1902 Encyclopedia > Societies


SOCIETIES. Under ACADEMY will be found an account of the various bodies of which that word forms part of the titles, usually denoting some kind of state support or patronage. The present article is restricted to scien-tific, archaeological, and literary societies, chiefly those founded and carried on by private collective effort. Certain academies omitted in the previous article are, how-ever, referred to. Governmental, collegiate, and university institutions do not come within our scope, neither as a rule do endowed societies, nor yet institutions which, although they bear the name, carry on no kind of joint literary or scientific work. With a few exceptions here and there, the societies mentioned are still flourishing.

In their modern form learned and literary societies have their origin in the Italian academies of the Renaissance; but private scientific societies have arisen chiefly during the 19th century, being due to the necessity of increased organization of knowledge and the desire among scholars for a common ground to meet and compare results and collect facts for future generalization. These bodies rapidly tend to increase in number and to become more and more specialized. Many efforts have been made from time to time to tabulate and analyse the literature pub-lished in their proceedings, as, for instance, in the indexes of Reuss (1801-21) and the Royal Society (1867-79) for physics and natural science, and those of Walther (1845) and Koner (1852-56) for history. A further development of the work done by societies was made in 1822, when, chiefly owing to Humboldt, the Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte first met at Leipsic. This inauguration of the system of national congresses was followed in 1831 by the British Association for the Advancement Of Science, which has served as the model for similar societies in France, America, and elsewhere. The merit of introducing the idea of migratory congresses into France is due to the distinguished archaeologist, M. Arcisse de Caumont (1802-73), who established the Association Normande, which since 1845 has held a reunion in one or other of the towns of the province for the discussion of matters relating to history, archaeology, science, and agriculture, with local exhibitions. From the same initiation came the Congrés Archéologique de France (1834), which was organized by the Société Française pour la Conservation des Monuments Historiques, the Congrès Scientifique, which held its first meeting at Caen in 1833 (directed by the Institut des Provinces), and the Congrés des Sociétés Savantes des Départements, which for many years after 1850 held its annual sittings at Paris. The idea received the sanction of the French Government in 1861, when a Congrés des Sociétés Savantes was first convoked at the Sorbonne by the minister of public instruction. In Italy Charles Bonaparte, prince of Canino, started an association with like objects, which held its first meeting at Pisa in 1839. Russia has had an itinerant gathering of naturalists since 1867. International meetings are a natural growth from congresses in which specialists of one country or speech are alone represented. Two remarkable examples of these cosmopolitan societies are the Congrès International d’ Archéologie et d’ Anthropologie Préhistoriques, founded at Spezzia in 1865, and the Congrés International des Orientalistes (1873). Another step towards more com-plete organization was taken when the Smithsonian Insti-tution, (Washington, U.S.) developed the admirable system of international exchanges of its publications, as well as of other works and specimens, among societies and individuals. The Institution has agents in every part of the globe, and entertains relations with all the leading societies in the world. The International Scientific Bureau, a pri-vate enterprise, was established at Haarlem by Dr Van Baumhauer to facilitate the sending of parcels among so-cieties and scientific men in Holland. Since 1875 the French ministry of public instruction has organized a distribution of foreign publications among societies in France. In Eng-land local scientific societies are now officially represented at the meetings of the British Association. In 1883 rules were framed for the admission of corresponding societies and for the institution of a conference of delegates to hold sittings contemporaneously with the annual meeting of the Association, for the purpose of discussing "propositions bearing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of operation, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results," as well as for the consideration of "matters in which the co-operation of corresponding societies is desired." A committee was appointed in 1882 at the Montreal meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science "to confer with committees of foreign associations for the advancement of science with reference to an international convention of scientific associa-tions;" and a fund for the purpose has been started.

It has been thought desirable to classify the societies treated of in the present article, under the following head-ings, the first of which includes those of the widest scope, dealing with the whole range of natural history, or with archaeology and literature as well as science:—I. science generally; II. mathematics; III. astronomy; IV. physics; V. chemistry; VI. geology, mineralogy, and palaeontology; VII. meteorology; VIII. microscopy; IX. botany and horticulture; X. zoology; XI. anthropology; XII. sociology (embracing economic science, statistics, law, and educa-tion); XIII. medicine, surgery, &c.; XIV. engineering and architecture; XV. naval and military science; XVI. agri-culture and trades; XVII. literature, archaeology, and history; XVIII. geography.


UNITED KINGDOM.—First in antiquity and dignity among English societies comes the ROYAL SOCIETY (q.v.) of London, which dates from 1660. In 1683 William Molyneux, the author of The Case of Ireland Stated, exerted himself to form a society in Dublin after the pattern of that of London. In consequence of his efforts and labours the Dublin Philosophical Society was established in January 1684, with Sir William Petty as first resident. The members subsequently acquired a botanic garden, a laboratory, and a museum, and placed themselves in communication with the Royal Society of London. Their meetings after 1686 were few and irregular, and came to an end at the commencement of hostilities between James II. andWilliam III. The society was reorganized in 1693 at Trinity College, Dublin, where meetings took place during several years. On 25th June 1731, chiefly owing to the exertions of Dr S. M. Madden, the Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures, and other Useful Arts came into existence. In January 1737 they commenced to publish the Dublin Society’s Weekly Observations, and in 1746 the society was placed on the civil establishment, with an allowance of £500 a year from the Government. A charter of incorporation was granted in 1750, and seven years later the Royal Dublin Society for the first time owned a house of its own, and in the following year began the drawing school, which subse-quently did so much for Irish art. Between 1761 and 1767 Government grants to the amount of £42,000 for promoting national agriculture and manufactures were distributed by the society, which claims to be the oldest scientific body in the United Kingdom after the Royal Society of London. It has published Transactions (1799--1810); and its Proceedings (1764-75; 1848, &c.) and Journal (1858, &c.) are still issued. For the Royal Irish Academy, see ACADEMY.

The Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh was instituted in 1771, and incorporated in 1788 ; it is exclusively devoted to natural his-tory and the physical sciences. With it have been merged many other societies, such as the Chirurgo-Medical in 1796, the American Physical in 1796, the Hibernian Medical in 1799, the Chemical in 1803, the Natural History in 1812 (which brought in Brougham and Mackintosh), and the Didactic in 1813. It issues Proceedings (1858, &c.). From the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh (1739) was developed the Royal Society of Edinburgh, whose charter is dated 29th March 1783. It was to comprise a physical and a literary class ; among the members of the latter were Robertson, Hume, Burke, and Reid, and among those of the former Hutton, Black, Playfair, Dugald Stewart, and Watt. The literary division has been much less productive than the other. A second charter was obtained in 1811. The society has published Transactions (4to, 1788, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1845, &c.).

