1902 Encyclopedia > Jamaica


JAMAICA, an island lying between the Caribbean Hate Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, and about 80 miles to the VIIL southward of the eastern extremity of the island of Cuba, within 17° 40' and 18c 30'N. lat., and 76° 10' to 78° 30' W. long. It is the largest island of the British West Indies, being 135 (or, as sometimes stated, 144) miles in length and 21A to 49 miles in breadth. Its area is about 4200 square miles, or, as stated in the Report of the Geolo-gical Survey, 3250 square miles. Within its government are comprised the three small islands called the Caymanas, —Grand Cayman, the principal of these, lying off the centre of the Yucatan passage; British Honduras has a lieutenant-governor under the general government of Jamaica, although distant 660 miles, on the mainland of Central America; and Turks and Caicos islands, lying between 21° and 22° N. lat. and 71° and 72° 37' W. long., were annexed to Jamaica in 1874.

The surface of Jamaica is usually hilly or mountainous, and there is a great variety of climate, according to situation and elevation. The largest extent of level land is to the westward, where the low lands are near the sea. The form of the coasts presents the outline of a turtle, the mountain ridges representing the back. The highest elevations are situated to the east, the inclined slope rising from the west. Vestiges of intermittent volcanic actiou occur. From the sea-level on all sides a series of ridges gradually ascend towards the central range, dividing the large rivers, and rising occasionally into peaks of 6000 feet. The Blue Mountains, running centrally from east to west, rise at some points to above 7000 feet. The vapours ascending from the rivers and surrounding ocean produce in the upper regions clouds saturated with moisture, which induce vegetation belonging to a colder climate. During the rainy season there is such an accumulation of vapour as to cause a general coolness over the island, and of course occasion-ing very sudden and heavy showers, and sometimes destruc-tive floods. Upwards of one hundred and fourteen rivers or streams find their way from the interior to the sea, besides the numerous tributaries which issue from every ravine in the mountains. These streams for the most part are not navigable; in times of flood they become devastat-ing torrents. In the parish of Portland, the Bio Grande receives all the smaller tributaries from the west; there is scarcely a mile width between any of these streams, and the land rises about 1000 feet to the mile. In St Thomas in the east, the drainage of the main ridge is performed by the Plantain Garden river, the tributaries of which form deep ravines and narrow gorges in the mountains, which unite and descend, the valley of the Plantain Garden expanding out into a most picturesque and fertile plain. Black River flows through a level country, and is accessible to small craft for about 30 miles. Salt River and the Cabarita, both also on the south side, are navigable by barges. The others on the south are the Rio Cobre (where irrigation works have been constructed for the sugar estates and provision and fruit growing in the district), Yallahs, and Rio Minho; on the north Martha Brae, the White River at Buff Bay, the Great Spanish River, and Rio Grande. There are several medicinal springs. Jamaica has sixteen harbours, the chief of which are Port Morant, Kingston, Old Harbour, Green Island, Montego Bay, Falmouth, Port Maria, St Ann's Bay, Lucea, and Port Antonio, besides numerous bays, roadsteads, and shipping stations affording tolerable anchorage. The surface of the valleys and level lands consists of alluvial deposits composed of sediment derived from the disintegration of the higher land. The White Limestone formation seems to originate two descriptions of alluvia, one white and the other red, the colour being due to oxide of iron combined with the argillaceous residue of the pre-existing limestone. The red soil is particularly favourable for coffee growing. The area occupied by the Coast Limestone and White Limestone represents about five-eighths of the island. The substructure of Jamaica consists of igneous rocks. In economic geology Jamaica produces a great variety of marbles, porphyrites, granite, and ochres. Traces of gold have been found associated with some of the oxidized copper ores (blue and green carbonates) of the Clarendon mines. Copper ores are very widely diffused, though the working of the veins has been found too expensive. Cobalt and lead have been worked, but hitherto unprofitable Manganese occurs, also iron ores and a form of arsenic. There is a great variety (and at the same time great equa-bility) of climate. In the lowlands the temperature rises from 75° at night to 85° in the day, and is tempered by the sea and land breezes. At Up-Park Camp, 225 feet above the sea-level, the mean temperature of the hottest month (July) was 81°'71, and of the coldest month (January) 75°'65. At Newcastle, 3800 feet, the hottest month was 670,75, and the coldest 61°. The temperature therefore is very equable. In the higher levels the tem-perature may be 40° to 50°. In the plains there is much humidity. At Kingston the temperature ranges from 70° to 80° throughout the year. Parts of the island are extremely favourable for sufferers from tubercular disease. The island is generally healthy, though sometimes subject to yellow fever, like most tropical countries. Hurricanes, when they occur, come between July and October. The periodical rains, which generally last for six weeks, constitute the May and October seasons.

