1902 Encyclopedia > Kent


KENT, a maritime county in the south-eastern corner Plate L of England, lies between 50° 54' and 51° 31' N. lat., and between 0° 3' W. long, and 1° 27' E. long. It is bounded on the N. by the estuary and mouth of the Thames, E. and S.E. by the English Channel, S.W. by Sussex, and W. by Surrey. Its greatest breadth north and south from Sheerness to Dungeness is 35 miles, its length north-west to south-east from London to Dungeness about 60 miles, and its length west to east from Surrey to North Foreland in Thanet 65 miles. The area is 1,004,984 acres, or 1570 square miles.

Coast Line.—About two-thirds of the boundary line of Kent is formed by tidal water. The estuary of the Thames may be said to stretch from London Bridge to Sheerness in the Isle of Sheppey, to the north-west of which the estuary of the Medway cuts off a tongue of land whose extremity is termed the Isle of Grain. Along the banks of the Thames the coast is low and marshy, embankments being in several places necessary to prevent inundation. In the estuary of the Medway there are a number of low marshy islands, but Sheppey presents to the sea a range of chalk cliffs from 80 to 90 feet in height. The marshes extend along the estuary of the Swale to Whitstable, whence stretches a low line of clay and sandstone cliffs, succeeded at the Isle of Thanet by the white chalk cliffs which extend southwards to Pegwell Bay. The coast from Sheppey round to the South Foreland is skirted by numerous flats and sands, the most extensive of which, the Goodwin sands, forming the breakwater of the well-known anchorage of the Downs, are said to have formed part of the estate of Earl Godwine, and to have been submerged as late as 1097. From Pegwell Bay to near Deal the outline of the coast is flit, but thence it rises again into chalk cliffs, which continue round the South Foreland to Folkestone, where they are succeeded by the flat shingly shore bordering Romney Marsh. A considerable portion of Romney Marsh has been reclaimed from the sea since the time of Julius Caesar, but in nearly every other portion of the coast the sea has been gaining on the land.

Surface and Geology.—Kent abounds in beautiful and finely-wooded valleys with undulating and picturesque up-lands. A traet from 7 to 8 miles broad lying to the south of the estuary of the Thames, and extending eastwards as far as Thanet, belongs to the London Tertiary basin, and is formed chiefly either of London or of plastic clay. The London Clay occupies the tongue of land between the estuaries of the Thames and Medway, as well as Sheppey and a district of country about 8 miles wide stretching southwards from Whitstable to Canterbury, and extending eastwards to the Isle of Thanet. It reappears at Pegwell Bay, and in the neighbourhood of Loudon it rises above the plastic clay into the elevation of Shooter's Hill, with a height of about 450 feet, and a number of smaller emi-nences. The thickness of the formation near London is about 400 feet, and at Sheppey it reaches 480 feet. At Sheppey it is rich in various kinds of fossil fish and shells. The plastic clay, which rests chiefly on chalk, occupies the remainder of the estuary of the Thames, but at several places it is broken through by outcrops of chalk, which in some instances run northwards to the banks of the river. The Lower Tertiaries are represented by three different formations known as the Thanet beds, the Woolwich and Reading beds, and the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds. The Thanet beds resting on chalk form a narrow outcrop rising into cliffs at Pegwell Bay and Reculvers, and consist (1) of a constant base bed of clayey greenish sand, seldom more than 5 feet in thickness; (2) of a thin and local bed composed of alternations of brown clay and loam; (3) of a bed of fine light buff sand, which in West Kent attains a thickness of more than 60 feet; (4) of bluish grey sandy marl containing fossils, and almost entirely confined to East Kent, the thickness of the formation being more than 60 feet; and (5) of fine light grey sand of an equal thickness, also fossiliferous. The middle series of the Lower Tertiaries, known as the Woolwich and Reading beds, rests either on
the Thanet beds or on chalk, and consists chiefly of irregular
alternations of clay and sand of very various colours, the
former often containing estuarine and oyster shells and the
latter flint pebbles. The thickness of the formation varies
from 15 to 80 feet, but most commonly it is from 25 to
40 feet. The highest and most local series of the Lower
Tertiaries is the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds lying
between the London Clay and the Woolwich beds. They
consist chiefly of flint pebbles or of light-coloured quartzose
sand, the thickness being from 20 to 30 feet, and are best
seen at Oldhaven and Blackheath. To the south the
London basin is succeeded by the North Downs, an ele-
vated ridge of country consisting of an outcrop of chalk
which near Westerham on the borders of Surrey reaches
an elevation of 812 feet above sea-level, and at several
other places more than 600 feet. It extends from Wes-
terham to Folkestone, with an irregular breadth generally
of from 3 to 6 miles, but expanding to nearly 12 miles at
Dartford and Gravesend and also to the north of Folke-
stone. After dipping below the London Clay at Canterbury,
it sends out an outcrop which forms the greater part of
Thanet, and towards the sea is often broken off into pre-
cipitous escarpments. To the south of the Downs there is
a narrow valley formed by the Gault, a fossiliferous blue-
clay. This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower
Greensand, which extends across the country from west
to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 miles, and rises into-
the picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills. These
in several cases reach a height of over 600 feet, and have
a steep slope southwards, overlooking the valley which,
extends from the borders of Sussex to Hythe. This low o
ground is occupied chiefly by the Weald clays, which con- -
tain a considerable number of marine and freshwater fossils.
Along the borders of Sussex there is a narrow strip of
country consisting of picturesque sandy hills, whose highest
elevation is nearly 400 feet; and the south-west corner of
the county is occupied by Romney Marsh, which within a
comparatively recent period has been recovered from the
sea. ...

