DELLA ROBBIA, the name of a family of great dis-tinction in the annals of Florentine art. Its members are enumerated in chronological order below.
I. LUCA DELLA ROBBIA (1399 or 1400 -1482) was the son of a Florentine named Simone di Marco della Eobbia. According to Vasari, whose account of Luca's early life is little to be trusted, he was apprenticed to the silversmith Leonardo di Ser Giovanni, who from 1355 to 1371 was working on the grand silver altar frontal for the cathedral at PISTOIA (q.v.); this, however, appears doubtful from the great age which it would give to Leonardo, and it is more probable that Luca was a pupil of Ghiberti. During the early part of his life Luca executed many important and exceedingly beautiful pieces of sculpture in marble and bronze. In technical skill he was quite the equal of Ghiberti, and, while possessing all Donatello's vigour,, dramatic power, and originality, he very frequently ex-celled him in grace of attitude and soft beauty of expres-sion. No sculptured work of the great 15th century ever surpassed the singing gallery which Luca made for the cathedral at Florence between 1431 and 1440, with its ten magnificent panels of singing angels and dancing boys, far exceeding in beauty those which Donatello in 1433 sculptured for the opposite gallery in the same choir. This magnificent work now lies scattered in various parts of the
1 Genealogical tree of Della Robbia sculptors :
Simone di Marco.
Tiargello. The general effect of the whole can best be seen at the South Kensington Museum, where a complete cast is fixed to the wall. The same museum possesses a study in gesso duro for one of the panels, which appears to be the original sketch by Luca's own hand.
In May 1437 Luca received a commission from the signoria of Florence to execute five reliefs for the north side of the campanile, to complete the series begun by _Giotto and Andrea Pisano. These panels are so much in the earlier style of Giotto that we must conclude that he had left drawings from which Luca worked. They have representative figures chosen to typify grammar, logic, philosophy, music, and geometry,the last represented by Euclid and Ptolemy. In 1438 Luca received an order for two marble altars for chapels in the cathedral, a third being ordered from Donatello. The reliefs from one of Luca'sSt Peter's Deliverance from Prison and his Cruci-fixionare now in the Bargello. It is probable that these altars were never finished. A tabernacle for the host, made by Luca in 1442, is now at Peretola in the church of S. Maria. A document in the archives of S. Maria Nuova at Florence shows that he received for this 700 florins 1 lira 16 soldi (about ¿61400 of modern money). In 1437 Donatello received a commission to cast a bronze door for one of the sacristies of the cathedral; but, as he delayed to execute this order, the work was handed over to Luca on 28th February 1446, with Michelozzo and Maso di Bartolomeo as his assistants. Part of this wonder-ful door was cast in 1448, and the last two panels were finished by Luca in 1467, with bronze which was supplied to him by Verrocchio. The door is divided into ten square panels, with small heads in the style of Ghiberti projecting from the framing. The two top subjects are the Madonna and Child and the Baptist, next come the four Evangelists, and below are the four Latin Doctors,
FIG. 1.Bronze relief of one of the Latin Doctors, from the sacristy door in the cathedral of Florence, by Luca.
each subject with attendant angels. The whole is modelled with the most perfect grace and dignified simplicity ; the heads throughout are full of life, and the treatment of the drapery in broad simple folds is worthy of a Greek sculptor of the best period of Hellenic art. These exquisite reliefs are perfect models of plastic art, and are quite free from the over-elaboration and too pictorial style of Ghiberti. Fig. 1 shows one of the panels. A terra-cotta relief at Berlin and another in the South Kensington Museum are probably original studies by Luca for two of the panels of the doctors.
The most important existing work in marble by Luca (executed in 1457-58) is the tomb of Benozzo Federighi, bishop of Fiesole, originally placed in the church of S. Pancrazio at Florence, but now in S. Francesco di Paola on the Bello Sguardo road outside the city. A very beautiful effigy of the bishop in a restful pose lies on a sarcophagus, sculptured with graceful reliefs of angels holding a wreath, which contains the inscription. Above are three-quarter-length figures of Christ between St John and the Virgin, delicately carved in low relief. The whole is surrounded by a rectangular frame formed of painted majolica tiles of the most exquisite beauty, far surpassing any other exist-ing work of the same sort. On each tile is painted, with enamel pigments, a bunch of flowers and fruit in brilliant realistic colours, the loveliness of which is very hard to describe The perfect mean between truth to nature and decorative treatment has never been more thoroughly obtained than in these wonderful tile pictures, each of which is worthy of the most careful study ; and they are also of special interest as being among the earliest ex-amples of Italian majolica. Though the bunch of flowers on each is painted on one slab, the ground of each tile is formed of separate pieces, fitted together like a kind of mosaic, probably because the pigment of the ground required a different degree of heat in firing from that needed for the enamel painting of the centre. The few other works of this class which exist do not approach the beauty of this early essay in majolica painting, on which Luca evidently put forth his utmost skill and patience.
