C. RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION (cont.)
Intermediate Stations. Junction Stations.
In fixing intermediate stations the first step should be to get a good map of all the places within the scope of the railway, and to mark upon it the population of each place form the last parliamentary census. The greater the number of stations, the more the travelling increases; for quick and cheap transit creates traffic. Stations, especially important ones, should be on the surface rather than on an embankment or a viaduct or in a cutting. Facilities of access in all directions from the surrounding districts, with good roads in the case of passenger traffic, and good water and railway communication for goods depots, are obviously indispensable. For safety and regularity there should be an uninterrupted view along the line of railwayno sharp curves or complication of over-bridgesin the vicinity of a large station. Intermediate and junction stations should be situated on dead levels, since, when a good length of level can be had, with gradients falling from it both ways, there is the greatest possible facility for working the traffic. Falling gradients towards a station are objectionable, but cannot in all cases be avoided. When the station is situated midway between towns of such extent as to cause an equal flow of traffic in each direction, offices may be requisite on both sides of the line; but, where the bulk of the traffic tends one way only, it will be desirable to concentrate it on that side which involves the larger number of passengers and the greater extent of waiting space. This rule, again, will be modified by the position of the town or the district whence the traffic is to be derived, especially if the railway lies on the natural surface and adjoins a public road, whether crossing on the level or otherwise. This last condition is the most frequent one; and, as some portion at least of the traffic must be expected to depart from the platform opposite to the offices, provision must be made for crossing with the least amount of danger to the public. When the passengers are numerous in both directions, over-bridges, as before stated, are objectionable; and in a surface-station an archway under the line is frequently impracticable. Some good authorities have adopted the plan of making the trains take up and set down the passengers at one platform only, when the platform may be made rather more than double the length of a single train, having crossings in the centre to communicate with both lines of rails, thus placing the trains when standing on the platform upon a loop-siding distinct from those lines. This system offers great convenience to the public when there is much first-class traffic and a large quantity of baggage; and it is especially applicable when the station partakes of the character of a terminus, or is used as a receiver from branch or neighbouring lines, offering, as it does, great facilities for making up and receiving trains which may run over a portion only of the main lines, as well as for attaching and detaching the carriages intended or used for branch traffic.
The buildings and yards in junction stations may be placed in the fork between the two double lines of railway forming the junction, or beyond the point of junction.
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