1902 Encyclopedia > Johann Friedrich Herbart

Johann Friedrich Herbart
German philosopher and educationist

JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART, (1776-1841), was born of cultured parents at Oldenburg in 1776. He showed his bent towards philosophy while still a child, and after study-ing under Fichte at Jena gave his first philosophical lectures at Göttingen in 1805, whence he removed in 1809 to occupy the chair formerly held by Kant at Königsberg. Here he also established and conducted a seminary of pasdagogy till 1833, when he returned once more to Göttingen, and remained there as professor of philosophy till his death in 1841. His works were collected and pub-lished in twelve volumes by his disciple Hartenstein (Leipsic, 1850-52).
Philosophy, according to Herbart, begins with reflexion upon our empirical conceptions, and consists in the reformation and elaboration of these,—its three primary divisions being determined by as many distinct forms of elaboration. Logic, which stands first, has to render our conceptions and the judgments and reasonings arising from them clear and distinct. But some conceptions are such that the more distinct they are made the more contradictory their elements become ; so to change and supplement these as to make them at length thinkable is the problem of the second part of philosophy, or Metaphysics. There is still a class of conceptions requiring more than a logical treatment, but differing from the last in not involving latent contradictions, and in being independent of the reality of their objects, the conceptions, viz., that embody our judgments of approval and disapproval ; the philosophic treatment of these conceptions falls to iEsthetic.
In Herbart's writings logic receives comparatively meagre notice ; he insisted strongly on its purely formal character, and expressed himself in the main at one with Kantians such as Fries and Krug.
As a metaphysician he starts from what he terms "the higher scepticism " of the Hume-Kantian sphere of thought, the beginnings of which he discerns in Locke's perplexity about the idea of sub-stance. By this scepticism the real validity of even the forms of experience is called in question on account of the contradictions they are found to involve. And yet that these forms are "given" to us, as truly as sensations are, follows beyond doubt when we consider that we are as little able to control the one as the other. To attempt at this stage a psychological inquiry into the origin of these concep-tions would be doubly a mistake ; for we should have to use these unlegitimated conceptions in the course of it, and the task of clearing up their contradictions would still remain, whether we suc-ceeded in our inquiry or not. But how are we to set about this task ? "We have given to us a conception A uniting among its con-stituent marks two that prove to be contradictory, say M and N ; and we can neither deny the unity nor reject one of the contra-dictory members. For to do either is forbidden by experience ; and yet to do nothing is forbidden by logic. We are thus driven to the assumption that the conception is .contradictory because incomplete; but how are we to supplement it ? What we have must point the way to what we want, or our procedure will be arbitrary. Experi-ence asserts that M is the same (i.e., a mark of the same concept) as N, while logic denies it ; and so—it being impossible for one and the same M to sustain these contradictory positions—there is but one way open to us ; we must posit several Ms. But even now we cannot say one of these Ms is the same as N, another is not ; for every M must be both thinkable and valid. We may, however, take the Ms not singly but together ; and again, no other course being open to us, this is what we must do ; we must assume that N results from a combination of Ms. This is Herbart's method of relations, the counterpart in his system of the Hegelian dialectic.
In the Ontology this method is employed to determine what in reality corresponds to the empirical conceptions of substance and cause, or rather of inherence and change. But first we must analyse this notion of reality itself, to which our scepticism had already led us, for, though we could doubt whether "the given" is what it appears, we cannot doubt that it is something ; the conception of the real thus consists of the two conceptions of being and quality. That which we are compelled to "posit," which cannot be sublated, is that which is, and in the recognition of this lies the simple conception of being. But when is a thing thus posited ? When it is posited as we are wont to posit the things we see and taste and handle. If we were without sensations, i.e., were never bound against our will to endure the persistence of a presentation, we should never know what being is. Keeping fast hold of this idea of absolute position, Herbart leads us next to the quality of the real. (1) This must exclude everything negative ; for non-A sub-lates instead of positing, and is not absolute, but relative to A. (2) The real must be absolutely simple ; for if it contain two deter-

