1902 Encyclopedia > Rabad

Five Jewish scholars of 12th century AD

RABAD (Tun). Under this abbreviation five Jewish scholars are known, all of whom, singularly enough, lived during the 12th century.

I. RAB AB-BETH-DIN, i.e., the chief rabbi par excellence. His real name was R. Abraham b. Yishak of Narbonne. He was the teacher of the most distinguished rabbis of Provence, including his famous son-in-law (Rabad III.) and Rabbenu Zerahyah Hallevi, the author of the Maar. It has always been known that a great deal of literature on the Talmud belonging to him is mixed up with the works of others, notably with those of Rabad (see III. below).

In 1867-69, however, Dr B. H. Auerbach, rabbi of Halberstadt, edited for the first time Rabad's chief work, The Eshkol, in three parts, 4to.

II. R. ABRAHAM B. DAVID (Mild, 11N1) HALLEVI of Toledo, the historiographer, who suffered martyrdom in 1180. His chief work has been printed innumerable times, and repeatedly with historical additions from earlier sources. Some of the parts of this "Tradition " and of these additions have been translated into Latin, English, and German. (1) His historical work, 61Pi'l 1D17, is a chronicle down to 1161, preceded by Seder 'Olam and Megillath Ta'anith (Mantua, 1513, 4to) ; cheap editions are to be got in Poland. (2) His philosophico-theological work (composed in Arabic, translated into Hebrew by R. Shelomoh Ibu. Labi-14th century - and into German by Weil) came out at Frankfort in 1852, 8vo.

III. R. ABRAHAM B. DAVID, disciple and son-in-law of Rabad I. This is the "great Rabbi of Posquieres," the only opponent whom Maimonides thought a match for himself. He died in 1198. His works are : - (1) Commentary on the Mishnie treatise 'Eduyyoth (see MISHNAH, vol. xvi. p. 506), which accompanies some early and all later editions of the Babylonian Talmud (that on Tamid, ascribed to him, is not his). (2) Commentary on Siphro (see vol. xvi. p. 507). (3) Much of Temim De'im, part of the collection Turamath Yesharim, on various Rabbinic matters, Venice, 1622, fol. (4) Ba'ale Hannephesh, on laws relating to women (first independent edition, Prague, 1811, 4to). (5) Hassagoth, or Strictures on the illishnell Torah of MAIMONIDES (q.v.). These accompany most early and all later editions of the Misltneh Torah.

IV. R. ABRAHAM B. DAVID, author of the commentary on the Sepher Yesirah.2 His commentary has been printed innumerable times with the work itself, the editio princeps at Mantua in 1562, 4to. Part of its preface was done in Latin by Rittangelius (Amsterdam, 1642, 4to).

V. R. ABRAHAM B. DAVID. He wrote Strictures (Hassagoth) on Rabbi on the Pentateuch. This little and most interesting book was either written by a Scpharadi or Provençal, and lies in MS. (Add., 377, 3, 1) in the Cambridge University' Library. No other copy is known.(S. M. S.-S.)

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