LOUIS XI., son of Charles VII. and Mary of Anjou, was born at Bourges on July 3, 1423. His jealous, ambitious, and restless character early manifested itself in the attitude of opposition he assumed to his father's mistress Agnes Sorel, and in the part he took (1439) as leader of the "Praguerie," as the league formed by the nobles against the introduction of a standing army was called. Though pardoned by his father in 1440 after the failure of the attempt, he never thenceforward enjoyed any of his confidence. He distinguished himself in the years immediately following in several military expeditions, but finally settled (1446) in his apanage of Dauphine, where he acted with great independence, until in 1456 Charles, irritated by the intrigues of his son, intimated his intention of himself resuming the government of that province. Not waiting the arrival of the army which had been sent to take possession, Louis fled for protection to his uncle the duke of Burgundy, who assigned him a pension and a residence at Nieppe near Brussels. The death of Charles on July 22,1461, permitted his return to France, where he was crowned at Rheims as Louis XI. in the following month. For the leading events of the three periods of his reign the reader is referred to FRANCE, vol. ix. pp. 552, 553. He died at Plessis-les-Tours on August 30, 1483, and was succeeded by his son Charles VIII.