HYDERABAD, or HAIDABABAD (" the Territory of the Nizam"), an extensive realm of Southern India. This territory, inclusive of the Hyderabad Assigned Districts, known as Berar, lies between 15° 10' to 21° 41' N. lat., and 74° 40' to 81° 31' E. long., and is 475 miles in length from south-west to north-east, and about the same distance in breadth. The area of Berar is 17,728 square miles, and of the Nizam's Territories 80,000 square miles,the total area of the whole state being about 98,000 square miles. It is bounded N. and N.E. by the Central Provinces, and S. and S.E. by territory subject to the presidency of Madras, and W. by territory subject to the presidency of Bombay. The Country of the Nizam pre-sents much variety of surface and feature. In some parts it is mountainous, wooded, and picturesque, in others fiat and undulating. The champaign lands are of all descriptions, including many rich and fertile plains, much good land not yet brought under cultivation, and numerous tracts too sterile ever to be cultivated. The geological formations are on a large scale: in the north-west the formations are volcanic, consisting principally of trap, but in some parts of basalt; in the middle, southern, and south-western parts the country is overlaid with gneissic formations. In the valley of the Wardha there are coal-fields; the quality of the coal is inferior, but good enough for railway purposes. Quarries of excellent lime-stone are worked for a considerable distance along the line of the Nizam's State Railway. The territory is well watered, rivers being numerous, and tanks or artificial pieces of water very abundant. The principal rivers arethe Godavari, with its tributaries the Dudna, the Manjira, and Pranhita ; the Wardha, with its tributaries the Penganga and WaingangA; and the Kistna, with its tributary the Tun-gabhadra. Many other streams (considerable rivers during the annual periodical rains) are discharged into these majn channels of drainage. The climate may be considered in general good; and as there are no arid, bare deserts, the hot winds are less felt. In the vicinity of Hyderabad city, the annual mean temperature in the shade is 81° F., and the annual rainfall is estimated at 28 to 32 inches.
The soil is in general fertile, though in some parts it consists of chilka, a red and gritty mould, little fitted for purposes of agricul-ture. A low jungle springs up in any ground left uncultivated even for a year or two, and in process of time is enlivened by the growth of numerous trees. The principal crops are rice, wheat, maize, jodr, bdjra, rdgi, oil-seeds of various kinds, fruits and garden produce in great variety, cotton, indigo, sugar-cane, and tobacco. Silk, the material known as tusser, the produce of a wild species of worm, is utilized on a large scale. Lac, suitable for use as a resin or dye, gums, and oils are found in great quantities. Hides, raw and tanned, are articles of some importance in commerce. The chief mart for Deccan-bred horses, adapted for military or general pur-poses, is at a fair at Malegaon in the Bedar district. There is also a horse bazaar near the capital, which is resorted to by merchants from almost every quarter of Asia.
The principal exports are cotton, oil-seeds, country cloths, hides, metal ware, and agricultural produce ; the imports are salt, grain, timber, European piece goods, and hardware. Among the manufactures of the country may be mentioned the ornamental ware of Bedar, the go'd embroidered cloths of Aurangabad, Gulbarga, and other towns, and the excellent paper of different kinds which is made by the inhabitants of Kaghazpur, near the fortress of Daulat-abad. Several railway lines pass through the state. The line con-necting Bombay with Madras traverses the south-western part; the Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs the line as far as Ratchur, where it is joined by the Madras Railway ; and from Wadi the Nizam's State Railway branches off' to Hyderabad and Secunder-abad. The three principal roads in the state all pass through Hyderabad city.
No census of the population has been attempted in Hyderabad territory, with the exception of Berar or the Assigned Districts. But the population in the Nizam's Territory has been estimated at 9,000,000 persons. In the different parts of the territory the Marathi, the Kanarese, and the Telugu languages are spoken. The Marhattas are most numerous in the west. The Musalmans are chiefly to be met with in the capital, and everywhere in the service of Government. In addition there is a large admixture of Parsis, Sikhs, Arabs, Rohillas, aborigines, and others. The revenue of the Nizam's Territories, including Berar, may be stated in round num-bers at 40,000,000 rupees (say £4,000,000), including receipts from all sources. About two-thirds of the above large sum is collected by the nizam's own Government from tracts under British rule. The remaining one-third is realized by British officers, principally from Berar. The native Government has a mint situated at Hyderabad, and a currency of its own. It issues a rupee,namely, the hali sicca, or " rupee of the period."
History.The fortunes of the family of the nizam were founded by Kamr-ud-din Asaf Jah, a distinguished soldier of the emperor Aurangzeb, who in 1713 was appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk (Regulator of the State) and Subahdar of the Deccan, but eventually threw off the control of the Delhi court. Asaf Jah died in 1748, and the right of accession to his power and authority was contested by his descendants. The claimants most favoured were two ; the one, Naar Jang, a son of the deceased ruler, secured the support of the English, the other Muzaffar Jang, a grandson, was supported by the French. After a brief period of contest Muzaffar Jang became the prisoner of his rival, who, however, soon perished by the hands of some of his followers, and Muzaffar Jaug was proclaimed subahdar of the Deccan. He, too, soon perished in a fray with some Pathan chiefs, so the seat of power was now unoccupied. Two brothers of Nasir Jang now claimed the dignity, but the contest was averted by the sudden death of Ghazi-ud-din, the elder brother. The English and French continued a struggle for power and influence in the Deccan, but the latter had to withdraw from the support of Salabat Jang, through the danger threatening their own possessions from the victories gained by Clive. In 1761 this weak prince was dethroned by his younger brother Nizam Ali, who afterwards put him to death. In 1765 he ravaged the Carnatic, but retired on the approach of a British force. Still the British Government was anxious to be on better terms with him, partly from a desire to obtain his concurrence to their reten-tion of a maritime district known as the Northern Circars, which they now occupied. In 1766 a treaty was concluded by which, on condition of a gift of the Circars, the British Government agreed to support the nizam, who on his part engaged to assist the British with his troops. In 1790, on the breaking out of a war with Tippoo, son of Hyder Ali Khan, a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance was concluded between the nizam, the peshwa, and the British Government. Tippoo purchased peace (1792) at the price of half his dominions, and the nizam had no reason to be dissatisfied with his share of the spoil. On the fall of Seringapatam and the death of Tippoo Sultan, the nizam participated largely in the division of territory, under the treaty of 1799, and his share was increased on the peshwa's withdrawal from the treaty. In 1800 the subsidiary force with the nizam was further augmented, and the pecuniary payment for its maintenance was commuted for a cession of territory. This territory is known to the present time under the title of the Ceded Districts. By the treaty of 1853 the nizam still retained the full use of the subsidiary force and contingent, but was released from the unlimited obligatiou of service in time of war ; and the contin-gent ceased to be part of the nizam's army, and became an auxili-ary force kept up by the British Government for the nizam's use. In 1857, when the mutiny had broken out, the state of Hyderabad and the nizam's dominions became critical; and an attack, which was repulsed, was made upon the residency. The Hyderabad con-tingent displayed its loyalty in the field against the rebels. In 1860 a fresh treaty was made by which the territorial acquisitions of the nizam were increased, a debt of 50 lakhs of rupees was cancelled, and assigned districts in Berar, making np a gross revenue of 3,200,000 rupees (say £320,000), were taken in trust by the British Government. The nizam is the principal Mahometan ruler in India, and is entitled to a salute of twenty-one guns.
SEE ALSO the article on the capital city of this realm: Hyderabad, City, South India