In the latter part of his life Luca was mainly occupied with the production of terra-cotta reliefs covered with enamel,a process which he improved upon, but did not invent, as Vasari asserts. The secret of this process was to cover the clay relief with an enamel formed of the ordi-nary ingredients of glass (marzacotto) made an opaque white by oxide of tin,a method practised with great success in the 13th century in Persia (see POTTERY, vol. xix. pp. 620, 628). Though Luca was not the inventor of the process, yet his genius so improved and extended its application that it is not unnaturally known now as Delia Bobbia ware ; it must, however, be remembered that by far the majority of these reliefs which in Italy and else-where are ascribed to Luca are really the work of some of the younger members of the family. Comparatively few exist which can with certainty be ascribed to Luca himself. Among the earliest of these are medallions of the four Evangelists in the vault of Brunelleschi's Pazzi chapel in S. Croce. These fine reliefs are coloured with various metallic oxides in different shades of blue, green, purple, yellow, and black. It has often been asserted that the very polychromatic reliefs belong to Andrea or his sons, and that Luca's were all in pure white; this, however, is not the case : colours were used more freely by Luca than by his successors. A relief in the South Kensington Museum furnishes a striking example and is of especial value from its great size, and also because its date is known. This is an enormous medallion containing the arms of René of Anjou and other heraldic devices ; it is surrounded by a splendidly modelled wreath, of fruit and flowers, especially apples, lemons, oranges, and fir cones, all of which are brilliantly coloured. This medallion was set up on the facade of the Pazzi Palace to commemorate Rene's visit to Florence in 1442. Another early relief by Luca, also highly polychromatic, is that of the Ascension in the tympanum of one of the sacristy doors in the cathedral, executed between 1446 and 1450, as is recorded in a document published by Rumohr (Italien. Forsch., ii. pp. 364-365). Other existing works of Luca in Florence are the tympanum reliefs of the Madonna between two Angels in the Via dell' Agnolo, a work of exquisite beauty, and another over the door of S. Pierino del Mercato Vecchio. The only existing statues by Luca are two lovely enamelled ^figures of Kneeling Angels holding candlesticks, now in the canons' sacristy. A very fine work by Luca, executed between 1449 and 1452, is the tympanum relief of the Madonna and four Monastic Saints over the door of S. Domenico at Urbino. Luca also made the four coloured medallions of the Virtues set in the vault over the tomb of the young cardinal-prince of Portugal in a side chapel of S. Miniato in Florence (see ROSSELLINO). By Luca also are reliefs of the Madonna and various medallions outside Or San Michele. One of his chief decorative works which no longer exists was a small library or study for Piero de' Medici, wholly lined with painted majolica plaques and reliefs. The South Kensington Museum pos-sesses twelve circular plaques of majolica ware painted in blue and white with the Occupations of the Months; these have been attributed to Luca, but have no resem-blance to any known works of his. Their provenance is unknown.
In 1471 Luca was elected president of the Florentine artists' guild, but he refused this great honour on account of his age and infirmity. It shows, however, the very high estimation in which he was held by his contemporaries. He died on 20th February 1482, leaving his property to his nephews Andrea and Simone. His chief pupil was his nephew Andrea, and probably also Agostino di Duccio, who executed many pieces of sculpture at Rimini, and the graceful but mannered marble reliefs of angels on the facade of S. Bernardino at Perugia. Vasari calls this Agostino Luca's brother, but he was not related to him at all.
II. ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA (1435-1525), the nephew and pupil of Luca, carried on the production of the enamelled reliefs on a much larger scale than his uncle had ever done; he also extended its application to various architectural uses, such as friezes and to the making of lavabos (lavatories), fountains, and large retables. The result of this was that, though the finest reliefs from the workshop of Andrea were but little if at all inferior to those from the hand of Luca, yet some of them, turned out by pupils and assistants, reached only a lower stand-ard of merit. Only one work in marble by Andrea is known, namely, an altar in S. Maria delle Grazie near Arezzo, mentioned by Vasari (ed. Milanesi, ii. p. 179), and still well preserved.