urinations, A and B, then either these are reducible to one, which is the true quality, or they are not, when each is conditioned by the other and their position is no longer absolute. (3) All quantitative conceptions are excluded, for quantity implies parts, and these are incompatible with simplicity. (4) But there may be a plurality of " reals," albeit the mere conception of being can tell us nothing as to this. The doctrine here developed is the first cardinal point of Herbart's system, and has obtained for it the name of "pluralistic realism."
The contradictions he finds in the common-sense conception of inherence, or of "a thing with several attributes," will now become obvious. Let us take some thing, say A, having n attributes, a, b, c . . .: we are forced to posit each of these because each is pre-sented in intuition. But in conceiving A we make, not n positions, still less n + 1 positions, but one position simply ; for common sense removes the absolute position from its original source, sensation. So when we ask, "What is the one posited ? we are told—the possessor of a, b, c . . . , or in other words, their seat or sub-stance. But if so, then A, as a real, being simple, must = a ; similarly it must = b ; and so on. Now this would be possible if a, b, c . . . were but "contingent aspects" of A, as e.g., 23, V64, 4 + 3 + 1 are contingent aspects of 8. Such, of course, is not the case, and so we have as many contradictions as there are attri-butes ; for we must say A is a, is not a, is b, is not b, &c. There must then, according to the method of relations, be several As. For a let us assume Aj + A! + A1 . . . ; for b, A2 + A2 +A2 . . . ; and so on for the rest. But now what relation can there be among these several As, which will restore to us the unity of our original A or substance ? There is but one ; we must assume that the first A of every series is identical, just as the centre is the same , point in every radius. By way of concrete illustration Herbart instances "the common observation that the properties of things exist only under external conditions. Bodies, we say, are coloured, but colour is nothing without light, and nothing without eyes. They sound, but only in a vibrating medium, and for healthy ears. Colour and tone present the appearance of inherence, but on look-ing closer we find they are not really immanent in things but rather presuppose a communion among several." The result then is briefly thus :—In place of the one absolute position, which in some un-thinkable way the common understanding substitutes for the absolute positions of the n attributes, we have really a series of two or more positions for each attribute, every series, however, begin-ning with the same (as it were, central) real (hence the unity of substance in a group of attributes), but each being continued by different reals (hence the plurality and difference of attributes in unity of substance). "Where there is the appearance of inherence, therefore, there is always a plurality of reals ; no such correlative to substance as attribute or accident can be admitted at all. Substantiality is impossible without causality, and to this as its true correlative we now turn.
The common-sense conception of change involves at bottom the same contradiction of opposing qualities in one real. The same A that was a,b,c. . . becomes a,b,d... ; and this, which experi-ence thrusts upon us, proves on reflexion unthinkable. The meta-physical supplementing is also fundamentally as before. Since c depended on a series of reals A3 + A3 + A3 . . . in connexion with A, and d may be said similaiiy to depend on a series At + A4 + A4 . . ., then the change from c to d means, not that the central real A or any real has changed, but that A is now in con-nexion with A4, &c., and no longer in connexion with A3, &c.
But to think a number of reals " in connexion" (Zusammensein) will not suffice as an explanation of phenomena ; something or other must happen when they are in connexion; what is it ? The answer to this question is the second hinge-point of Herbart's theoretical philosophy. "What" actually happens" as distinct from all that seems to happen, when two reals A and B are together is that, assuming them to differ in quality, they tend to disturb each other to the extent of that difference, at the same time that each preserves itself intact by resisting, as it were, the other's disturbance. And so by coming into connexion with different reals the " self-preserva-tions " of A will vary accordingly, A remaining the same through all; just as, by way of illustration, hydrogen remains the same in water and in ammonia, or as the same line may be now a normal and now a tangent. But to indicate this opposition in the qualities of the reals A + B, we must substitute for these symbols others, which, though only "contingent aspects" of A and B, i.e., repre-senting their relations, not themselves, yet like similar devices in mathematics enable thought to advance. Thus we may put A = a + $-y, B=m + ?i + 7; 7 then represents the character of the self-preservations in this case, and a+ fi + m + n represents all that could be observed by a spectator who did not know the simple qualities, but was himself involved in the relations of A to B ; and such is exactly our position.
Having thus determined what really is and what actually happens, our philosopher proceeds next to explain synthetically the objective semblance (der objective Schein) that results from these. But if this construction is to be truly objective, i.e., valid for all intelli-gences, ontology must furnish us with a clue. This we have in the forms of Space, Time, and Motion which are involved whenever we think the reals as being in, or coming into, connexion, and the opposite. These forms then cannot be merely the products of our psychological mechanism, though they may turn out to coincide with these. Meanwhile let us call them " intelligible," as being valid for all who comprehend the real and actual by thought, although no such forms are predicable of the real and actual them-selves. The elementary spatial relation Herbart conceives to be "the contiguity (Aneinander) of two points," so that every "pure and independent line" is discrete. But an investigation of dependent lines which are often incommensurable forces us to adopt the contradictory fiction of partially overlapping, i.e., divisible points, or in other words, the conception of Continuity. But the contra-diction here is one we cannot eliminate by the method of relations, because it does not involve anything real; and in fact as a necessary outcome of an "intelligible" form, the fiction of continuity is valid for the "objective semblance," and no more to be discarded than say V -1- By its help we are enabled to comprehend what actually happens among reals to produce the appearance of matter. When three or more reals are together, each disturbance and self-preserva-tion will (in general) be imperfect, i.e., of less intensity than when only two reals are together. But "objective semblance" corre-sponds with reality ; the spatial or external relations of the reals in this case must, therefore, tally with their inner or actual states. Had the self-preservations been perfect, the coincidence in space would have been complete, and the group of reals would have been inextended ; or had the several reals been simply contiguous, i. e., without connexion, then, as nothing would actually have happened, nothing would appear. As it is we shall find a continuous molecule manifesting attractive and repulsive forces ; attraction corresponding to the tendency of the self-preservations to become perfect, repulsion to the frustration of this. Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to the comprehension of the objective semblance. For we have to think of the reals as absolutely independent and yet as entering into connexions. This we can only do by conceiving them as originally moving through intelligible space in rectilinear paths and with uniform velocities. For such motion no cause need be supposed ; motion, in fact, is no more a state of the moving real than rest is, both alike being but relations, with which, therefore, the real has no concern. The changes in this motion, however, for which we should require a cause, would be the objective semblance of the self-preservations that actually occur when reals meet. Further, by means of such motion these actual occurrences, which are in them-selves timeless, fall for an observer in a definite time—a time which becomes continuous through the partial coincidence of events.
But in all this it has been assumed that we are spectators of the objective semblance ; it remains to make good this assumption, or, in other words, to show the possibility of knowledge; this is the pro-blem of what Herbart terms Eidolology, and forms the transition from metaphysic to psychology. Here, again, a contradictory con-ception blocks the way, that, viz., of the Ego as the identity of knowing and being, and as such the stronghold of idealism. The contradiction becomes more evident when the ego is defined to be a subject (and so a real) that is its own object. As real and not merely formal, this conception of the ego is amenable to the method of relations. The solution this method furnishes is summarily that there are several objects which mutually modify each other, and so constitute that ego we take for the presented real. But to explain this modification is the business of psychology; it is enough now to see that the subject like all reals is necessarily unknown, and that, therefore, the idealist's theory of knowledge is unsound. But though the simple quality of the subject or soul is beyond know-ledge, we know what actually happens when it is in connexion with other's reals, for its self-preservations then are what we call sensa-tions. And these sensations are the 'sole material of our knowledge ; but they are not given to us as a chaos but in definite groups and series, whence we come to know the relations of those reals, which, though themselves unknown, our sensations compel us to posit absolutely.
In his Psychology Herbart rejects altogether the doctrine of mental faculties as one refuted by his metaphysics, and tries to show that all psychical phenomena whatever result from the action and interaction of elementary ideas or presentations (Vorstellungen). The soul being one and simple, its separate acts of self-preservation or primary presentations must be simple too, and its several pre-sentations must become united together. And this they can do at once and completely when, as is the case, for example, with the several attributes of an object, they are not of opposite quality. But otherwise there ensues a conflict in which the opposed presenta-tions comport themselves like forces and mutually suppress or obscure each other. The act of presentation (Vorstellen) then