The Linnean Society for the promotion of zoology and botany ivas founded in 1788 by Dr (afterwards Sir) J. E. Smith, in order to supplement the work of the Royal Society, and obtained a royal charter in 1802. The herbarium and collections of Linnaeus, with the founder’s additions, were purchased after his death. It removed from Sir Joseph Banks’s old house in Soho Square to Bur-lington House (London) in 1857, and assumed the apartments it now occupies in 1873. It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The Journal (8vo, 1857, &c.) and the Transactions (4to, 1791, &c.) are divided into zoological and botanical sections. The Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Commerce, and Manufactures took its origin in 1753 from an academy established in the Strand by the landscape painter William Shipley. Attention was paid to the application of science to practical purposes, a subject passed over by the Royal Society. Exhibitions of pictures by native artists were held, and the first exhibition of the Royal Academy took place in its rooms. A fresh start in a new career was made by the Society of Arts in 1847, when it obtained a charter and the presidency of the Prince Consort. The International Exhibition of 1851 sprang from the smaller exhibitions previously held in its rooms. The East Indian section dates from 1869, the foreign and colonial and the chemical sections from 1874. Its organs have been Transactions (1783-1849) and the Journal (1853, &c.). Sir Joseph Banks, Count Rumford, and other fellows of the Royal Society started the Royal Institution in 1799, when a site was purchased in Albemarle Street for "an establishment in London for diffusing the knowledger of useful mechanical improvements," to "teach the application of science to the useful purposes of life." The institution was incorporated in the following year. One of the most important epochs in the history of chemistry must be dated from the establishment of the laboratory where Davy and Faraday pursued their investigations. Belonging to the institution are foundations for professorships in natural philosophy, chemistry, and physiology. Courses of lectures on special subjects are given as well as discourses (once a week) of a more general and literary character. Its Journal has been issued since 1802. The London Institution was established on a similar basis in 1805 and incorporated in 1807. The building in Finsbury Circus was erected in 1819. The British Association for the Advancement of Science was instituted at York on 27th September 1831 in imita-tion of the itinerant scientific parliament held in Germany since 1822 (already referred to), and arose from a proposal by Sir D. Brewster. A meeting is held annually in one of the chief provincial towns of the United Kingdom. The object of the association is to promote science, to direct general attention to scientific matters, and to facilitate intercourse between scientific workers. Abstracts of the proceedings and reports of committees are published in the annual Report (1833, &c.). The Historical Society of Science (1841) printed a couple of volumes ; and the Ray Society (1844), instituted for the printing of original and scarce old works (38 vols. have appeare ) in zoology and botany, still flourishes. The Royal Colonial Institute was founded in 1868 and incorporated in 1882. It provides a place of meeting for gentlemen connected with the colonies and British India, undertakes investigations into subjects relating to the British empire, has established a museum and library, and gives lectures in its new building in Northumberland Avenue (London). It has published Proceedings since 1870. The Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain, was founded in 1865 to form a connecting bond between men of science and others engaged in investigating important questions of philosophy and science, more especiaily those bearing upon the truths revealed in Holy Scripture. Its organ is the Journal (1867, &c.). The Balloon Society of Great Britain (1880) is not restricted to aero-nautics, but deals with recent discoveries and inventions, and science generally. The foundation in 1821 of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in Scotland, now usually known as the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, for the promotion of the useful arts and such branches of science as bear upon them was due to Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Mackintosh, and others ; it was incorporated in 1841, and has published Transactions since that year.

The leading provincial societies of Great Britain of a general character are as follows. Aberdeen, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1863), Trans.; Phil. Soc. (1840). Alloa, Soc. of Nat. Hist. and Arch. (1863), Proc. (1865, &c.). Banffshire, Field Club and Sc. Soc. (1880), Proc. Bath, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Field Club (1866), Proc. (1867, &c.). Bedfordshire Nat, Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. Belfast, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1821), Proc. (1852, &c.); Naturalists’ Field Club (1863), Proc. (1875, &c.). Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club (1831), Proc. (1834, &c.). Birkenhead, Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1857). Birmingham, Nat. Hist. and Micr. Soc. (1858), Proc. (1869, &c.); Birmingham and Midland Institute Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. of archaeological section (1871, &c.); Phil. Soc. (1876), has a fund for promotion of original research, Proc.; Midland Union of Nat. Hist. Societies (1877), Midland Naturalist. Bolton, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1871). Bradford, Phil. Soc. (1865), with various local societies affiliated to it. Brighton, Brighton and Sussex Nat. Hist. Soc. (1854), Ann. Re-ports (1855, &c.). Bristol, Museum and Library (formed by the amalgamation of the Institution for the Advancement of Sc., Lit. and the Fine Arts with the Lit. Soc., founded 1772); Naturalists’ Soc. (1862), Proc,. (1866, &c.). Burnley, Lit. and Sc. Club (1873), Trans. Burton-on-Trent, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1876). Cambridge, Phil. Soc. (1819 ; incorporated 1832), for the promotion of philosophy and natural science, owns museum and library, Proc. (1865, &c.), Trans. (1821, &c.). Cardiff, Naturalists’ Soc. (1867), Trans. Chester, Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1871), Proc. Cork, Royal Inst. (1807), library; Cuvierian and Arch. Soc. (1836). Cornwall Royal Inst., at Truro (1818), devoted to natural philosophy, natural history, and antiquities, Journal (1864, &c.); Royal Polytechnic Soc., at Falmouth (1833 ; founded by the daughters of R. W. Fox and others), for the encouragement of science and the fine and industrial arts, Trans. (1835, &c.). Cumberland Assoc. for the Advancement of Lit. and Sc. (1876), provides a means of union for the local scientific Societies of Cumberland and Westmoreland, Trans. Derry Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1870). Devonshire Assoc. for the Advancement of Sc. (1862). Dorset Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Club (1875). Dumfriesshire and Galloway Sc., Nat. Hist., and Antiq. Soc. (1876), Trans. Dundee, Natu-ralists’ Soc. (1873). Eastbourne, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &C.). East of Scotland Union of Naturalists’ Societies (1884), Trans. Ebbw Vale, Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1850), owns laboratory. Elgin, Elgin and Morayshire Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1836). Essex Field Club (1880), at Buckhurst Hill, Trans. Exeter, Naturalists’ Club and Arch. Assoc. (1862). Glasgow, Phil. Soc. (1802), Proc. (1844, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc. (1851), Proc. (1868, &c.); Soc. of Field Naturalists (1872), Trans. (1872, &c.). Gloucester, Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1838). Greenock, Phil. Soc. (1861). Hali-fax, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1830), museum and library. Hereford, Woolhope Natu-ralists’ Field Club, Hereford Pomona and Trans. (1866, &c.). Hertfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club, formed in 1879 from the Watford Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. High Wycombe, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1865), Magazine(1866, &c.). Hull, Lit. and Phil. Soc.(1822), Trans. (1824, &c.). Inverness, Sc. Soc. and Field Club (1875). Isle of Wight Phil. and Sc. Soc. (1850). Kent (East) Nat. Hist. Soc., at Canter-bury (1858), Trans. Leeds, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1820); Naturalists’ Club (1870), Trans. Leicester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1837), Trans. Lewes, Lewes and East Sussex Nat. Hist. Soc. (1864). Liverpool, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1812 ; united with Nat. Hist. Soc. in 1844), Proc. (1845, &c.); Philomathic Soc. (1825), Trans.; Polytechnic Soc. (1838), Journal (1838, &c.); Naturalists’ Field Club (1860). Manchester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1781), two sections, one physical and mathematical, the other for microscopy and natural history,—the original statements respecting the atomic theory were given by Dalton in the Memoirs (1789, &c.); Field Naturalists’ and Arch. Soc. (1860), Trans.; Scientific Students Assoc. (1861). Montrose, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1836), museum. Newbury, District Field Club (1870), Trans. (1871, &c.). Newcastle-on-Tyne, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1793), library; Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle Nat. Hist. Soc. (1829), a museum (opened in 1884), Trans. Norfolk, Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists’ Soc. (1869), Trans. (1870, &c.). Nottingham, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1864). Orkney Antiq. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1837), museum. Oxford, Ashmolean Soc. (1828), promotes all branches of practical knowledge. Paisley, Phil. Institution (1808), free library and museum; Mr Coats presented his observatory in 1882. Penzance, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1839), museum, Proc. (1845, &c.). Perth, Lit. and Antiq. Soc. (1784); Perth-shire Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.), The Scottish Naturalist (1870, &c.). Plymouth, Plymouth Inst. and Devon and Cornwall Nat. Hist. Soc. (1812), museum, art gallery, and library. Richmond, Richmond and North Riding Naturalists’ Field Club (1863), Trans. Ripon, Naturalists’ Club and Sc. Assoc. (1882). Scar-borough, Phil. and Arch. Soc. (1831), museum and library. Severn Valley Natu-ralists’ Field Club, at Bridgenorth (1863). Sheffield, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822). Shetland Lit. and Sc. Soc., at Lerwick (1861). Shropshire and North Wales Nat. Hist. and Antig. Soc. (1835), at Shrewsbury. Somersetshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc., at Taunton (1849), Proc. (1851, &c.). Southampton, Hartley Institution (founded under bequest of H. R. Hartley in 1859, incorporated 1862), for the promotion of scientific, antiquarian, and Oriental studies and the fine arts, owns a museum and library. Staffordshire (North) Naturalists’ Field Club and Arch. Soc. (founded as a natural history society in 1865; enlarged 1877), holds movable meetings. Stirling, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1878), Trans. Stock-port, Soc. of Naturalists (1884), Trans. Suffolk Inst. of Arch. and Nat. Hist., at Bury St Edmunds (1848), Proc. (1848, &c.), The East Anglian (1859, &c.). Swansea, Royal Institution (founded 1835; incorporated 1883), with a museum and library, promotes natural history and applied science, literature and fine arts, local history and antiquities. Tamworth, Nat. Hist., Geolog., and Antiq. Soc.(1871). Teign Naturalists’ Field Club (1858). Torquay, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1844), museum and library. Tweedside and Kelso Physical and Antiq. Soc. (1834). Warrington, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (founded in 1870 upon the Micr. Soc.). Warwick-shire Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1836), has a library and geological museum ; Warwickshire Field Club (1854). Whitby, Lit. and Phil. Soc.(1822), owns a museum. Wiltshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc., at Devizes (1853), Wiltshire Magazine (1853, &c.). Windsor, Windsor and Eton Sc. Soc., Trans. Witney, Nat. Hist. and Lit. Soc. (1838). Yorkshire Phil. Soc. (1822), the museum in the grounds of St Mary’s Abbey, York, contains a remarkable collection of Roman remains ; Geolog. and Polytechnic Soc. (1837), quarterly meetings in various Yorkshire towns; Naturalists’ Union of the natural history and scientific societies of the county (founded in 1861 as the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists’ Soc.; reorganized in 1876), the Naturalist (1876, &c.)