One variety of method was introduced by Andrea in his enamelled work; sometimes he omitted the enamel on the face and hands (nude parts) of his figures, especi-ally in those cases where he had treated the heads in a. realistic manner; as, for example, in the noble tympanum relief of the meeting of St Domenic and St Francis in the: loggia of the Florentine hospital of S. Paolo,a design suggested by a fresco of Fra Angelico's in the cloister of St Mark's. One of the most remarkable works by Andrea is the series of medallions with reliefs of Infants in white on a blue ground set on the front of the found-ling hospital at Florence. These lovely child-figures are-modelled with wonderful skill and variety, no two being alike. Andrea produced, for guilds and private persons, a large number of reliefs of the Madonna and Child varied with much invention, and all of extreme beauty of pose and sweetness of expression. These are frequently framed with realistic and yet very decorative garlands of fruit and flowers, all painted with enamel colours, while the main relief is left white. Fig. 2 shows a good example of these
FIG. 2.Enamelled clay relief of Virgin and Child, by Andrea.
smaller works. The hospital of S. Paolo, near S. Maria Novella, has also a number of fine medallions with reliefs of saints, two of Christ Healing the Sick, and two fine portraits, under which are white plaques inscribed"dalP alio 1451 all' ano 1495"; the first of these dates is the year when the hospital was rebuilt owing to a papal brief sent to the archbishop of Florence. Arezzo possesses a number of fine enamelled works by Andrea and his sons a retable in the cathedral with God holding the Crucified Christ, surrounded by angels, and below, kneeling figures of S. Donato and S. Bernardino; also in the cathedral is. a fine relief of the Madonna and Child with four saints at the sides. In S. Maria in Grado is a very noble retable with angels holding a crown over a standing figure of the Madonna; a number of small figures of worshippers take refuge in the folds of the Virgin's mantle, a favourite motive for sculpture dedicated by guilds or other corporate bodies. Perhaps the finest collection of works of this class is at La Verna, not far from Arezzo (see Vasari, ed. Milanesi, ii. p. 179). The best of these, three large tetables with representations of the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, and the Madonna giving her Girdle to St Thomas, are probably the work of Andrea himself, the others being by his sons. In 1489 Andrea made a beauti-ful relief of the Virgin and two Angels, now over the archive room door in the Florentine Opera del Duomo; for this he was paid twenty gold florins (see Cavallucci, S. Maria del Fiore). In the same year he modelled the fine tympanum relief over a door of Prato cathedral, with a half-length figure of the Madonna between St Stephen and St Lawrence, surrounded by a frame of angels' heads.
In 1491 Andrea was still working at Prato, where many of his best reliefs still exist. One of his finest works is a large retable at Volterra in the church of S. Girolamo, dated 1501; it represents the Last Judgment, and is re-markable for the fine modelling of the figures, especially that of the archangel Michael, and a nude kneeling figure of a youth who has just risen from his tomb. Other late works of known date are a Eesurrection of Christ, made in 1501 for S. Frediano at Florence (the lower half of this only exists, in the court of the Casa Mozzi), and a medal-lion of the Virgin in Glory, surrounded by angels, made in 1505 for Pistoia cathedral. Andrea's last known relief is a Nativity, made in 1515 for S. Maria in Pian di Mugnone at Florence.
III., IV. Five of Andrea's seven sons worked with their father, and after his death carried on the Eobbia fabrique ; the dates of their birth are shown in the table on p. 588 above. Early in life two of them came under the influence of Savonarola, and took monastic orders at his Domi-nican convent; these were MARCO, who adopted the name of Fra Luca, and PAOLO, called Fra Ambrogio. One relief by the latter, a Nativity with four life-sized figures of rather poor work, is in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli in the Sienese convent of S. Spirito; a MS. in the convent archives records that it was made in 1504.
V. The chief existing work known to be by the second son LUCA is the very rich and beautiful tile pavement in the uppermost story of EaphaePs loggie at the Vatican, finely designed and painted in harmonious majolica colours. This was made by Luca at Eaphael's request and under his supervision in 1518. It is still in very fine preservation.
VI. GIOVANNI DELLA EOBBIA (1469-1529?) during a great part of his life worked as assistant to his father, Andrea, and in many cases the enamelled sculpture of the two cannot be distinguished. Some of Giovanni's independ- ent works are of great merit, especially the earlier ones; during the latter part of his life his reliefs deteriorated in style, owing mainly to the universal decadence of the time. A very large number of pieces of Eobbia ware which are attributed to Andrea, and even to the elder Luca, were really by the hand of Giovanni. One of his finest works, quite equal in beauty to anything of his father's, from whom the design of the figures was probably taken, is the washing- fountain in the sacristy of S. Maria Novella at Florence, made in 1497. It is a large arched recess with a view of the seashore, not very decorative in style, painted on majolica tiles at the back. There are also two very beauti- ful painted majolica panels of fruit-trees let into the lower part. In the tympanum of the arch is a very lovely white by nude boys reclining on the top of the arch. All this part is of enamelled clay, but the basin of the fountain is of white marble. Neither Luca nor Andrea was in the habit of signing his work, but Giovanni often did so, usually adding the date, probably because other potters had begun to imitate the Robbia ware.