The London Clay is much used for bricks, coarse pottery, and Roman cement. Lime is obtained from the Chalk and Greensand formations. Ironstone is found in the Wealden clays and calcareous ironstone in the Ashclown sand, but the industry has long been discontinued. The last Wealden furnace was put out in 1828.

Rivers.—The Thames, which forms the northern boundary of the county, receives the Ravensbourne at Deptford, and' the Darent or Dart, which has a course of 18 miles, ancl-becomes navigable at Dartford. The Medway, which has a course of over 50 miles, and with its tributaries drains a basin having an area of 680 square miles, is formed of several streams that rise in the neighbourhood of Tunbridge-Wells, and of East Grinstead in Sussex. After passing, Ashurst and Penshurst it receives the Eden from the west, and at Yalding in the Weald the Teise and Beult. At Chatham it widens into an estuary, the greater portion of its waters ultimately joining the Thames at Sheerness, and the other portion passing southwards to the sea through the Swale Channel. The river is tidal as high as Maidstone. The Stour, which has a course of nearly 50 miles, and with its tributary the Little Stour drains an area of about 380 square miles, has its origin in several streams which spring from the Lower Greensand and the Chalk, the two main branches, which have their source near Lenham and near Hythe respectively, uniting at Ashford. At Sarre the Stour separates into two branches which insulate the Isle of Thanet, the smaller portion flowing northward to the sea near Reculver, the other and main portion flowing eastward to Pegwell Bay. The stream is tidal and navigable to Fordwicli, near Canterbury. The Little Stour rises in the Lower Chalk near Lyminge, and joins at Stourmouth that branch of the Stour which falls into the sea at Pegwell Bay. The Dour, a small stream which gives its name to Dover, has a course of little more than 3 miles from Ewell to the sea. The Bother, which has its source in Sussex, forms for some distance the boundary between that county and Kent, and along with several of its branches insulates the Isle of Oxney.