AFRICA: Cape Town, South Afr. Phil. Soc., Trans. (1878, &c.); Mauritius, Roy. Soc. of Arts and Sc., Proc. (1846, &c.) and Trans. (1848, &c.). CANADA: Halifax, Nova Scotian Inst., Proc. (1863, &c.; 1867, &c.). Montreal, Nat. Hist. Soc., Canadian Naturalist (1857, &c.). Ottawa, Lit. and Sc.Soc. Toronto, Canadian Inst., Canadian Journal (1852-76), Proc. (1879, &c.). Winnipeg, Hist. and Sc. Soc. WEST INDIES: Kingston, Roy. Soc. of Arts of Jamaica, Trans. (1854, &c.). Port of Spain, Sc. Assoc. of Trinidad, Proc. (1866, &c.). AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND: Adelaide, Phil. Soc., Trans. (1865, &c.); South Australian Inst. (1836), library; Roy. Soc. of S. Australia. Auckland, Auckland Inst. Brisbane, Queenland Phil. Soc. Christchurch, Phil. Inst. Hobart Town, Roy. Soc. of Van Diemen’s Land, Papers (1851, &c.); Roy. Soc. of Tasmania, Monthly Notices (1869, &c.). Mel-bourne, Roy. Phil. Soc. of Victoria, Trans. (1855, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc.; Zoolog. and Acclim. Soc., Proc. (1872). Sydney, Linnean Soc. of N. S. W., Proc. (1876, &c.); Phil. Soc., Trans. (1862, &c.; 1866, &c.); Roy. Soc. of N. S. W., Trans. (1867, &c.). Wellington, New Zealand Inst., Trans. (1869, &c.).

UNITED STATES.—The flrst scientific society in the United States originated from a Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations, issued by Dr Franklin in 1743. In the following year the American Philosophical Society was founded at Philadelphia, with Thomas Hopkinson as president and Franklin as secretary. With it was united on 2d January 1769 another Philadelphia society, The Junto (1758), the records of which have been preserved. The American Philosophical Society is still in vigorous life, and is an exclusively scientific body and the oldest organized society in the United States for the pursuit of philosophical investigation in its broadest sense. It publishes Transactions (4to, 1771, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1840, &c.). Although not a society in the exact sense of the word, the Smithsonian Institution, the most important scientific body in America, must not be overlooked. It was founded at Washington by James Lewis Macie, afterwards called Smithson, a natural son of Hugh Smithson, duke of Northumberland. He died in 1829, leaving by will a sum of money which in 1838 amounted to over half a million dollars, "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The institution was established by Act of Congress in 1838. The endowment has now been increased to half as much again as the original bequest. The National Museum, founded in 1842, the nucleus of which was the natural history collections brought home by the Wilkes and other exploring expeditions, was given into the custody of the Smithsonian Institution in 1858. It has since been largely increased and is now particularly rich in the ethnology, zoology, and mineralogy of the United States. The chief function of the institution is to assist scientific research and to act as an organized centre for the exchange of books and specimens with scientific bodies and individuals throughout the whole world. The Annual Reports date from 1846 (8vo, 1847, &c.), the Smith-sonian Contributions to Knowledge (4to) from 1848, and the Miscellaneous Collec-tions from 1856 (8vo, 1862, &c.). The Proceedings and Bulletin (1875, &c.) of the National Museum are issued under the authority of the Smithsonian Institu-tion, as well as the publications of the Bureau of Ethnology and the Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington. Second in point of date comes the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of Boston, incorporated in 1780 with the object of furthering the study of the antiquities and natural history of the country. Its Memoirs (4to, 1785, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1848, &c.) are still published. The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences was incorporated at New Haven in 1799. At first only devoted to matters connected with the State of Connecticut, it now embraces the whole field of the sciences and useful arts. It has issued Memoirs (1810-16), and now publishes Transactions (1866, &c.). One of the leading societies in the United States, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, founded in 1812 and incorporated in 1817, possesses the best natural history library (35,000 vols.) in the country and one of the largest natural history museums in the world, being especially rich in conchology. It issues a Journal (1817, &c.) and Proceedings (1843, &c.). The American Entomological Society is merged with it. The Franklin Institute of the same city, in-corporated in 1824, possesses a library, gives lectures, and issues a Journal (1826, &c.). The Boston Society of Natural History was founded upon the Linnean Society (1814) in 1830 and incorporated in 1831. It possesses a library and a cabinet of specimens. It published the Boston Journal of Natural History (8vo, 1837-63), followed by Memoirs (4to, 1866, &c.); Proceedings (1844, &c.) are also issued. The Lyceum of Natural History, New York, was incorporated in 1817 and has published Annals from 1823 (1824, &c.) and Proceedings (1870, &c.). In 1876 the name was changed to New York Academy of Sciences. A number of American naturalists and geologists, having held meetings in various cities be-tween 1840 and 1847, resolved themselves at their Boston congress in the latter year into the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which was incorporated in 1874. Its object is "by periodical and migratory meetings to promote intercourse between American scientists." It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The National Academy of Science was incorporated at Washington in 1863 with a view to making the knowledge of specialists available for the service of Government. There are two classes of members, those in mathe-matics and physics and those in natural history. It has issued Annuals (Cambridge, 1865, &c.) and Reports, as well as Memoirs (1866, &c.). The Academies of Sciences at San Francisco (1853), St Louis (1856, incorporated 1857), Chicago (1857, incorporated 1865), and Davenport (1867) deserve special mention.