The vegetable productions are very numerous. There are forest trees fit for every purpose : among these are the ballata, rosewood, satinwood, mahogany, lignum vitas, lancewood, and ebony. The logwood and fustic are ex-ported for dyeing. There are also the Jamaica cedar, and the silk cotton tree (CeibaBombax). Pimento (peculiar to Jamaica) is indigenous, and furnishes the allspice. The bamboo, coffee, and cocoa are well known. Several species of palm abound,—the macaw, the fan palm, screw palm, and palmetto royal. There are plantations of cocoa-nut palm. The Government are raising cocoa-nuts with profit on a barren spit of sand by the sea. Cinchona plantations have recently been successfully established in the mountains, the produce selling well in the London market. The other noticeable trees and plants are the mango, the breadfruit tree, the papaw, the lacebark tree, and the guava. The Palma Christi, from which castor oil is made, is a very abundant annual. English vegetables grow in the hills, and the plains produce plantains, cocoa, yams, cassava, ochra, beans, pease, ginger, and arrowroot. Maize and guinea corn are cultivated, and the guinea grass, acci-dentally introduced in 1750, is very valuable for horses and cattle,—so much so that pen-keeping or cattle farming is a highly profitable occupation. Among the principal fruits are the orange, shaddock, lime, grape or cluster fruit, pine-apple, mango, banana, grapes, melons, avocado pear, breadfruit, and tamarind. There are public gardens at Kingston, at Castleton, about 20 miles from Kingston, and at Bath, and an experimental plantation of different varieties of cane at Hope plantation. The sugar cane was cultivated at an early period, for in 1671 there were a num-ber of sugar works. There are many beautiful flowers, such as the aloe, the yucca, the datura, the mountain pride, the Victoria regia; the cactus tribe is well represented. Innumerable varieties of ferns grow in the mountains, and orchids in the woods. The sensitive plant grows in pastures.

There are fourteen sorts of Lampyridx or fireflies, besides the Elateridas or lantern beetles. There are no venomous serpents, but plenty of harmless snakes and lizards. The large lizard, the iguana, is eaten, as are also the land crab and tortoise. The scorpion and centipede are poisonous, but not very dangerous. Ants, mosquitoes, and sandflies swarm in the lowlands. Gosse enumerates twenty different song birds in Jamaica. Parrots, pigeons, guinea fowl, and a great variety of water birds are found. The sea and rivers swarm with fish, and turtles abound. The seal and manatee are sometimes found, and the croco-dile. The domestic animals are those of the ordinary English kind. Jamaica beef and pork are very good. Poultry succeeds well.

The population was returned in the census of 1844 as 380,000, of whom 16,000 were white, 68,000 coloured, and the rest black. In 1861 it was returned at 441,000, of whom 14,000 were white, 80,000 coloured, and 347,000 black. In 1871 the numbers were 13,000 white, 100,000 coloured, 393,000 black; total 506,000. The census of 1881 will probably show a total of 600,000,—a large in-crease in the black and coloured population, and a sta-tionary if not reduced number of white people.