The only canals at all in use are that which runs along the borders of Romney Marsh, connecting the Bother with the sea at Hytbe, but now partly filled up; and that between Gravesend and Rochester, which is partly occupied by a line of railway.
Climate, Soil, and Agriculture.—The insalubrity of certain portions of the county caused by extensive marshes has been almost wholly removed by draining. In the north-eastern districts the climate is a little uncertain, and damage is often done to early fruit blossoms and vegetation by cold easterly winds. In the large portion of the county sheltered by the Downs the climate is milder and more equable, and vegetation is somewhat earlier. The soil is very various in character, but on the whole rich and under high cultivation. The methods of culture and the kinds of crop produced are perhaps more widely diversified than those of any other county in England. Upon the London Clay the land is generally heavy and stiff, but very fruitful when properly manured and cultivated. The marsh lands along the banks of the Thames, Medway, Stour, and Swale con-sist chiefly of rich chalk alluvium. The Chalk formation is in some cases overlaid by London Clay, alluvium, or brick-earth, but in the higher chalk districts the soil is often poor and thin, and in some places much mixed with flints. In the Isle of Thanet a light mould predominates, which has been much enriched by fish manure. The valley of the Medway, especially the district round Maidstone, which has been called the garden of England, is the most fertile part of the county, the soil being a deep loam with a sub-soil of brick-earth. On the ragstone the soil is occasionally thin and much mixed with small portions of sand and stone ; but in some situations the ragstone has, a thick covering of clay loam, which is most suitable for the pro-duction of hops and fruits. In the district of the Weald marl prevails, with a substratum of clay. The soil of Romney Marsh is a clay alluvium.

According to the agricultural returns for 1881, the total area under crops comprehended 745,215 acres, a percentage of 73'9 instead of 71 "7 in 1870; corn crops had an area of 224,211 acres, a percentage of 22'3 instead of 25'1 in 1870; green crops 85,614 acres, a percent-age of 8 '5 instead of 7 '4; rotation grasses 53,421 acres, a percentage of 5'3 instead of 6'2 ; permanent pasture 327,079 acres, a percentage of 31'8 instead of 28'2. The area under permanent pasture thus exceeds that under corn crops by nearly a third. The area under woods in 1881 was 82,849 acres, under orchards 16,673, under mar-ket gardens 4221, and under nursery grounds 670. Of the corn crops the most largely grown is wheat, which in 1881 occupied 84,388 acres, oats coming next with 52,177 acres, and barley and here occu-pying only a little less, 50,010 acres. Beans and pease were grown on 17,453 and 19,762 acres respectively, and rye on only 421 acres. In Thanet mustard, spinach, canary seed and a variety of other seeds are raised. Of green crops, turnips and swedes were grown on 27,254 acres, vetches and similar crops on 22,179 acres, potatoes 17,815, mangolds 12,070, cabbage 5843, and carrots 452. Part of the area under green crops is occupied by market gardens, which are very numerous in the neighbourhood of London. The principal orchard districts are the valleys of the Darent and Med-way, and the Tertiary soils overlying the Chalk, between Rochester and Canterbury. The county is specially famed for cherries and filberts, but apples, pears, plums, gooseberries, and currants are also largely cultivated. In some cases apples, cherries, filberts, and hops—the special crop of the county—are grown in alternate rows. 41,476 acres were under hops in Kent in 1881, and in the United Kingdom only 64,943 acres. The principal hop districts are the country in East Kent lying between Canterbury and Faversham, the valley of the Medway in Mid Kent, and the district of the Weald. The area under hops in these several dis-tricts in 1881 was 11,718, 17,353, and 11,986 acres respectively,'— other districts contributing only 419 acres. Much of the Weald, wdiich originally was occupied by a forest, is still densely wooded. There are many fine woods scattered throughout the county, especially in the valley of the Medway, oak and beech being the trees principally grown. A large extent of woodland is ash and chestnut plantations—maintained for the growth of hop-poles.

The following table gives a classification of holdings according to size as returned on the 25th dune 1875 and the 4th J une 18-80, with the acreage of each class of holding for these years:—

== TABLE ==

About two-thirds of the holdings are less than 50 acres in extent, hut the largest area—about two-fifths of the wdiole—is in farms between 100 and 300 acres.
The number of horses in 1881 was 29,450, an average of 3-9 to every 100 acres under cultivation, the average for England and also for Great Britain being 4'4. The number of horses used for agri-cultural purposes was 24,177. The total number of cattle in 1881 was 73,409, an average of 19'9 (England 16'9, Great Britain 18'4) to every 100 acres under cultivation. The number of cows in milk or in calf was 29,485, and of other cattle 43,924. Cattle are grazed in large numbers on the marsh lands along the estuaries of the rivers, and of course dairy farms are very numerous in the neighbourhood of London. The number of sheep in 1881 was 952,311, an average of 128'9 (England 62"4, Great Britain 76'3) to every 100 acres under cultivation. The number one year old and upwards was 627,124, and below one year 325,187. A breed of sheep peculiar to the district, known as Kents, is grazed on Romney Marsh, but Sonthdowns are the principal breed raised on the uplands. Pigs in 1881 numbered 55,896, or an average of 7'5 (England 7, Great Britain 6'6) to every 100 acres under cultivation.

