C. RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION (cont.)
Railway Stations. Arrangement of Termini.
Railway stations are either "terminal" or "intermediate." A terminal station embraces (1) the passenger station; (2) the goods; (3) the locomotive, carriage, and waggon depots, where the engines and the carrying stock are kept, cleaned, examined, and repaired. At many intermediate stations the same arrangements, on a smaller scale, are made; in all of them there is at least accommodation for the passenger and the goods traffic. The stations for passengers and goods are generally in different and sometimes in distant positions, the place selected for each being that which is most convenient for the traffic. The passenger station abuts on the main line, or, at termini, forms the natural terminus, at a place as near as can conveniently be obtained to the centre of the population which constitutes the passenger traffic. The goods station is approached by a siding or fork set off from the main line at a point short of the passenger station. Terminal branches of the railwayswhere, for example, there is a sharp inclineare sometimes worked by stationary engines and ropes to the point where the locomotive joins the train. The locomotive station is placed wherever the ground may most conveniently be obtained, at or near to the terminus; in some cases it is found at a distance of 3 or 4 miles. An abundant supply of good water and ample means of drainage are important at stations. There should be ample area of land to admit of the greatest possible extension of accommodation, and the erection of building on land adjacent to the station grounds should be discouraged. Companies have been compelled to repurchase at greatly advanced cost land originally disposed of by them as "surplus," and generally with a view to building operations. When this course is adopted prudent managers should take care to secure in the conveyance power to repurchase the freehold at original prices, with allowance for outlay in building or otherwise, by valuation.
Arrangement of Termini
In laying out the approaches and station-yard of passenger stations ample width and space should be provided, with well-defined means of ingress and egress to facilitate the circulation of vehicles, and the setting-down pavement should be as long as possible, to admit of several carriages discharging passengers and luggage at the same time. The pavement should be wide and sheltered from the weather by a roof, overhanging beyond the kerb, or spanning the roadway, but in all cases free from columns. The position of the main buildings relative to the direction of the lines of rails is the distinguishing feature in terminal stations. When space permits, the usual course is to place them on the departure side parallel to the platform, but they are frequently placed at the end of the station at right angles to the rails and platforms. Or these two systems are combined in a third arrangement, in which the offices are placed in a fork, between two or more series of lines and platforms. Of the metropolitan termini, the Great Northern passenger station, the Great Western ad the South-Western stations are examples of the first class; the London Bridge, Cannon Street, Charing Cross and Victoria Stations (comprising the South-Eastern and Brighton Lines) and the Great Eastern and the Fenchurch Street stations (comprising the North London, Black-wall, North Woolwich, and Tilbury lines), are examples of the second class; and the London and North-Western stations is an example of third class. The first and usual of stations commands the greatest length of setting-down pavement, ample space for booking and other offices, waiting-rooms, &c., and the shortest average distance for passengers and luggage from the offices to the outgoing trains. Nevertheless, where the traffic is various, involving the dispatch of numerous trains to different points in quick succession, and necessarily with perfect regularity, the second system is the best. But where the frontage is limited, and where trains start at some distance from the entrance, there is inconvenience in the movement of luggage over a crowded platform. The third plan is probably the least commodious of the three; but it has the advantage of affording two arrival platforms, with carriage-roads alongside, the others having but one so situated. In all the classes, it may be observed, transverse lines are inserted with turn-tables, to place all the lines in compact communication for turning on or off spare carriages, loaded horse-boxes, or carriage-trucks. Independently of the turn-tables, the lines of rail are connected by switches or points converging towards the two main lines of rail, outgoing and incoming; and thus the assortment and marshalling of trains may be effected by horse or engine power independently of the turn-tables. Each plan of station comprises one or more large turn-tables for reversing the engine with its tender together.
The correct arrangement and appropriation of the several lines of railway in a terminal station materially affect the economical and efficient working of the traffic. It is essential that every traffic line, both in and out, should be provided with one or more spare sidings, in addition to those set apart for the break-vans, horse-boxes, and carriage-trucks, and for the locomotive department. All these lines should communicate with each other by means of points and crossings, to allow of shunting with engine-power, and to reduce to the lowest limits the number of turn-tables or their substitutes. Curves ought never to have a radius of less than 800 feet.
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