The total value of imports was £1,492,722 (including £757,077 from the United Kingdom) in 1878, and £1,347,342 in 1879— amounts considerably below the values for the preceding six years, in four of which it was above £1,700,000. The imports consist principally of provisions for consumption, a considerable proportion coming from the United States. The total value of exports in 1878 was £1,210,705 (£954,584 to the United Kingdom), consisting of 9,572,7141b of coffee (an extending industry), 908,603 lb of ginger, 6,195,109 ft> of pimento, 18,115 puncheons of rum, 26,066 hhds. of sugar, and 35,157 tons of logwood. The total value is below that of the six preceding years. The sugar exported was below the average of preceding years ; but in 1879 sugar exports rose again to 29,000 hhds. The value of the fruit exported (principally to United States) had risen from £9337 in 1875 to £39,451 in 1878. The total exports for 1879 were £1,357,571 value. The area under crops in 1878 was 121,457 acres, in guinea grass 120,264, in pasture 318,549, in wood and runate 1,217,596, leaving 942,134 acres of the total extent to be accounted for as unpatented primeval forest or rocky land of no value. One of the newest industries, besides cinchona, is the growth of excellent tobacco ; Jamaica cigars are now becoming well known in England. The public revenue for 1878 was £438,564, and the appropriated revenues from roads, poor rates, &c, £74,900, making a grand total of £512,465, or about 18s. per head of the population. The estimates for 1880 showed a public revenue of £469,875 and appropriated £72,580, total £542,455. £245,000, or more than half the public revenue, is raised from import duties, and £94,000 from rum duties ; the railway re-ceipts (Government having purchased the line by loan with a view to extension) for 1880 were estimated at £23,000. The remainder comes from licences, postal revenues, and other sources, The public expenditure for 1879 was £460,154, the appropriated £73,050, total £533,204, and the estimated expenditure for 1880—public £485,655, appropriated £72,580, total £558,235. The main items of expendi-ture are—debt charges and sinking funds and redemption, £73,000; administrative departments, £33,000 ; revenue departments, £33,000 ; judicial, £36,000 ; ecclesiastical, £10,000 (the church has been disestablished, and the expenditure will be gradually less as vested interests disappear); medical, £55,000 ; constabulary, £50,000 ; penitentiary and prisons, £25,000 ; education, £25,000; railway managing, &c, £14,000 ; public works and irrigation, £58,000.

In 1378, 617 schools underwent inspection by the Government; 51,488 children were on the books, the average attendance being 29,679. Of these schools, 54 passed first class, 176 second class, and 343 third class. The average Government grant to each school aided during the year was £29, and the total education grant, exclu-sive of departmental salaries, was £18,572. Elementary education has made progress during the eleven years the present system has been in operation. The collegiate school in Kingston offers higher education. Among educational institutions, the Church of England high school, the Calabar institution or Jamaica Baptist College, and Wolmer's free school, founded in 1729 by John Wolmer for the free education of poor children, as well as the Mico school, require mention. The ecclesiastical establishment is regulated by Law No. 30 of 1870, which provided for gradual disendpwment. This law created a synod, to consist of clergymen and lay representatives, and it continued to each existing rector, island curate, and stipendiary curate the payments from the state so long as they ful-filled their functions. Under this law the estimates for 1880 show as still on the establishment five rectors, twenty island curates, and three stipendiary curates, the total amount for the Church of England being £9749 ; this, with £367 to the Church of Scotland, and £100 to the Church of Eome, makes up the ecclesiastical estab-lishment. Besides the state paid clergymen, there are about forty clergymen paid out of the Diocesan Church Fund. Besides three American church missionaries at Kingston, there are about twenty Presbyterian ministers, thirty Wesleyan, eight of the London Mis-sionary Society, fifty Baptist, oiie Independent, six United Metho-dist Free Church. The Moravians have fourteen stations and seventeen missionaries. There are two synagogues.

Kingston, the capital, is on the south coast. It was founded in 1693, and is built on a plain which rises from the shore with a gradual ascent to the foot of the Liguanea mountai'ns. This plain is covered with country residences and sugar estates. The town population in 1871 was 4393 whites, 13,291 coloured, and 16,630 blacks. It is now estimated at over 40,000. The seat of government was recently transferred from Spanish Town to Kingston, and the principal civil and judicial business is transacted there. The chief retail business street is Harbour Street. Port Koyal Street is the chief thoroughfare of the wholesale merchants, who keep wharves which line the seaboard of the town. The public buildings possess little architectural interest. The Victoria Market (opened in 1872) and public landing place at the foot of King Street (where Rodney's statue was brought from Spanish Town), form a very fine market-place. The court house in Harbour Street is a handsome building. The public hospital (with 170 beds), the law library, the chancery registrar's office (with its piece of tapestry of the royal and island arms, which used to be carried before the governor on state occasions), the court of vice-admiralty, the public library and museum in East Street, are also worthy of mention. The parish church in King Street is one of the oldest churches in the island, dating probably from 1692. It contains the tombs of William Hall (1699) and Admiral Benbow (1702). The only bank is a branch of the Colonial Bank, besides the Government Savings Bank. Up-Park Camp, to the north-east of the city, is the head-quarters of a "West India regiment.