According to the landowners' return, 18"2-73, the land, exclusive of that in the metropolis, was divided between 34,683 proprie-tors, and its gross annual value was £3,357,057. Of the owners, 26,925, or more than 77 per cent., possessed less than 1 acre, and the average value per acre over all was £3, 10s. 7Jd. There were four proprietors possessing above 10,000 acres each, viz., Viscount Holmsdale, 15,162 acres; Lord Sondes, 14,446; Sir H. Tufton, 13,639 ; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, Whitehall, 10,591. Other seventeen possessed more than 5000 acres each.

Manufactures and Trade.—At one time there were extensive iron-works in the Weald of Kent, and woollen cloth was also largely manufactured, but the former industry is now wholly extinct, and the latter is only prosecuted to a very small extent. Next to the occupations connected with the Government establishments at Dept-ford, Woolwich, Chatham, and Sheerness (see DOCKYARDS, vol. vii. p. 310), the most important industry of the county is that of paper, which is carried on on the banks of the Cray, Darent, Medway, and other streams in the west of the county. Shipbuilding by private firms is also prosecuted at Greenwich, Gravesend, Dover, North-fleet, and Ramsgate. At Greenwich there are engineering works, soap works, and chemical works ; and the carriage and engine works of the South-Eastern Railway are situated at Ashford. Manufac-tories of silk, cotton, linen, wool, and ribbons give employment in various towns and villages. Bricks, tiles, pottery, and cement are fabricated, especially on the banks of the Swale and Medway. Lime-burning and whiting-making are also carried on. There are powder-mills at Dartford, Faversham, and Tunbridge. The principal ports besides those on the Thames and Medway aro Whitstable, Heme Bay, Margate, Broadstairs, Ramsgate, Sand-wich, Deal, Dover, and Folkestone. The watering-places aro Erith, Greenhithe, Northfleet, Gravesend, Heme Bay, Margate, Westgate, Broadstairs, Ramsgate, Deal, Dover, Folkestone, and Sandgate. Tunbridge Wells is a favourite spa.

Fishing.—Deep-sea fishing is largely prosecuted all round the coast of lvent. Shrimps, soles, and flounders are caught in great numbers in the estuaries of the Thames and Medway and along the coast of Whitstable and Margate as well as at Ramsgate. The prin-cipal oyster beds are at Queenborough, Rochester, Milton, Faver-sham, and Whitstable, and whitebait frequent the Thames in immense shoals below Greenwich.

Railways.—As the main pathway of communication between London and the Continent lies through Kent to Dover, the county at _ ____ early period enjoyed the advantage of railway intercourse; and it is now very completely intersected with railway lines.

