and Lüneburg, or of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Brunswiek-Lüne-burg. For in 1634 Duke Frederick Ulrich of Brunswiek-Wolfen-büttel suddenly died childless, and his duchy was inherited by Augustus the younger, the descendant of Ernest's eldest son Henry; and Brunswick has remained in the hands of this dynasty till the present day. Meanwhile Lüneburg had been ruled over by William, the younger son of Ernest the Confessor; and when he died in 1592 he left seven sons, of whom four, Ernest, Christian, Augustus the elder, and Frederick, one after the other, became rulers of the land. Frederick, who survived all his brothers, died in 1648, the year in which the Thirty Years' War was brought to a close. The only one of the seven brothers who married was George, to whom was granted as a separate duchy a part of Lüneburg called Calen-berg, of which he made Hanover the capital, Celle being the capital of Lüneburg. He arranged that his eldest son should be allowed to select either Calenberg or Lüneburg, that the second should take the duchy not chosen by his brother, and that the remaining sons should be content without having territory to govern. The result of this settlement was that his eldest son, Christian Louis, chose Lüneburg, where he ruled till his death in 1665. George William, the second son, ruled over Calenberg till 1665, when he transferred himself to Lüneburg, which he governed till 1705. On his going to Lüneburg, the third brother, John Frederick, became duke of Calenberg, in which position he was succeeded in 1679 by Ernest Augustus, the fourth brother, who married Sophia the grand-daughter of James I. of England. Ernest Augustus was an exceedingly ambitious prince, and in order to increase the power of his country introduced in 1682 the law of primogeniture. After-wards, in 1692, in consequence of a vast amount of negotiation and intrigue, he managed to secure for himself and his successors the electoral title. He died in 1698, and was succeeded by his son George Louis, who, having married his cousin Sophia Dorothea, the daughter of George William of Calenberg, finally united the two duchies on the death of the latter prince. In 1714 George Louis, the elector of Lüneburg, ascended the throne of Great Britain as George I.
After this time, until the death of William IV., Lüneburg or Hanover had the same sovereign as Great Britain ; and this per-sonal union of the two countries was not without important results for both. George IL, as the ally of Frederick the Great in the Seven Years' War, joined the struggle in the capacity both of elector and of king ; and while George III. was on the throne there was hardly a phase of the foreign policy of England by which Hanover was not affected. In 1803, when the Hanoverian troops capitulated at Sulingen, the country was invested by a French corps, which it had to maintain at a heavy cost. The Prussians received temporary possession of Hanover from Napoleon in 1806 ; but in 1807 a part of it was annexed to the kingdom of Westphalia, to which the remaining portion was added in 1810. The people never acquiesced in French predominance, and wdien the final struggle with Napoleon came they distinguished themselves by the ardour with which they flung themselves into it. At the congress of Vienna in 1815 it was demanded in the name of the elector (King George III.) that the electorate should be recognized as a kingdom; and not only was the demand admitted, but the new kingdom received considerable accessions of territory.
Partly through the influence of the French, partly in consequence of the general progress of ideas, Hanover was now, like many other parts of Germany, penetrated by a desire for freedom; and such had been the sufferings of the people, willingly borne for their sovereign and country, that they felt they had a right to be treated in a con-ciliatory and generous spirit. Their wishes were, however, disre-garded. Count Münster, who virtually ruled the country from London, drew up a constitution which came into force in 1819. It was thoroughly reactionary in tendency, and the more resolutely it was enforced the more completely were the people alienated from the ruling class. Not until 1831, when there were several popular risings of so serious a nature that Count Münster resigned, was it deemed necessary to make important concessions, and even then the constitution which the states assembly prepared was made con-siderably less liberal by William IV. before he sanctioned it in 1833.