Among the remaining societies of a general scientific character are—Albany Inst. (1828), Trans. (1830, &c.), Proc. (1870, &c.). Ann Arbor, Sc. Assoc. (1875). Baltimore, Maryland Acad. of Sc. and Lit., Trans. (1837). Buffalo, Sec. of Nat. Sc. (1861), Bulletin (1873, &c.). Charleston, Elliot Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1853), Proc. (1855, &c.), Journal (4to, 1859, &c.). Cincinnati, Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1870), Proc. (1876, &c.). Cleveland, Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1852), Annals and Proc. Dubuque, Iowa Inst. of Sc. and Arts, Trans. Indianapolis, Acad. Of Sc., Trans. (1872, &c.). Madison, Wisconsin Acad. of Sciences, Arts, and Letters (1870), Bulletin (1870, &c.), Trans. (1872, &c.). Minneapolis, Minnesota Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1873), Bulletin. New Orleans, Acad. of Sc. (1853), Proc. Portland (Maine), Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1850), Proc. (1862, &c.). Poughkeepsie, Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1874), Proc. (1874, &c.; 1876, &c.). Rochester, Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1881). Salem (Mass.), Essex County Nat. Hist. Soc. (1833 ; now merged in the Essex Institute), published the American Naturalist (1867-68), afterwards issued by the Peabody Acad. of Science, as well as Proc. (1856, &c.) and Bulletin (1869, &c.). Topeka, Kansas Acad. of Sc. (1867), holds meetings in various cities, Trans. (1872, &c.).

FRANCE.—The Institut de France (see INSTITUTE OF FRANCE), which includes five separate academies, stands at the head of all French societies. The Société Philotechnique, founded in 1795 and recognized as of public usefulness by a de-cree of 11th May 1861, has for its object the encouragement and study of litera-ture, science, and the fine arts. Two public meetings are held annually. The Annuaire (1840, &c.) is its literary organ. The Société d’ Encouragement pour l’Industrie Nationale was founded in 1801 for the amelioration of all branches of French industry, and was recognized by the state in 1824. Prizes and medals are offered. It publishes a Bulletin. The Académie Nationale, Agricole, Manufacturiére, Commerciale was founded by the due de Montmorency in 1830, and also offers prizes and medals, and brings out a Bulletin (1830, &c.). The Association Française pour l’Avancement des Sciences (1871), founded on the model of the British Association, holds migratory meetings and publishes Comptes Rendus. The scientific congresses whose origin was due to the initiation of M. A. de Caumout have been noticed at the beginning of the article.