Giovanni lacked the original talent of Luca and Andrea, and so he not only copied their work but even reproduced in clay the marble sculpture of Pollaiuolo, Da Settignano, Verrocchio, and others. A relief by him, evidently taken from Mino da Fiesole, exists in the Palazzo Castracane Staccoli. Among the very numerous other works of Giovanni are the large retable in the Castellani chapel of S. Croce, a relief in the wall of a convent in the Via Nazionale at Florence, and two reliefs in the Bargello dated 152] and 1522. The latter is a many-coloured relief of the Nativity, and was taken from the church of S. Girolamo in Florence ; it is a too pictorial work, marred by the use of many different planes. Its predella has a small relief of the Adoration of the Magi, and is inscribed " Hoc opus fecit Joanes Andree de Eobia, ac posuit hoc in tempore die ultima lulii alio. Dili, MDXXII." At Pisa in the church of S. Silvestro is a relief in Giovanni's later and poorer manner dated 1520; it is a Madonna surrounded by angels, with saints below-the whole overcrowded with figures and ornaments. Giovanni's largest and perhaps finest work is the polychromatic frieze on the outside of the Del Ceppo Hospital at Pistoia, for which he received various sums of money between 1525 and 1529, as is recorded in documents which still exist among the archives of the hospital.8 The subjects of this frieze are the Seven Works of Mercy, forming a continuous band of sculpture in high relief, wrell modelled and designed in a very broad sculpturesque way, but a little injured perhaps by the crudeness of some of its colouring. Six of these reliefs are by Giovanni, namely, Clothing the Naked, Washing the Feet of Pilgrims, Visiting the Sick, Visiting Prisoners, Burying the Dead, and Feeding the Hungry. The seventh, Giving Drink to the Thirsty, was made by Filippo Pala-dini of Pistoia in 1585; this last is of terra-cotta, not enamelled, but simply painted with oil colours. Giovanni also executed the medallions in the spandrels of the arches under this frieze, with reliefs of the Annunciation, the Yisitation, and the Coronation of the Virgin.
A large octagonal font of enamelled clay, with pilasters at the angles and panels between them with scenes from the life of the Baptist, in the church of S. Leonardo at Cerreto Guidi, is a work of the school of Giovanni ; the reliefs are pictorial in style and coarse in execution. Gio-vanni's chief pupil was a man named Santi, who was at first apprenticed to Buglioni, and when the latter died in 1521 he went into Giovanni's bottega. His work is very inferior to that of his master.
VII. GIROLAMO DELLA ROBBiA (1488-1566), another of Andrea's sons, was an architect and a sculptor in marble and bronze as well as in enamelled clay. During the first part of his life he, like his brothers, worked with his father, but in 1528 he went to France and spent nearly forty years in the service of the French royal family. Francis I. employed him to build a palace in the Bois de Boulogne called the Château de Madrid. This was a large well-designed building, four stories high, two of them having open loggie in the Italian fashion. Girolamo decorated it richly with terra-cotta medallions, friezes, and other archi-tectural features. For this purpose he set up kilns at Suresnes. Though the palace itself has been destroyed, drawings of it exist.
The best collections of Robbia ware are in the Florentine Bargello
and Accademia, the South Kensington Museum (the finest out of
Italy), the Louvre, the Cluny, and the Berlin Museums. Many
fine specimens exist in Paris in the private collections of M. Alphonse
de Rothschild, M. Gavel, and M. Dreyfus. The greater part of
the Robbia work still remains in the churches and other buildings
of Italy, especially in Florence, Fiesole, Arezzo, La Yerna, Yolterra,
Barga, Montepuleiano, Lucca, Pistoia, Prato, and Siena. The best
accounts of the Della Robbia family are those given by De Jouy,
Les Delia Robbia, Paris, 1855 ; Bode, Die Kihnstlerfamilie Della
Robbia, Leipsic, 1878 ; and Cavallucci and Molinier, Les Della
Robbia, Paris, 1884, an ably - written and well-illustrated work.
See also Vasari, ed. Milancsi, Florence, 1880, ii. p. 167 sq., and
various works on Italian sculpture. (J. H. M. )
The above article was written by: J. H. Middleton.