Jamaica was discovered by Columbus and possession taken in the name of the king of Spain on the 3d of May 1494. He called it St Jago, but it is known by its Indian name Jamaica, "the isle of springs." It is sometimes written Xamayca. The inhabitants belonged to the gentler Indian tribes, not to the fierce Caribs. In June 1503 Columbus was driven by a tempest into a bay on the north side, now St Ann's Bay. After his departure the island remained unvisited until 1509, when his son Diego, having estab-lished his right in the council of the Indies to the governorship of Hispaniola, sent Don Juan d'Esquivel to take possession of the island, in opposition to Alonzo d'Ojeda, who claimed it under a royal grant. Thenceforward, under the rale of the Spaniards, the Indian population diminished, until in 1655, when the island fell into the possession of the English, the race was practically extinct. The controversy respecting the rights of the descendants of Columbus continued for a long time. About the year 1523 Diego Columbus founded St Jago de la Vega, St James of the Plain, which was the official capital, under the name of Spanish Town, until Kingston was recently selected. Attention had been gradually given to agri-culture, the cotton plant, sugar cane, and various kinds of corn and grass having been introduced. In 1596, during the alliance of Queen Elizabeth with the Low Countries, andtheconsequentwar withSpain, Sir A. Shirley, a British admiral, invaded Jamaica, but made no attempt at occupation. In the reign of Charles I. Colonel Jackson defeated the inhabitants at Passage Fort. Shortly afterwards the island was divided into eight districts in the nominal possession of eight noble families, and the total population became extremely small. The next important event was the expedition sent by Cromwell, under Admirals Penn and.Venables; failing against Hispaniola, they took possession of Jamaica on the 3d May 1655, the island having been in the possession of the Spaniards one hundred and sixty-one years. UnderCromwell emigrants were sentfrom Scotland and Ireland and other places. But the Spaniards and their negroes harassed the new comers, who died in considerable numbers. On the 8th May 1658 an attack from Hispaniola was defeated, and soon after the remaining Spaniards were driven from the island. The slaves called Maroons, however, who had fled to the mountains, continued for-midable. Down to the end of the 18th century the disaffection of these Maroons caused much trouble. In 1661a regular civil government was established, Colonel D'Oyley being appointed governor-genera] with an elective council. Next year he was succeeded by Lord "Windsor, who was instructed to summon a popular assembly to pass laws. Jamaica became the resort of the buccaneers, who carried on a profitable piracy on these seas during the war with Spain. In 1670 peace was made with Spain, and the English title was recog-nized by the treaty of Madrid. The buccaneers were suppressed. In 1672 the Fourth or Royal African Company was formed to carry on a monopoly of the slave trade. From 1700 to 1786 the number of slaves imported was estimated at 610,000, of whom about one-fifth were re-exported. In 1673 the governor sent home the first pot of sugar to the secretary of state ; at this time there were 7768 whites and 9504 negroes on the island. In 1678, while the earl of Carlisle was governor, an attempt was made to saddle the island with a yearly tribute to the crown, and to restrict the free legislative power of the assembly. The privileges of the assembly, how-ever, were restored under Sir Thomas Lynch in 1682 ; it was not until 1728 that £8000 (currency) a year was settled on the crown, and the laws and statutes of England were made equally applicable to Jamaica. This amount was afterwards commuted for £6000, used by the governor for salaries, allowances, and contingencies. In 1854 this fund was merged in the ordinary civil list. The other principal event in the general history of Jamaica was the threatened invasion in 1782 by the combined fleets of France and Spain under De Grasse. It was saved by the victory of Rodney and Hood, off Dominica, in commemoration of which event a statue of Rodney, by Bacon, was erected in Spanish Town.

A great earthquake occurred in 1692, when the chief part of the town of Port Royal, built on a shelving bank of sand, slipped into the sea. In 1712 and 1722 there were dreadful hurricanes, the last causing the seat of commerce to be transferred from Port Royal to Kingston. Since then there have been a number of hurricanes, the most recent being in August 1880, when considerable damage was done to crops, provision grounds, churches, chapels, and school-houses in the eastern part of the island.