becomes partly transformed into an effort, and its product, the idea, becomes in the same proportion less and less intense till a position of equilibrium is reached; and then at length the remainders coalesce. We have thus a statics and a mechanics of mind which investigate respectively the conditions of equilibrium and of move-ment among presentations. In the statics two magnitudes have to be determined :—(1) the amount of the suppression or inhibition (Hemmnngssumme), and (2) the ratio in which this is shared among the opposing presentations. The first must obviously be as small as possible : thus for two totally-opposed presentations a and b, of which a is the greater, the inhibendum = 6. For a given degree of opposition this burden will be shared between the conflicting pre-sentations in the inverse ratio of their strength. When its remainder after inhibition = 0, a presentation is said to be on the threshold of consciousness, for on a small diminution of the inhibition the "effort" will become actual presentation in the same proportion. Such total exclusion from consciousness is, however, manifestly im-possible with only two presentations, though with three or a greater number the residual value of one may even be negative. The first and simplest law in psychological mechanics relates to the " sinking" of inhibited presentations. As the presentations yield to the pressure, the pressure itself diminishes, so that the velocity of sinking decreases, i.e., we have the equation, (S — a) dt = do; where S is the total inhibendum, and cr the intensity actually in-
hibited after the time t. Hence t = log 5 , and a = S (1 - e*')-
S — o~
From this law it follows, for example, that equilibrium is never quite obtained for those presentations which continue above the threshold of consciousness, while the rest which cannot so continue are very speedily driven beyond the threshold. More important is the law according to which a presentation freed from inhibition and rising anew into consciousness tends to raise the other presentations with which it is combined. Suppose two presentations p and ir united by the residua r and p ; then the amount of p's "help " to ir is r, the portion of which appropriated by ir is given by the ratio
o : ir ; and thus the initial help is
But after a time t, when a portion of o represented by a has been actually brought into consciousness, the help afforded in the next instant will be found by the equation