Administration.—Kent is divided into five lathes—a partition peculiar to the county, and dating from Anglo-Saxon times. The lathes are St Augustine, Shepway, Scray, Aylesford, and Sutton-at-Hone. The county comprises 61 hundreds, the lowey of Tun-bridge, the franchise and barony of Bircholt, the liberty of the Isle of Sheppey, the liberty of New Romney ; two cities, Canterbury (21,701) and Kochester (21,590), which are also municipal and parliamentary boroughs ; one parliamentary borough, Chatham (46,806); five boroughs which are both municipal and parliamen-tary, viz., Dover (28,486), Gravesend (m. 23,375, p. 31,355), Hythe (m. 4069, p. 28,066), Maidstone (m. 29,638, p. 39,662), Sandwich (m. 2846, p. 15,566); part of the parliamentary borough of Green-wich and five municipal boroughs, viz., Deal (8422), Faversham (8627), Folkestone (18,887), Margate (15,889), and Tenterden (3620). The liberty of New Komney and all the municipal boroughs except Gravesend and Maidstone are included among the Cinque Ports. The Cinque Port districts in Kent are those of Sandwich, partly in Essex, Dover, Iiythe, New Romney, and a portion of Rye, namely, Tenterden (see CINQUE POETS, vol. v. p. 786). Until 1867 Kent was for parliamentary purposes formed into only two divisions, East and West Kent, but by the Reform Act of that year West Kent was divided into West and Mid Kent. The city of Canterbury, which returns two members, Dover and Sandwich, which return two members each, and Hythe, which returns one member, are included in East Kent, which returns in all nine members. In Mid Kent are included the city of Rochester, returning two members, Maidstone, returning two members, and Chatham and Gravesend, returning one member each; it returns in all eight members. West Kent, which returns two members, in-cludes part of the borough of Greenwich, which returns two mem-bers. The total representation of the county, including Greenwich, is thus twenty-one members. The county has one court of general sessions and two of quarter sessions ; the number of sessional divisions is sixteen, exclusive of the liberty of Romney Marsh, which has petty and general sessions under its charters. The central criminal court has jurisdiction over certain parishes in the county. The city of Canterbury. (a county in itself), the city of Rochester, and the boroughs of Gravesend and Maidstone have commissions of the peace and separate courts of quarter sessions, as have also the ports and boroughs of Deal, Dover, Faversham, Folkestone, Hythe, Margate, Sandwich, and Tenterden. The ancient borough of Queenborough, governed by an old charter, has a recorder and a court of quarter sessions with a separate juris-diction limited to misdemeanours. Summary cases are dealt with by the mayor and magistrates in petty sessions. With the excep-tion of the portion included in the metropolitan police district, the shire for judicial purposes belongs to the south-eastern cir-cuit, and for police purposes is divided into twelve districts, which are generally identical with the petty sessional divisions. The cities of Canterbury and Rochester, the boroughs of Deal, Dover, Faversham, Folkestone, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone, Margate, Sandwich, and Tenterden, and the towns of Ramsgate (22,605) and Tunbridge Wells (24,309) have their own police. Ecclesiastically, with the exception of portions of two parishes, Kent is within the dioceses of Canterbury and Rochester; and it contains thirty-geven civil parishes or places, as well as parts of other parishes extending into adjoining counties.

Population.—Since 1801, when it numbered 308,667, the popula-tion has been rapidly and uninterruptedly increasing. In 1821 it was 427,224, and in 1841 it had increased to 549,353, in 1861 to 733,381, in 1871 to 848,294, and in 1881 to 977,585, of whom 477,715 were males and 499,870 females.