The departmental societies are very numerous and active. The chief are the following. Abbeville, Soc. d’ Emulation (1797), Mém.(1797,&c.). Agen, Soc. d’ Agr., Sc., et Arts (1784), Recueil (1804, &c.). Aix, Acad. des So., &c. (1829), based on Soc. des Amis de la Sc. (1808), Mém. (1819, &c.). Alais, Soc. Sc. et Litt. (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Amiens, Acad., based on Soc. Litt. (1746), Mém. (1835., &c.); Soc. Linnéenne (1838), Mém. (1866, &c.). Angers, Soc. Acad. de Maine et Loire (1857), Mém. (1857, &c.); Soc. d’Agr., &c. (1818), Mém. (1831, &c.); Soc. Linn. de M. et L. (1852), Annales (1853, &c.). Angoulême, Soc. d’Agr., &c., de la Charente (1803), Annales (1819, &c.). Annecy, Soc. Florimontane. (1851), Annales (1851, &c.) and Rev. Savoisienne (1860, &c.). Apt, Soc. Litt., Sc., et Art. (1863), Annales (1865, &c.). Arras, Acad. (1738), Mém. (1818, &c.) and other publications. Autun, Soc. Éduenne (1836), Mém. (1837, &c.) and other publications. Auxerre, Soc. des Sc. (1847), Bull. (1847, &c.). Bar-le-Duc, Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1870), Mém. (1871, &c.). Beauvais, Soc. Acad. (1847), Mém. (1847, &c.). Besançon, Acad. des Sc., &c. (1752; suppressed in 1793; re-established 1805), Séanca publ. (1806, &c.); Soc. d’ Émulation (1840), Mém. (1841, &c.). Béziers, Soc. Arch., Sc., &c. (1834). Bull. (1836, &c.). Blois, Soc. des Sc. et Lettres de Loir-et-Cher (1832), Mém. (1833, &c.). Bordeaux, Acad. (1712 ; suppressed 1793; re-established 1816), Actes (1839, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1818), Bull. (l826-29) and Actes (1838, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (l850), Mém. (1855, &c.). Boulogne, Soc. Acad. (1863), Mém. (1864, &c.). Bourg, Soc. d’Émulation (1783), Comptes R. (1802-22) and Annales (1868, &c.). Bourges, Soc. Hist., &c., du Cher (1849) Mém. (1857, &c.). Caen, Acad. Nat. (1652), Mém. (1754-60 and 1822, &c.); Soc. Linn. (I823), Mém. (1824, &c.), and Bull. (1855, &c.). Cambrai, Soc. d’Émulation (1804), Mém (1808 &c.). Cannes, Soc. des Sc. (1868), Mém. (1869, &c.). Charabéry, Acad. (1819), Mém. (1825, &c.). Châteaudun, Soc. Dunoise (1864), Bull. (1864, &c.). Cherbourg, Soc. Acad.(1755), Mém. (1833,&c.); Soc. Nat. (1851),Mém.(1852,&c.). Clermont-Ferrand, Acad. (1747), Annales (1828, &c.) and Mém.(1859,&c.). Dijon, Acad.(1740; suppressed l793; re-established 1800), Mém. (1769, &c.). Douai, Soc. d’Agr., &c., du Dép. du Nord (1799), Mém. (1826 &c.). Draguinan, Soc. d’Études Sc. (1855), Bull. (1856, &c.). Dunkirk, Soc. Dunkerquoise, (1851), Mém (1853, &c.). Épinal, Soc. d’Émulation (1825), Annales 1831, &c.). Evreux, Soc. Libre d’Agr., &c. (1807), Recueil (1810, &c.). Grenoble, Acad. Delphinale (1789), based on Soc. Litt. (1772), Bull. (1846, &c.). Laon, Soc. Acad. (1850), Bull. (1852, &c.). La Rochelle, Acad. (1732; suppressed 1791; reconstituted in 1803 as Lycée Rochelais and in 1853 under its former name), Annales (1854, &c.). Le Havre, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Le Mans, Soc. d’Agr., &c., de la Sarthe (founded in 1761 ; reorganized on several occa-sions, and finally in 1839), Bull. (1833, &c.). Le Puy, Soc. d’Agr., Sc., &c. (1819), Annales (1826, &c.) and Bull. (1836, &c.). Lille, Soc. des Sc., &c. (founded 1802 as Soc. d’Amateurs), Mém. (1819, &c.). Limoges, Soc. d’Agr., Sc., &c., de, la Haute- Vieunne (1759), Bull. (1822, &c.). Lons-le-Saunier, Soc.d’Émulation du Jura (1817), Mém. (1818, &c.). Lyons, Acad. (1700), Mém. (1845, &c.); Soc. d’Agr., Hist. Nat., &c. (1761) Comptes R. (1806, &c.) and Mém. (1838, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1822), Annales (1836, &c.). Mâcon, Acad. (1805), Comptes R. (1818-47) and Annales (1853, &c.). Marseilles, Acad. (1726; in 1766 called Soc. des Sciences; suppressed in 1793; reorganized in 1799, and finally in 1802), Recueil (1727-86) and Mém. (1803, &c.). Meaux, Soc. Libre d’Agr., Sc., &c. (1798; reorganized in 1820), Publ. (1833, &c.). Mende, Soc. d’Agr., &c., du Dép. de la Lozère (1819), Mém. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1850, &c.). Montbéliard, Soc. d’Ém. (1852), Mém. (l852, &c.). Montpellier, Acad. (founded in 1706 as Soc. Royale; suppressed in 1793; finally reorganized in 1846), Mém. (1846, &c.); Soc. d’Horticult., &c., de l’Hérault (1860), Annales (1860, &c.). Moulins, Soc. d’Ém. De l’Allier (1846), Mém. et Bull. (1850, &c.). Nancy, Acad. de Stanislas (1750), Mém. (1754, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1873), founded on Soc. des Sc. Nat. de Strasbourg (1828), Mém. (1830, &c.) and Bull. (1866, &c.). Nantes, Soc. Acad. de la Loire Inf. (1848), founded in 1798 as Institut Départmental, Annales (1830,&c.). Nevers, Soc. Niveranise (1851), Bull. (1851,&c.). Nice, Soc. des Lettres, &c., des Alpes-Marit. (1861), Annales (1865, &c.). Nîmes, Acad. du Gard (1682), Mém. Niort, Soc. de Statist. Sc., &c., des Deux-Sèvres (1836), Mém. (1836, &c.) and Bull. (1852, &c.). Orleans, Acad de Sainte-Croix (1863), Lect. Et Mém.(1865,&c.); Soc. d’Agr., Sc., &c. (1809), Bull. (1810-13), Ann. (1818-37), and Mém. (1837, &c.). Pau, Soc. des Sc., Lettres, &c. (1841), Bull. (1841, &c.). Périgueux, Soc. d’Agr., Sc., &c., de la Dordogne (1820), Annales (1840, &c.). Perpignan, Soc. Agr., &c., et Litt. des Pyrénées-Or. (1833), Bull. (1834, &c.). Poitiers, Soc. d’Agr., Belles-Lettre, &c. (1789), Bull. (1818, &c.). Privas, Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Hist. (1861), Bull. (1861, &c.). Rheims, Acad. Nat. (1841), Séances (1844, &c.). Rochefort, Soc. d’Agr., Belles-Lett, &c. (1806), Travaux (1854, &c.). Rodez, Soc. des Lettres, Sc., &c., de l’Aveyron (1836), Mém. (1838, &c.) and Procès- Verb. (1864, &c.). Rouen, Acad. (1744), Précis Analyt. (1744, &c.); Soc. des Amis des Sc. Nat. (1864), Bull. (1865, &c.). Saint-Brieuc, Soc. d’Ém., Bull. et Mém. (1861, &c.). Saint-Etienne, Soc. d’Agr., &c., de la Loire (1856), Bull. Saint-Jean d’Angély, Soc. Hist. et Sc.(1863), Bull. (1863, &c.). Saint-Quentin, Soc. Acad.(1825), Mém.(1830,&c.). Semur, Soc. des Sc. Hist. et Nat. (1842), Bull. (1864, &c.). Soissons, Soc. Arch., Hist., et Sc. (1846), Mém. (1847, &c.). Tarbes, Soc. Acad. des Hautes-Pyrénées (1853), Bull. (1854, &c.). Toulon, Soc. Acad. du Var (1811), Mém. (1832, &c.). Toulouse, Acad. (founded in 1640; known to 1704 as Soc. des Lanternistes and by other names to 1807, when present title was acquired), Hist. et. Mém (1782-90) and Mém. (1827, &c.); Soc. d’Hist. Nat. (1866), Bull. (1867, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1872), Bull. (1872, &c.). Tours, Soc. d’Agr., &c., d’Indre-et-Loire (founded in 1761 as Soc. Roy. D’Agr.), Recueil (1763 and 1803-10) and Annales(1821, &c.). Troyes, Soc. Acad., based on Soc. Acad. de l’Aube (1801), Mém. (1801, &c.). Valenciennes, Soc. d’Agr., Sc., et Arts (1831), Mém. (1833, &c.; 1865, &c.) and Revue Agricole (1849, &c.) Vannes, Soc. Polymathique du Morbihan (1826), Comptes R. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1857 &c.). Vendôme, Soc. Arch., Sc., et Litt. (1862) Bull. (1862, &c.). Verdun, Soc. Philomath. (1822), Mém. (1840). Versailles, Soc. d’Agr. et des Arts (1798), Mém. (1799-1864) and Bull. (1866, &c.); Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Méd. (1832), Mém. (1835, &c.). Vesoul, Soc. d’Agr., &c., de la Haute-Saône (1801; reorganized in 1819 and 1832), Recueil Agronom. (1836, &c.), Mém. (1859, &c.), and Bull. (1869, &c.). Vitry-le-François, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1861), Bull. (1867, &c.).

GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Agram, Jugo-slavenska Akademija or South Slav. Acad. (1866), various publications. Altenburg, Naturforsch. Ges. d. Osterlandcs (1817), Mittheil. Augsburg, Naturforsch. Ver. (1842, Ber. (1848, &c.). Bamberg, Naturforsch. Ges. (1834), Ber. (1852, &c.). Berlin, Ges. naturf. Freunde (1773), Sitzungsber. (1862, &c.). Blankenburg, Naturwiss. Ver. des Harzes (1831), Ber. (1841, &c.). Bonn, Naturh.- Verein (1843), Verhandl. (1844, &c.); Görres Ges. (1876), Hist. Jahrbüch. (1880, &c.); Niederrhein. Ges. (1818; reorganized 1839). Bremen, Naturwiss. Ver. (1864), Abhandl. (1868, &c.). Breslau, Schles. Ges. f. vaterl. Kultur (1803), Jahresber. (1804, &c.). Brünn, K. k. Mähr-Schles. Ges., Mittheil. (1821, &c.). Cassel, Ver. f. Naturkunde, Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Colmar, Soc. d’Hist. Nat. (1859), Bull. (1860, &c.). Cracow, Towarzystwo Naukowe, afterwards Akademija Umiejetnosci or Acad. of Science, many publications. Dantzic, Naturforsch. Ges., Versuche (1745-57)and Schriften (1820, &c.); Bot.-Zoolog. Ver. (1878). Donaueschingen, Ver. f. Gesch. u. Naturgesch. (1801), Schriften. Dresden, Naturwiss. Ges. Isis (1833), Sitzungsber. (1861, &c.); Ges, f. Natur- u. Heil-Kunde (1818), Jahresber. (1848, &c.); Ges.f. Botanik u. Zoologie, Nunquam Otiosus (1870, &c.). Dürkheim, Pollichia, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1843, &c.). Elberfeld, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1851, &c.). Emden, Naturforsch. Ges. (1814), Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Frankfort, Seckenbergische naturforch. Ges., Museum (1834-35) and Abhandl. (1854, &c.). Freiburg (in Baden), Naturforsch. Ges. (1821), Ber. (1858, &c.). Fulda, Ver. f. Naturkunde (1865), Ber. (1870, &c.). Giessen, Oberhess. Ges. f. Natur-und Hail-Kunde, Ber. (1847, &c.). Görlitz, Oberlausitzer Ges. d. Wiss. (1779), Magazin; Naturforsch. Ges., Abhandl. (1827, &c.). Görz, Soc. Imp. Reale, Mem. Göttingen, K. Ges. d. Wissensch., Anzeiger (1739, &c.), Abhandl. (1845, &c.), and Nachr. (1845, &c.). Gratz Naturwiss. Ver., Mittheil. (1863, &c.). Greifswald, Naturwiss.Ver.von.Neu-Vorpommern, Mittheil. (1869, &c.). Halle, Naturf. Ges. (1779), Abhandl. (1853, &c.). Naturwiss. Ver., Zeitschrift (l853, &c.). Hamburg, Naturwiss.Ver., Abhandl.(1846, &c.). Hanau, Wetterauiscke Ges. (1808), Jahresber. (1852, &c.). Heidelberg Naturhist-Med. Ver., Verhandl. (1857, &c.). Hermannstadt, Siebenbürgisch. med. Ver. f. Natur-wiss., Verhandl. (1849, &c.). Innsbruck, Ferdinandeum, Beiträge (1825-34) and Neue Zeitschrift (1835, &c.). Jena, K. Leopold.-Carol. Akad., Athenaeum, (1875, &c.); K. Leopold.-Carol. D. Akad. d. Naturf., Leopoldina (1859, &c.); Med-naturwiss. Ges., Jen. Zeitschr. (1864, &c.). Karlsruhe, Naturwiss. Ver., Verhandl. (1864, &c.). Klausenburg, Siebenbürg. Museum, Annalen. Leipsic, K. Sächs. Ges. d. Wiss., Ber. (1846, &c.) and Abhandl. (1850, &c.). Lemberg, Ges. v. Galizien, Ber. Lüneburg,m Naturwiss.Ver., Jahresber. (1852, &c.). Magdeburg, Naturwiss. Ver., Abhandl.(1869, &c.). Mainz, Rhein. naturforsch. Ges. (1834). Mannheim, Ver. f. Naturk., Jahresber. (1834, &c.). Marburg, Ges. f. d. Gesch. Naturwiss., Schriften (1823, &c.) and Sitzungsber. (1866. &c.).Meissen, Ver. f. Erdk. Isis (1845). Metz, Acad., based on Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1819), Mém. (1828, &.c.); Soc. d’Hist. Nat., Mém. (1843) and Bull. (1844, &c.). Nuremberg, Naturhist. Ges. (1801), Abhandl. (1852, &c.) ; German. Museum, Jahraber. (1854, &c.) and Anzeig. (1853, &c.). Pesth, Magyar Tudomànyos Akademia or Hung. Acad. of Sciences. many publications; Kiràlyri Magyar Természett. Tàrsalat or R. Hung. Soc. of Nat. Sciences, many publications. Prague, K. Böhm. Ges., Abhandl. (1785, &c.) and Sitzungsber. (1859, &c.); Naturhist. Ver. Lotos, Lotos (1851, &c.). Pressbur-g, Ver. f. Naturk., Verhandl. (1856, &c.). Ratisbon, Zoolog-mineralog. Ver. (1846: since 1883 called Naturwiss. Ver.), Abhandl. (1849, &c.). Reichenbach (Voigtland, Saxony), Ver. f. Naturk. (1859), Mittheil. Roveredo, Imp. Accad. (1750), Atti (1826, &c.). Strasburg, Soc. des Sc. Agr. et Arts (1802), Mém. (1811, &c.) and Bull. (1843, &c.). Stuttgart, Ver. f. vaterl. Naturk. (1822), Jahresber. (1850, &c.). Thorn, Copernicus Ver. (1839). Trieste, Soc. Adriatica, Boll. Ulm, Ver. f. Mathem. u. Naturwiss., Verhandl. Vienna, K. Akad. d. Wiss., Denkschrifte. (1850, &c.), and Sitzungsber. (1848, &c.); K. k. Zoolog.-Bot. Ges., Verhandl. (1851, &c.); Verein z. Verb. Naturwiss. Kentnisse, Schriften (1862, &c.). Wiesbaden, NassauischerVer. f. Naturk. (1829), Jahrbücher (1844, &c.). Zweibrücken, Naturhist. Ver. (1863), Jahresber. (1864, &c.).

SWITZERLAND: Basel, Naturforsch. Ges., Ber. (1835, &c.) and Verhandl. (1857, &c.). Bern, Naturforsch. Ges., Mittheil. (1844, &c.). Chur, Naturforsch. Ges., Jahresber. (1856, &c.). Geneva, Soc. de Phys. et d’Hist. Nat., Mém. (1821, &c.); Inst. des Sc., des Lettres, &c., Mém. and Bull. Lausanne, Soc. Vaudoise des Sc. Nat., Bull. (1842, &c.). Neuchâtel, Soc. des So. Nat., M6,u. (1835, &c.) and Bull. (1844, &c.). St Gall, Natumiss. Ges., Ber. (1860, &c.). Solothurn, Naturhist. Kantonal-Ges., Jahresber. (1825, &c.). Zurich, Naturforsch. Ges., Abhandl. (1761-66), Mittheil. (1846, &c.), and Vierteljahrschr. (1856, &c.); Allg. Schweizer. Ges. f. d. Naturwiss., Verhandl., Anzeiger, and Denkschr. (1829, &c.).

ITALY: Congresso degli Scienziati Italiani, Atti (1844-45); Riunione degli Sc. Ital., Atti (1839-47; 1873, &c.). Bologna, Accad. delle Sc. Dell’ Istit. di Bologna, Rendic. (1833, &c.), and Mem. (1850, &c.). Brescia, Accad., afterwards Ateneo, Comment. (1808, &c.). Catania, Accad. Gioenia di Sc. Nat., Atti (1825, &c.). Florence, R. Museo di Fis. e. Stor. Nat., Annali (1808, &c.). Lucca, R. Accad. Lucchese, Atti (1821, &c.). Messina, R. Accad. Peloritana. Milan, Accad. Fis. Med. Statist., Diario ed Atti (1846, &c.); R. Istit. Lombardo, Mem. (1819, &c.), Giornale (1840, &c.), Atti (1860, &c.), and Rendic. (1864, &c.); Soc,. Ital. delle Sc. Nat., Atti (1860,,&c.) and Mem (1865, &c.). Modena, R. Accad. di Sc., &c., Mem. (1833, &c.); Soc. Ital.delle Sc.,.Mem.(1782, &c.). Naples, R. Istit. d’ Incoragg, alle Sc. Nat., Atti (1811, &c.). Padua, R. Accad. di Sc., Lett., ed Arti, Saggi (1786, &c.) and Revista (1851, &c.). Venice, R. Istit. Veneto di Sc., &c., Atti (1841, &c.) and Mem. (1843, &c.)

BELGIUM: Brussels, Acad. Roy. des Sc., des Lettres, et des Beaux Arts (founded by Maria Theresa in 1772; reorganized in 1845), Mém. (1818, &c.), Bull. (1832, &c.), and Annuaire (1835, &c.); Soc. Roy. des Sc. Nat. et Méd. (1822), Journ. de Méd. (1843) and Journ. de Pharm. (1845, &c.); Soc. Boy. Linn. (1835), Bull. (1872, &c.). Liége, Soc. Roy. des Sc. (1835), Mém. (1843, &c.). Mons, Soc. Prov. des Sc., &c., du Hainaut (1833), Mém. (1839, &c.).