from which by integration we have the value of m,

So that if there are several ITS connected with p by smaller and smaller parts, there will be a definite '' serial" order in which they will be revived by p ; and on this fact Herbart rests all the pheno-mena of the so-called faculty of memory, the development of spatial and temporal forms, and much besides. Emotions and volitions, he holds, are not directly self-preservations of the soul, as our presenta-tions are, but variable states of such presentations resulting from their interaction when above the threshold of consciousness. Thus when some presentations tend to force a presentation into conscious-ness, and others at the same time tend to drive it out, that presentation is the seat of painful feeling ; when, on the other hand, its entrance is favoured by all, pleasure results. Desires are presentations strug-gling into consciousness against hindrances, and when accompanied by the supposition of success become volitions. Transcendental freedom of will in Kant's sense is an inrpossibility. Self-conscious-ness is the result of an interaction essentially the same in kind as that which takes place when a comparatively simple presentation finds the field of consciousness occupied by a long-formed and well-consolidated "mass" of presentations—as, e.g., one's business or garden, the theatre, &c, which promptly inhibit the isolated pre-sentation if incongruent, and unite it to themselves if not. What we call Self is, above all, such a central mass, and Herbart seeks to show with great ingenuity and detail how this position is occupied at first chiefly by the body, then by the seat of ideas and desires, and finally by that first-personal Self which recollects the past and resolves concerning the future. But at any stage the actual constituents of this " complexion ' are variable ; the concrete presentation of Self is never twice the same. And, therefore, finding on reflexion any par-ticular concrete factor contingent, we abstract the position from that which occupies it, and so reach the speculative notion of the pure Ego.
esthetics elaborates the "ideas" involved in the expression of taste called forth by those relations of object which acquire for them the attribution of beauty or the reverse. The beautiful {KOXOV) is to be carefully distinguished from the allied conceptions of the useful and the pleasant, which vary with time, place, and person ; whereas beauty is predicated absolutely and involuntarily by all who have attained the right standpoint. Ethics, which is but one branch of aesthetics, although the chief, deals with such relations among volitions ( Willensverhaltnisse) as thus unconditionally please or displease. These relations Herbart finds to be reducible to five, which do not admit of further simplification ; and corre-sponding to them are as many moral ideas (Musterbegriffe), viz. :— (1) Internal Freedom, the underlying relation being that of the individual's will to his judgment of it ; (2) Perfection, the relation being that of his several volitions to each other in respect of intensity, variety, and concentration ; (3) Benevolence, the relation being that between his own will and the thought of another's ; (4) Right, in case of actual conflict with another ; and (5) Retribution or Equity, for intended good or evil done. The ideas of a final society, a system of rewards and punishments, a system of adminis-tration, a system of culture, and. a "unanimated society," corresponding to the ideas of law, equity, benevolence, perfection, and internal freedom respectively, result when we take account of a number of individuals. Virtue is the perfect conformity of the will with the moral ideas ; of this the single virtues are but special expressions. The conception of duty arises from the existence of hindrances to the attainment of virtue. A general scheme of prin-ciples of conduct is possible, but the subsumption of special cases under these must remain matter of tact. The application of ethics to things as they are with a view to the realization of the moral ideas is moral technology ( Tugendlehre), of which the chief divisions are Pedagogy and Politics.
In Theology Herbart held the argument from design to be as valid for divine activity as for human, and to justify the belief in a supersensible real, concerning which, however, exact knowledge is neither attainable nor on practical grounds desirable.
Among the post-Kantian philosophers Herbart doubtless ranks
next to Hegel in importance, and this without taking into account
his very great contributions to the science of education. His dis-
ciples speak of theirs as the " exact philosophy," and the term well
expresses their master's chief excellence and the character of the
chief influence he has exerted upon succeeding thinkers of his own
and other schools. His criticisms are worth more than his construc-
tions ; indeed for exactness and penetration of thought he is quite
on a level with Hume and Kant. His merits in this respect, how-
ever, can only be appraised by the study of his works at first hand.
But we are most of all indebted to Herbart for the enormous
advance psychology has been enabled to make, thanks to his fruit-
ful treatment of it, albeit as yet but few among the many who have
appropriated and improved his materials have ventured to adopt his
metaphysical and mathematical foundations. (J. W.*)


Hence Herbart gives the name Synechology to this branch of metaphysics, instead of the usual one, Cosmology.

Thus, taking the case above supposed, the share of the inhibendum falling to the smaller presentation b is the fourth term of the propor-tion a + b: a : : b : ——; and so 6's remainder is b - = —_
a+b a+b a + b
which only = 0 when a = m .

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