Since 1800 the history of Jamaica has been, with some exceptions (such as the defeat by Admiral Duckworth in 1806 of the French squadron intended to invade Jamaica), confined to its domestic con-cerns and its relations with the mother country. In 1807, when the slave trade was abolished, thare were 323,827 slaves in the island. The island was very prosperous,—sugar, coffee, cocoa, cotton, pimento, ginger, and indigo being produced; and it was also the depOt of a very lucrative transit trade between Europe and the Spanish main. The anti-slavery agitation in England, growing stronger every year, caused great excitement in the island, and there was much violence and misrepresentation on both sides of the question. The negroes revolted in 1832, under the belief that emancipation had been granted; many hundreds of lives were sacrificed, a large amount of property destroyed, and various atrocities were committed. This stimulated the agitation in England, and in 1833 the Emancipation Act was passed, the period of apprenticeship being ultimately reduced to four years. Of the £20,000,000 compensation, £6,161,927 was awarded to Jamaica, being about £19 a head on a slave population of 309,338. The wisdom of the manner in which the emancipation policy was carried out by England has been often questioned. During Sir Lionel Smith's administration, on the 1st of August 1838, the apprenticeship came to an end, and entire emancipation was effected by an Act of the assembly. Difficulties arising between the British Government and the assembly as to the Prisons Act, a bill was in-troduced by Mr Labouchere (Lord Taunton) into the House of Commons to suspend the constitution of Jamaica, the rejection of which measure occasioned the resignation of Lord Melbourne's ministry. The dispute was afterwards compromised, and under the government of Sir Charles Metcalfe an improved state of things was brought about. Education and religious instruction and better administration of justice were subjects of attention, together with schemes of agriculture to develop the varied resources of the island. The want of cheap and continuous labour was, however, a great obstacle. The introduction of labourers from Africa was objected to in England as a renewal of the slave trade. Coolie immigration was fenced about with such expensive restrictions by the home Government that no large or comprehensive scheme was possible. The earl of Elgin continued Sir C. Metcalfe's policy, and a railway was opened, 12 miles long, between Kingston and Spanish Town, but the prospects of the colony became exceedingly gloomy under the effects of the legislation in 1846 equalizing the duties on free and slave sugar. The advantages of slave labour in Cuba were so great that the utmost economy and skill of practical resident planters in Jamaica failed of success. Differences between the assembly, the council, and the home Government on the means of retrenching the public expenditure, created much bitterness of feeling, and most disastrous results were brought about, affecting seriously the credit of the island, by the assembly refusing to perform its functions and renew duties necessary for revenue. An outbreak of cholera added to the confusion and gloom. The result of this controversy was that the home Government offered an imperial guarantee for a loan of £500,000 and other financial assistance, conditionally on permanent provision being made for official salaries, on the initiation of all money grants by the crown, and on certain members of the legis-lature being held responsible for the expenditure of the public money. Sir Henry Barkly had the task of carrying out these arrangements. In 1854 the Incumbered Estates Act was passed, under which in recent years considerable sales of property in Jamaica have taken place. During the next decade the island was tranquil, but very much depressed. Many white people, of a superior class, had left. Public business suffered by the recriminations in the assembly, and by want of economy and good management (causing annual deficits) of the public finances. But in 1865 an event occurred which opened a perfectly new chapter in Jamaica history. On October 20 Governor Eyre reported to the secretary of state (the present Lord Cardwell) a " serious and alarming insurrection of the negro popula-tion." In this despatch the letter written by Dr TJnderhill, the secretary to the Baptist Society, was referred to as causing public meetings to be held, and giving rise to excitement. Dr Underhill subsequently asserted that it was through Governor Eyre his letter became public. The letter referred to the distress among the population, to alleged unjust taxation, to the alleged refusal of just tribunals, to the denial of political rights to the emancipated negroes. The despatches of Governor Eyre caused much discussion and excite-ment in England, and under date of 30th December 1865 a royal commission was issued to inquire into the disturbances. The com-missioners—Sir Henry Storks (sent out as governor), Mr Russell Gurney, and Mr J. B. Maule—began their work on January 23, 1866, and sat for fifty-one days. They reported on the 9th April that the disturbances in St Thomas in the east had their immediate origin in a planned resistance to lawful authority, arising from the desire to obtain land free of rent, want of confidence in tribunals, feel-ings of hostility towards political and personal opponents, while not a few contemplated the death or expulsion of the white inhabi-tants. Had more than a momentary success been obtained, the ultimate overthrow of the insurgents would have been attended with a still more fearful loss of life and property. The commissioners attributed the speedy termination of the outbreak to the skill, promptitude, and vigour of Governor Eyre in the early stages; they viewed the military and naval operations as prompt and judicious; but they thought martial law was continued too long, and that the punishments inflicted were excessive. The commissioners expressed an opinion that the conduct of Gordon, a member of the assembly, whose trial by court martial and execution caused great contro-versy in England, had been such as to convince both friends and enemies of his being a party to the rising, yet they could not see any sufficient proof either of his complicity in the outbreak at Morant Bay, or of his having been a party to a general conspiracy. The case was warmly taken up in England by the Jamaica committee under the leadership of Mr J. S. Mill. A charge was made against Mr Eyre, resulting in an elaborate exposition of martial law by Chief Justice Cockburn, and the stoppage of the prosecution by the grand jury ignoring the bill. On the 20th December 1866 the assembly passed an Act rendering it lawful for the Queen to create and consti-tute a Government for the island; the same was passed by the council on the 22d, and on the 23d it received the governor's consent.