History and Antiquities.—A tribe of the Belga? from Gaul had before the time of Caesar's invasion taken possession of a large por-tion of southern Britain, including Kent. The remarkable crom-lech, Kit's Coity House, near Aylesford, belongs to this early period, as do numerous earthworks, encampments, stone circles, and excava-tions on the coast which are now generally regarded as ancient chalk pits. The spot of Caesar's landing was probably either some part of the coast between Warmer and Thanet—the neighbourhood of Deal finding most supporters—or the Portus Lemanis in Romney Marsh, which is identical with the town of Lymne. In his first invasion he did not penetrate farther than Kent, and the absence of lapidary inscriptions is regarded as evidence that its conquest was easily effected. The principal Roman road was the Watling Street, between Dubris (Dover) and London, which had much the same course as the present highway. This road was joined at Durovernum (Canterbury) by two others, one from the Portus Lemanis (Lymne) and the other from Regulbium (Eeculver). The traces of the road from the Portus Lemanis are still well marked throughout its whole extent, but agricultural operations have almost wholly obliterated the traces of that from Regulbium. Of two other Roman stations, Lurolevum and Vagniaese, the site cannot be absolutely determined, but most probably the former was near Faversham, and for the latter, which was somewhere between Rochester and London, most opinions favour Springhead near Gravesend. There are still important remains of Roman fortresses at Dover, Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne ; many traces of Roman villas have also been discovered ; and portions of Roman structures have frequently been utilized in the construction of churches and other buildings. A great variety o£ Roman relics have been discovered in nearly every part of the county. The most remarkable are profuse traces of extensive potteries of purple or black ware at Upclmrch on the south bank of the Medway, leaden coffins elaborately ornamented, and glass and bronze vessels in various Roman cemeteries. The earliest Teutonic settlement, under Hengest and Horsa, took place in Kent; and, on the arrival of Augustine in 597, Canterbury became the Christian metropolis of the island. Separate kings appear to have occasionally ruled in East and West Kent; and a bishopric was established at Rochester, in West Kent, as well as at Canterbury. Of this period of Kentish history the principal antiquarian remains are the cemeteries ; from those at Sarre and Osengal in Thanet, and at Bifrons, Barham, Bishopsbourne, Gilton, and Sittingbourne, a large number of relics of various kinds have been obtained. Some old customs belonging to this period, including that of gavelkind in cases of intestacy, are still extant. Kent in 823 was united by Egbert to the kingdom of the West Saxons. In the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries it suf-fered greatly from the ravages of the Danes. After the Conquest the earldom of Kent, which had been held by Godwine and after-wards by Harold, was bestowed by William on his brother Odo bishop of Bayeux. Among other events of historic importance the following may be mentioned :—the capture of Rochester by William Rufus in 1088, an incident connected with the rebellion of Odo, which was subdued in the same year; the murder of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury in 1170 ; the submission of King .lohn to the pope's legate at Dover in 1215; the capture of Rochester Castle by King John in the same year, and of the same castle by tile dauphin of France in 1216, the greater part of Kent formally submitting to him with the exception of Dover Castle; Wat Tyler's insurrection in 1381 and that of Jack Cade in 1450 ; the encamp-ment of Cornish insurgents at Blackheath in 1497, where they were surprised by Henry VII.; the insurrection of Sir Thomas Wyatt, which way commenced at Maidstone in 1554; the suppres-sion of the Kentish insurrection by Fairfax at Maidstone, June 1, 1648; and the burning of certain ships at Chatham by the Dutch fleet under De Ruyter in 1667 after the fort of Sheerness had been, levelled by his guns.

As was to be expected from its connexion with the early history of England, and from its beauty and fertility, Kent possessed a larger than average number of monastic foundations. The earliest were the priory of Christ's Church and the abbey of St Peter and St Paul now called St Augustine's, both at Canterbury, founded by Augustine and the monks who accompanied him to England. In the time of Henry VIII. the other principal religious houses were a priory at Rochester founded in 1089, a priory founded at Folke-stone in 1100 on the site of a nunnery originally founded in 630, a nunnery of St Sepulchre at Canterbury, founded about 1100, a nunnery at Minster in Sheppey built in 1130 on the site of a nunnery which wras founded in 675, but destroyed by the Danes, St Martin's Priory at Dover established in 1140 in place of one founded in 696 but afterwards dissolved, an abbey at Faversham founded in 1147, and nunneries at Lillechurch in fligham founded before 1151, at Davington founded in 1153, and at Mailing founded in the time of William Rufus; the Black Canons possessed a priory at Leeds founded in 1119, an abbey at Westwood in the parish of Erith founded in 1178, a priory at Combwell in Goudherst founded in the reign of Henry II., a priory at Tunbridge founded in the same century, a priory at Bilsington founded in 1253, St Gregory's Priory at Canterbury, changed in the time of Henry I. from one of secular priests, originally founded in 1084; the White Canons had St Radegund's Abbey near Dover, founded in 1193, and an abbey at West Langdon, founded in 1192 ; houses belonging to the Carmelites existed at Aylesford and Newenden, both founded in 1240, and at Sandwich founded in 1272; one belonging to the Dominicans was founded at Canterbury in 1221, the Franciscans having one at the same city founded in 1225, and the Eremite Friars also one at the same city founded in the time of Edward I. or Edward II.; an abbey of Cistercian monks was founded at Boxley in. 1146, a preceptory of Knights Templars at Swingfield near Dover some time before 1190, a priory of Trinitarian Friars at Mottenden in the parish of Headcorn in 1224, a nunnery of the order of St Augustine at Dartford about 1355, a cell of Cluniae monks at Monks Horton in the time of Henry II., and a pre-ceptory belonging to the knights of St John of Jerusalem at West Peckham in the time of Henry IV. Of the monastic buildings the principal remains are those of the Benedictine monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury, the priory of Christ's Church, Canter-bury, adjoining the cathedral, the Dominican convent, Canter-bury, St Radegund's Abbey near Dover, St Martin's Priory, Dover, Horton Priory, Mailing Abbey, Aylesford Friary, and the ______ of Minster in Sheppey and Minster in Thanet. In addition to the cathedrals of Rochester and Canterbury, the churches of special interest are those of Darenth, partly Old English ; Lyminge, of very great antiquity ; Barfreston, a small but unique specimen of enriched Late Norman work ; Patricksbourne, a very beautiful example of Norman; St Margarets-at-Cliffe, with mauy portions of very rich Norman, the west doorway being one of the finest examples of Norman work in England; New Romney, with the finest Norman tower in Kent; Folkestone, Early English, with some portions almost Norman ; St Martin's Church, Canterbury ; Brabourne, with some singular Norman work, and possessing several brasses; St Clement's, Sandwich, partly Early English, with en-riched Norman tower; Minster in Sheppey, Norman and Early English, with brass of date about 1330; Minster in Thanet, Norman tower and nave, with Early English chancel ; Lydd, partly Early English and possessing several brasses ; Cobham, Early English, with the finest collection of brasses in England ; Hythe, with plain exterior, but possessing a chancel whose interior is one of the finest specimens of Early English work extant; Stone, Early English to Decorated, and in style resembling Lincoln cathedral; Chartham, a fine specimen of the Decorated, and possessing several brasses, one of the date 1306 ; Ashford, Decorated and Perpendicular, with brass of 1375, and one of the finest towers in Kent.