HOLLAND: Amsterdam, K. Nederlandsch Instituut, Proc.-Verb. (1808, &c.), Verhandel. (1812, &c.), Tijdschrift (1847); Genootschap ter Beford. der Natuur-, &c., Kunde, Maanblad (1807, &c.) and Werken (1870, &c.); Hollandsche. Maatschappij, Werken, (1810, &c.); K. Akad. van Wetensch., Verslagen (1853, &c.), Verhandel. (1854, &c.), and Jaarboek (1857, &c.). Arnheim, Natuurkundig Genoot-schap, Tijdschrift (1844, &c.). Bois-le-Duc, Provinc. Genootschap, Handelingen (1837, &c.). Groningen, Natuurk. Genootschap, Versl. (1862, &c.). Haarlem, Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetensch., Verhandel. (1754, &c.). The Hague, K. Zoolog.-Botanisch, Genootschap, Versl. (1864, &c.). Luxembourg, Soc. des Sc. Nat., Publ. (1853, &c.). Middelburg, Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetensch., Ver-handel. (1769, &c.) and Archief (1856, &c.). Utrecht, Provinc. Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetensch., Verhandel. (1781, &c.) and Aanteekeningen (1845, &c.).

BATAVIA: Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetensch., Verhandel. (1779, &c.), Tijdschrift (1852, &c.), and Notulen. (1864, &c.); Natuurk. Vereeniging in Nederl. Indië, Tijdschrift (1850, &c.) and Verhandel. (1856, &c.).

DENMARK: Copenhagen, K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, based on Kjöbenhavnske Selskab (1743-1813), Skrifter (1781, &c.) and Afhandlinger (1824, &c.); Naturhist. Forening, Meddeldser (1849, &c.).

SWEDEN: Gottenburg, K. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Samhälle, Handlingar (1778, &c.). Stockholm, K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademi, Handlingar (1740, &c.) and Arberättelser (1820, &c.). Upsala, K. Vetenskaps Societeten, Acta (1720, &c.).

NORWAY: Christiania, Physiographiske Forening, Mag. for Natur-Vidensk. (1832, &c.); Videnskabs-Selskabet, Forhandl. (1859, &c.). Throndhjem, K. Norske Vidensk.-Selskab, Skrifter (1817, &c.).

SPAIN: Madrid, R. Acad. de Cien. Exactas, Fis., y Nat., Mem. (1850, &c.); Soc. Españ. de Hist. Nat., Anales (1872, &c.). San Fernando, R. Acad., Mem.

RUSSIA: Siezd Russkikh Yestestvoispytately (Meeting of Russ. Naturalists), first meeting at St Petersburg 1867-68, Trudy or Trans. (4to, 1868, &c.). Dorpat, Naturforsch. Ges., Sitzungsber. (1853, &c.) and Archiv (1854, &c.); Gelehrte Estnische Ges., Verhandl. (1846, &c.), Schriften (1863, &c.), and Sitzungsber. (1866, &c.). Helsingfors, Soc. Scient. Fennica, Acta (1842, &c.). Kaminietz, Naturforsch. Ges. Kazan, Soc. of Naturalists at University, Protokoly (1870, &c.) and Trudy (1872, &c.). Kharkoff, Soc. of Scientists at Univ., Trudy (1870, &c.) and Protokoly (1870, &c.). Kieff, Soc. of Naturalists, Zopiski. Moscow, Imp. Soc. of the Friends of Nat. Hist., Anthrop., &c., Izviestiya or Bull. (1865, &c.); Soc. Imp. des Natura-listes, Mém. (4to, 1806) and Bull. (8vo, 1829, &c.). Odessa, Soc. of Naturalists of New Russia, Zapiski (1872, &c.) and Protokoly (1874, &c.). Riga, Naturforsch.-Ver., Corr.-Blatt (1846, &c.) and Arbeiten (1865, &c.). St Petersburg, Soc. of Naturalists, Trudy (1870, &c.). Warsaw, Soc. of Friends of Sc., Roczniki (1802-28).

ROUMANIA: Bucharest, Soc. Acad. Rom_n_, Annalile (1867, &c.).

CENTRAL and SOUTH AMERICA: Bogotá, Soc. de Naturalistas Neo-Granadinos, Contribuciones (1860, &c.). Buenos Ayres, Soc. Cientifica Argentina. Caracas, Soc. de Ciencias, Boletin (1868, &c.). Cordova, Acad. Nacion., Bol. (1874, &c.). Guatemala, Instit. Nac. Havana, Acad. de Cien., Anales (1864, &c.). Mexico, Soc.Méx.de Hist. Nat., LaNaturaleza (1869, &c.). Rio de Janeiro, Palestra Cient., Archivos (1858, &c.). Santiago, Soc. de Hist. Nat.


Many of the general scientific societies (see class 1.) have mathematical and other special sections. Among defunct English societies may be mentioned the Mathematical Society, which used to meet in Spitalfields (1717-1845) and possessed a library, and the Cambridge Analytical Society, which published Memoirs (4to, 1813). The London Mathematical Society, Proc. (1865, &c.), and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (1883), Proc. (1883, &c.), are still flourishing.

FRANCE: Paris, Soc. Mathém. de France (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). GERMANY: Berlin, Mathem. Ver. der Univ. (1861), Ber. (1876, &c.). Cassel, Geometer-Ver. (1878). Dresden, Ver. praktisch. Geometer (1854), Jahresber. (1861, &c.). Essen, Feldmesser-Ver. (1869). Frankfort, Phys. Ver. (1824). Göttingen, Mathemat. Ver. (1868). Hamburg, Mathemat. Ges. (1690), Mittheil. Königsberg, Geometer-Ver. (1872). Strasburg, Geometer-Ver. (1881). Stuttgart, Deutscher Geometer-Ver., Zeitschrift (1872, &c.). HOLLAND: Amsterdam, Genootschap der Mathemat. Wetensch. Kunstoeffnengen (1762-88), Mengelwerken (1793-1816), and Archief (1856, &c.). SPAIN: Valladolid, R. Acad. de Matematicas (1803, &c.), now dissolved. RUSSIA: Moscow, Mathemat. Soc. JAPAN: Mathemat. Soc. of Tokio, Journal (1878, &c.).


Astronomical observatories and their publications have been already treated and enumerated in the article OBSERVATORY. The Royal Astronomical Society was founded in 1820 under the title of Astronomical Society of London, and was incorporated on 7th March 1831. It occupies rooms in Burlington House, and has published Memoirs (1822, &c.) and Monthly Notices (1831, &c.). There are also societies at Bristol (1869), Reports; Liverpool (1881); and Leipsic, Astronomische Ges. (1863), Publ. (1865, &c.) and Vierteljahrsschrift (1866, &c.).


The Physical society of London was founded in 1874 and registered under the Companies Act; it has published Proceedings (1874, &c.). The London Electrical Society (1836), did useful work in its Transactions (1837-40, vol. 1.) and Proceedings (1841- 43). Sir W. Siemens was one of the originators of the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians, which was founded in 1871 and registered in 1883. It owns the Ronalds library of electricity and magnetism and publishes a Journal.

UNITED STATES: Chicago, Amer. Electrical Soc., Journ. (1875). New York, National Telegr. Union, Telegrapher (1864-70). FRANCE: Carnbrai, Soc. Magnitique, Archives (1845). Paris, Soc. Franç. de Phys. (recognized as of public utility on 15th January 1881), Bull. GERMANY: Berlin, Physikalische Ges. (1843), Fortschritte, der Physik (1847, &c.); Elektrotechnisch. Ver. (1877), Ztschr. (1880, &c.). Breslau, Physikalischer Ver. Frankfort, Physikalischer Ver., Jahresber. ITALY: Naples, R. Accad. delle, Sc. Fis. e Matem., Rendic. (1856, &c.) and Atti (1863). Rome, Soc. degli Spettroscopisti Ital. HOLLAND: Rotterdam, Bataafsch. Genootschap van Proefondervindelijke Wijsbegeerte, Verhandel. (1774, &c.).