Thus the constitution which had existed for two hundred years was swept away. It was composed at the time of a governor, a privy council, a legislative council, an assembly of forty-seven elected mem-bers, and a paid body called tire executive committee, who were pract) -cally responsible ministers of the crown, holding office at the gover-nor's pleasure. The present constitution is that of an ordinary crown colony. It was established by an imperial Act, and an order in council, dated 9th April 1866, and subsequent orders. There is only one chamber, called a legislative council. In 1880 this consisted of the governor as president, eight officials, (viz., colonial secretary, senior military officer, attorney general, director of roads, col-lector general, auditor general, assistant colonial secretary, and crown solicitor), and eight non-officials, nominated by the crown,— all councillors holding office at the royal will and pleasure. No proposal is admitted or debate allowed on any matter affecting revenue, unless introduced by the governor or by his direction. Sir J. P. Grant was governor from 1866 to 1874, and reforms and changes were vigorously effected. The revenue was better collected. Irrigation and other public works were begun. But the sugar industry has continued in a state of great depression, though Sir A. Musgrave, who was appointed governor in 1877, reported in 1880 that the public debt had been reduced from £719,000 to £485,000 (excluding loans for special purposes), that there had been no in-crease of taxation since 1867, that savings banks deposits had increased from £58,913 in 1868 to £207,000 in 1879 (the Govern-ment paying interest at i per cent.), and that the industrious negroes, especially those with small holdings, growing provisions, coffee, cocoa, or possessing small sugar mills, were fairly prosperous. These results are attributed by officials to the change from repre-sentative to crown government, although the latter has been much criticized as too arbitrary, and tending to a narrow officialism. The number of parishes for purposes of local government has been reduced from twenty-two to fourteen. Each parish has its own hospitals, almshouses, &c, managed by its municipal board, the chairman of whom is the custos, nominated by the governor. The members are appointed by the custos, subject to the governor's approval. Each parish also has a road board. The judicial estab-lishment consists of the chancellor (the governor), a vice-chancellor and chief justice, two puisne judges of the supreme court, attorney general, crown solicitor, &c. ; there are seven district courts, somewhat on the model of county courts in England, the judges being barristers sent out from England. There are also four stipendiary magistrates, and a police magistrate for Kingston. The constabulary was placed on its present footing in 1867, and is modelled on the system of the Irish (semi-military) constabulary. Parochial medical officers paid by Government attend the parochial institutions, constabulary, and immigrants. These officers are allowed private practice in addition. The island is in telegraphic communication with England, and indeed with the world, and has also an inland telegraphic service. The Government have pur-chased the 25 miles of railway from Kingston to Old Harbour, and are about to construct 47 miles more. Steam communication is i very frequent between England, United States, and the colony.

See Long's History, 1774 ; Bryan Edward's History, 1S09, and Appendix, 1819 ; Renny's History, 1807 ; Bridge's Annals, 1828 ; M. G. Lewis's Journal of a West India Proprietor; Montgomery Martin's History of the British Colonies, 1835 ; Phillippo's Past and Present State, 1843 ; Geological Survey Reports, 1869; Gardner's History, 1873 ; Phillippo's Climate, 1876 ; Sir Sibbald D. Scott's Jamaica and Back, 1876 ; parliamentary papers, Colonial Office lists, local publications, and almanacs. For natural history, see Sloane, 1692 ; Brown, 1754; Barham, 1794; Lunan, 1814: and Gosse's Journal of a Naturalist in Jamaica, j
1851, and Birds of Jamaica, 1847. For descriptions of scenery, see Tom Cringle's Log and the Cruise of the Midge, by Michael Scott, a Kingston merchant. See also the map of Harrison, 1873. (J. L. 0.)

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