The principal secular buildings of interest, in addition to the Roman ruins already referred to, are the Norman keeps of Mailing, Canterbury, Rochester, Dover, Chilham, and Tun bridge; the castles of Sandown, Deal, and Warmer, built by Henry VIII. for defensive purposes; Hever Castle, the seat of the Boleyns, and the scene of the courtship of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII. ; Allington Castle near Maidstone, the birthplace of Sir Thomas Wyatt ; the banquetting hall and gateway of the Royal Palace at Eltham ; the castellated mansion of Leeds Castle near Maidstone; Penshurst Castle, the seat of the Sidneys ; Knole House near Sevenoaks, formerly one of the palaces attached to the archbishopric of Canterbury, and once the seat of the dukes of Dorset, now of Lord Sackville ; the Mote, at Ightham ; and Cobham Hall.

[Further Reading] A full account of the geology of Kent is comprehended in Topley's Geology of the Weald, and Whitaker's Geology of the London Basin, forming part of the memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Among the more ancient books on Kent are Lainbard's Perambulation, written in 1570, 1st ed. 1576, latest 1826; Kilburne's Brief Survey, 1657; and Philipot'a Villare Cantianum, 1659. The principal histories are those of Harris (1719), Hasted (1778-99), Seymour (1776), Henshall (1798), Ireland (1828-30), CollingS (1834), and Dunkhl (1856-77). Among the many works treating on Kentish antiquities may be men-tioned Somner, Treatise on the Roman Ports and Forts of Kent, 1693; Nichols, Antiquities in Kent, 1782-83; Parsons, Monuments of Kent, 1794; Sandys, Con-suetudines Kancise, 1851; Hltsscy, Notes on the Churches of Kent, 1852; F. H. Appucli, C. J. Cesar's British Expeditions from Boulogne to the Bay of Apuldore, 1868; Larking, Facsimile of Domesday Book relating to Kent, 1869 ; Furley, A History of the Weald of Kent, 1871-74; Scott-Robertson. Kentish Archaeology, 1877-S1; Glynne, Notes on Churches of Kent. 1877. See also Frost, In Kent with Charles Dickens, 1880. A very full bibliography of works relating to Kent and its several towns is given in Smith's Bibliotheca Cantiana, 1837; see also Anderson's British Topography, 1881. The Archaeologia Cantiana, a periodical publication of the Kent Archaeological Society, contains accounts of the latest antiquarian discoveries.

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