Pharmaceutical societies are placed in class xiii. (Medicine, &c.). The Chemical Society of London for the promotion of chemistry and the sciences immediately connected with it was instituted on 23d February 1841; a charter of incorporation was obtained in 1848. It publishes Memoirs (1843, &c.) and Quarterly Journal (1849, &c.). Cheinistry and its connexion with the arts, and agricultural and technical matters, form the subjects of the Institute of Chemistry, founded on 2d September 1877 and incorporated on 2d October 1877. The Society of Chemical Industry (1881) is specially devoted to the branch of chemical engineers. The Society of Public Analysts publishes the Analyst (1876, &c.). The oldest of the numerous photographic societies is the Photographic Society of Great Britain (1853), which issues a Journal. The Royal College of Chemistry was founded in July 1845, and had a brief career; it published Reports (1849). The Cavendish Society was instituted in 1846 for the publica-tion and translation of works and papers on chemistry. It came to an end in 1872 after having issued 30 vols.

UNITED STATES: New York, American Chemical Soc. (1876), Proc. (1876) and Journ. (1879, &c.). FRANCE: Paris, Soc. Chimique, Bull. (1858, &c.). GERMANY: Berlin, Deutsche Chemische Ges. (1867), Ber. (1868, &c.). Frankfort, Chem. Ges. Jena, Chem. Laborat. Würzburg, Chemische Ges. (1872). BOHEMIA: Prague, Spolek Chemiku Cesk_ck or Soc. of Bohemian Chemists, Zpravy or Trans. (1872, &c.). RUSSIA: St Petersburg, Russ. Chem. and Phys. Soc. at Univ., Journal (1869, &c.).


Among these the Geological Society of London, founded in 1807 and incorporated in 1826, is the largest and most important; it has published Proceedings (1834-46), Transactions (1811, &c.), and a Quarterly Journal (1845, &c.). The Geologists’ Association was instituted in 1858, and issues Proceedings (1859, &c.). The Mineralogical Society (1876) has united with it the Crystallogical Society; it issues the Mineralogical Magazine (1876, &c.). The Palaeontographical Society was founded in 1847 for the delineation and description of British fossils; it issues Publications (39 vols. 4to, 1847, &c.). The Cornwall Royal Geological Society (1814) devotes special attention to the mining interests of the county, and publishes Transactions (1818, &c.). It holds its meetings at Penzance. In Scotland there are the Geological Society of Edinburgh (1834), which has Transactions (1870, &e.), and the Glasgow Geological Society (1858), which also has Transactions (1860, &c.). The Royal Geological Society of Ireland (1832) is chiefly directed to the geology of the country. It publishes a Journal (1837, &c.). There are also the Geological Associations of Leeds (1874) and Liverpool (1880), Trans., the Societies of Liverpool (1859), Proc., Manchester (1838), Trans., and Norwich (1864), Proc., and the Yorkshire Geological and Technological Society, Proc. (1839, &c.).

UNITED STATES: Louisville, Ky., Ohio Falls Geolog. Soc. San Francisco, California State Geolog. Soc. (1876). FRANCE: Lille, Soc. Géol. du Nord (1870), Annales (1874, &c.). Havre, Soc. Géol. de Normandie, Bull. (1873, &c.). Paris, Soc. Géol. de France (1830, recognized 1832), awards the Prix Viquesnel (£40) every three years, Bull. (1830, &c.) and Mém. (1833, &c.); Soc. Franç. de,.Minéralogie (recognized 1886), formerly Soc. Minéral. de France, Bull. Saint-Etienne, Soc. d’Ind. Minérale (1855), Bull. (1855, &c.). GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Berlin, Deutsche Geol. Ges (1848), Ztschr. (1849, &c.). Brünn, Wernerscher Geol. Ver., Jahresber. Darmstadt, Mittelrheinischer Geol. Ver. (1851), Mittheil (1855, &c.). Dresden, Gebirgs-Ver. (1855). Pesth, Geol. Ver. f. Ungarn. SWITZERLAND: Schweizerische Geol. Ges. (1882), section of Allg. Schw. Ges. Znrich, Sckweiz. Paläontol. Ges. (1874), Abhandl. (1875, &c.). ITALY: Soc. Geol. Ital., founded at the second International Geological Congress. BELGIUM: Antwerp, Soc. Paléontol. (1857), Bull. Charleroi, Soc. Paléontol. (1863), Documents et Rapports, (1866, &c.). Liége, Soc. Géol. de Belgique, Annales (1874, &c.). SWEDEN: Stock-holm, Geologiska. Förening, Förhandlingar (1872, &c.). RUSSIA: St Peterburg, Imp. Russian Mineralog. Soc., Trans. (1830, &c.). ARGENTINE REPUBLIC: Buenos Ayres, Soc. Paleontol.


The International Meteorological Congress first met at Vienna in 1873. The Royal Meteorological Society (1850) of London was incorporated in 1866 ; its organ is Quarterly Journal (1873, &c.). To this must be added the British Rainfall Society and the Scottish Meteorological Society, which holds its meetings at Edinburgh and issues a Journal (1866, &c.). Port Louis (Mauritius), Meteorolog. Soc., Trans. (1853, &c.). Paris, Soc. Météorolog. de France, Annuaire (1849, &c.) and Nouvelles Météorolog. (1868, &c.). Hamburg, Deutsche Météorolog. Ges. (1883), Ztschr. Magdeburg, Ver. f. landwirthsch. Wetterkunde (1881). Meissen, Gesellsch. Isis. Vienna, Oesterreich. Ges. f. Meteorol., Zeitschrift (1866, &c.). Modena, Soc. Meteorolog. Ital.


The Royal Microscopical Society (1839, incorporated 1866), with Transactions (1842-68) and Journal (1869, &c.); the Quekett Microscopical Club (1865), with a Journal (1868, &c.); and the Postal Microscopic Society (1873), also with a Journal, are located in London. There are suburban societies at Ealing (1871), Hackney (1877), Highbury (1878), South London (1871), and Sydenham (1871). Amongst those in the provinces may be mentioned the ones at Bath (1859), Birmingham (1880), Bolton (1877), Bradford (1882), Bristol (1843), Carlisle, Chichester (Trans.), Croydon (1870, Trans.), Dublin (1840), East Kent (1858), Liverpool (1868, Trans.), Manchester (1880), New Cross (1872) and Sheffield (1877). In the United States the State Microscop. Soc. Illinois publishes the Lens (1872, &c.); Buffalo, Amer. Soc. of Microscopists; New York, Microscop. Soc. Brussels, Soc. Belge de Micro-scop. (1875), Proc.-Verb. (1875, &c.) and Annales (1876, &c.). Berlin, Ges. f. Mikroskop. (1877), Ztschr. (1878, &c.). Hanover, Ges. f. Mikroskop. (1879), Jahresber.


Linnaean societies, which usually deal with both zoology and botany, are placed in the general class (No. i.). The Congrés International d’Horticulture first met at Brussels in 1864 and the Congrés International de Botanique at Amsterdam in 1865. The Royal Botanic Society of London (incorporated 1839) has gardens in the inner circle of Regent’s Park, and issues a Quarterly Record (1880, &c.). The Royal Horticultural Society (established in 1804, incorporated in 1809) has gardens at Chiswick, and publishes a Journal (1846, &e.). The chief pro-vincial societies are—Aberdeen, North of Scotl. Hortic. Assoc. (1879), Trans. Ar-broath, Hortic. Assoc. (1880). Birmingham, Bot. and Hortic. Soc. (1830), gardens. Dublin, Roy. Hortic. Soc. (1830). Edinburgh, Bot. Soc. (1836), