1902 Encyclopedia > Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor

HENRY V. (1081-1125), Holy Roman emperor, son of Henry IV., was born in 1081. In 1098, his elder brother Conrad having forfeited his right to the throne by rebellion, he was appointed his father's successor. Six years after-wards he himself rebelled against the emperor, towards whom he played the part of a thorough traitor. The papal party, with which he allied himself, took for granted that when he mounted the throne church and state would be instantly reconciled ; but their hopes were disappointed. The main point for which Henry IV. had contended was the right of investing the bishops with ring and staff. When Henry V. succeeded him in 1106, Pope Paschal II. demanded that this right should be given up, but he replied that he could not resign powers which had been exercised by his predecessors, and the loss of which would imply that the eccle-siastical lands of Germany would be removed from secular control. In 1110 he entered Italy at the head of 30,000 men. Alarmed by this display of force, Paschal withdrew his claims, and a day was appointed for the coronation of Henry as emperor. The opposition of the Roman prelates made it impossible for the pope to proceed with the cere-mony, whereupon he and his cardinals were made prisoners. Paschal then formally recognized the right of investiture, and Henry received the imperial crown. When the Germans had recrossed the Alps Paschal renounced the treaty he had concluded, and the emperor was excommuni-cated. As many of the princes were pleased to find this opportunity of rebelling, Germany again became the scene of confused contests like those which had brought misery upon it during Henry IV.'s long reign. In 1116 the emperor went a second time to Italy and drove Paschal from Bome; and after Paschal's death he caused Gregory VIII. to be appointed pope. The extreme papal party, how-ever, selected Gelasius II., who renewed the sentence of excommunication against Henry. The latter returned to Germany in 1119, and at a diet in Tribur succeeded in allaying the hostility of the more important among his enemies. Pope Calixtus II., who succeeded Gelasius in 1119, now found it necessary to offer a compromise; and the controversy between the empire and the papacy was for the time closed by the concordat of Worms, which was concluded in 1122. By this treaty it was agreed that at every election of a prelate the emperor should have the right of being present, either in person or through a representa-tive, and that the chosen bishop, before being consecrated, should receive his lands and secular authority in fief of the crown. So far the advantage rested with the emperor; but the papacy gained by being recognized as a power which had the right of negotiating with the empire on equal terms, and by the acknowledgment of the claim of the church to nominate its own rulers. Notwithstanding this settlement Germany did not long enjoy peace, for a number of petty wars broke out which Henry was not strong enough to quell. He died at Nimegueu in 1125, and with him was extinguished the Franconian dynasty.

See Giesebrecht, Geschichte der Deutschen Kaiserzeit (3d ed., vol. iii., pt. 2, Brunswick, 1869); Gervais, Geschichte Deutschlands unter der Regierung Heinrichs V. und Lothars (Leipsic, 1841-42); Kolbe, Erzbischof Adalbert I. von Mainz und Heinrich V. (Heidelberg, 1875).

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