As the law of Hanover prevented a woman from mounting the throne, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, became king after the death of William IV. in 1837. He proved to be a harsh and narrow-minded despot. In 1837 he arbitrarily abolished the con-stitution of 1833, and wdien seven professors of the university of Göttingen protested against the act as unlawful, they were deprived of their chairs, and, three of the most distinguishedGervinus, Jacob Grimm, and Dahlmannwere banished from the country. The people were profoundly stirred, and it was hoped that the coni'ederate diet might be induced to protect their rights, but it declined to interfere. A pitiful imitation of a constitution was granted in 1840, but this only intensified the public indignation, which became so strong that in 1848 the revolutionary movement that swept over Europe seemed about to overthrow King Ernest Augustus and his throne together. By hasty concessions he suc-ceeded in preventing this catastrophe, but no sooner did the agita-tion begin to abate than he showed a disposition to evade the obligations imposed by the constitution which had been wrung from him. The comparatively liberal ministry which had been appointed in the moment of danger was dismissed in 1850, and probably only the death of the king in 1851 prevented him from engaging in as serious a contest as ever with the progressive forces that surrounded him. In 1849, when the Frankfort diet failed to establish the unity of Germany, he joined the kings of Prussia and Saxony in forming what was called "the three kings' alliance"; but he soon withdrew from this connexion, and associated himself with the thoroughly conservative policy of Austria.
Ernest Augustus was succeeded by his blind son, George V. Personally King George was of an amiable disposition, but he shared his father's extravagant conceptions of royal rights, and at once appointed a ministry whose aim was to get rid of the incon-venient constitution of 1848. The second chamber, however, resisted its designs so energetically that in 1852 the more re-actionary ministers had to resign, and in 1853 even the modified cabinet was completely defeated. The king then created a Govern-ment which advised him to appeal to the confederate diet. This was done, and in 1855 the diet proclaimed the constitution of 1848 to be invalid. That a more easy triumph might be secured, the states assembly was dissolved, and a ministry was formed which boldly restored the nominal constitution of 1840. This Govern-ment spared no effort to obtain an overpowering majority, but, as it still encountered some resistance in the new parliament, fresh elec-tions were ordered, and in 1857 it had the satisfaction of meeting as pliant a body of deputies as the king himself could wish. The people, however, were not in sympathy with their nominal repre-sentatives, and gave many proofs of their discontent with the arbitrary rule to which they were subjected. In 1862, when an attempt was made to impose upon the schools the use of a catechism of the 17th century, the popular feeling was so decisively expressed that the king was compelled to dismiss his ministers. The new cabinet, which was rather less extravagant, included Herr "Wmdt-horst, who had for a short time had'a seat in the Government that resigned in 1853, and who has since acquired distinction as leader of the Ultramontane party in the imperial parliament of Germany. King George could not long submit even to a slight modification of his absolutist notions, and in 1865 entrusted Herr von Borries, who had done him faithful service in previous administrations, with the task of bringing together a cabinet to his liking.
Meanwhile, however, dangers had arisen in Germany, compared with which the internal troubles of Hanover were of small account. Herr von Bismarck, who now controlled Prussian policy, was devising methods for the realization of his vast schemes ; and it became increasingly clear, after the Schleswig-Holstein war, that the minor states of Germany would soon have to accept finally the lead either of Prussia or of Austria. Before the outbreak of that conflict Hanover and Saxony had despatched troops to Holstein for the purpose of executing the will of the bund. Although the federal army was driven back by Prussia, Hanover seemed for a time to be favourable to her rather than to Austria ; but in reality the sympathy of the court was altogether with the latter power. On the 14th of Juno 1866, in regard to the decisive question whether the federal army should be mobilized, Hanover voted in the con-federate diet with Austria ; and by doing so she irrevocably declared on which side she would range herself in the approaching struggle. In consequence of this vote Prussia addressed an ultimatum to Hanover on the 15th of June, requiring her to maintain unarmed neutrality and to accept the scheme for the reform of the confederation which the Prussian plenipotentiary had submitted to the diet before retiring from it. As Hanover rejected these demands, Prussian troops at once crossed the frontier ; and on the 17th of June they were in possession of the capital. On the 27th a battle was fought at Langensalza, in which the Hanoverians were victori-ous ; but they could make no use of their victory, and were soon compelled to capitulate. At the conclusion of the war, by the treaty of Prague, Hanover, with Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfort, was annexed to Prussia. King George addressed from Hietzing, near Vienna, a protest to the European cabinets, but it was disregarded ; on the 3d of October 1866, his dominions were formally taken possession of, and in the following year the population were sub-jected to the Prussian constitution. In 1878 George V. died at Hietzing, but his son, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, maintains his right to the crown; and there is still a party in Hanover which expresses itself favourable to his claims. The mass of the population, however, whether originally willing to be annexed to Prussia or not, have submitted to the inevitable, and there is evidence that they are gradually becoming loyal subjects of the Prussian king.
HANOVER, the capital, is situated in the south of the above province, on a sandy but fertile plain on the river Leine, which here receives the Ihme, and is from this point navigable to the Weser. It is 38 miles W. by N. of Bruns-wick by rail, 157 miles W. of Berlin, 78 S.E. of Bremen, and 107 S. of Hamburg. The Leine flows through the'town having the old town on its right bank, and the Calenbergei new town between its left bank and the Ihme. The old town is irregularly built, with narrow streets and old-fashioned houses; while the new town has wide streets, handsome buildings, and beautiful squares. Of the latter the most remarkable arethe square at the railway terminus, with an equestrian statue of King Ernest Augustus in bronze; the triangular theatre square ; George Square, with the statue of Schiller; Waterloo Square, with a column 99 feet high, surmounted by Victory, and having inscribed on it the names of 800 Hanoverians who fell at Waterloo. In the gardens near the square an open rotunda has been erected enclosing a marble bust of Leibnitz, and near it a monument of General Alten, commander of the Hanoverian troops at Waterloo. The town has numerous churches; in the chapel of the palace are preserved the relics of saints which Henry the Lion brought from Pales-tine. The royal palace-built 1636-1640, rebuilt 1837 _contains a picture gallery and collection of natural curi-osities, and the palace of Ernest Augustus is remarkable for its historic collections, especially the famous Welfen museum. The other principal public buildings are the record office, containing a library of 150,000 volumes ; the town-hall, built in the 15th century; the theatre, the museum, the aquarium, the handsome railway terminus, and the exchange. Hanover has a numberof colleges and schools, and is the seat of several learned societies. During the last ten years the town has become the seat of various new indus-tries and of an increasing trade. It is connected by rail
Plan of Hanover.
1. Cavalry Barracks. 4. George Square; I fi. Markt Kirche. I 9. Palace of Ernest
2. Bank. statue of Schiller 7. Town-Hall. Augustus.
3. Theatre. 5. Eoya! Palace. ! 8. Eoyal Castle. I 10. Library.
with Berlin, Harburg, Bremen, Hameln, Cologne, Alten-beken, and Cassel; and the annual fairs for cloth, leather, yarns, linen, wool, <fec, are frequented by large numbers of buyers. There are several banks and a chamber of com-merce. Almost every industry is at present represented, whilst in former times the inhabitants derived their chief support from the presence of the court and the nobility. The town possesses large cotton-mills, iron-foundries, and machine factories, numerous tobacco manu-factories, breweries, distilleries, &c. Hanover was the first German town that was lighted with gas. It is the birth-place of Sir William Herschel the astronomer (1738), of the brothers Schlegel, and of the historian Pertz; and the philosopher Leibnitz died there (1716). The population has increased from 49,909 (including suburbs) in 1852 to 106,677 in 1879 (with the adjoining Linden, 127,576). In the vicinity are the royal palaces of Herrenhausen, the unfinished Welfenschloss (formerly Mont Brilliant), and Marienburg, the private property of Queen Marie, all sur-rounded by gardens.
See Baring, Notitia Scriptorum rerum Brunsvicensium ac Luneburgcnsium (Hanover, 1729) ; Leibnitz, Scripiores rerum Brunsvicensium (Han., 1707-11); Bunting, Brawischweig-Lüneb.
Chronica (Magdeburg, 1586), continued till 1620 by Meibom (ibid. 1620); Hüne, Gesch. des Königr. Hannover und Herzogin. Braunschweig (Hau. ,1825-30); Havemann, Gesch. der Lande Braunschweig und Lüneburg (Göttingen, 1853-57); Grotefend, Gesch. der allg. landständ. Verfassung des Königreichs Hannover, 1814-48 (Han., 1857); Schaumann, Handbuch der Gesch. der Lande Hannover und Braunschweig (Han. 1864) ; Guthe, Die Lande Braunschweig und Hannover (Han., 1867); Oppermann, Zur Gesch. Hannovers, 1832-60 (Berl., 1868); Sichart, Gesch. der Königl. hannoverschen Armee (Bevl. 1866-71). (E. J.J. SI.)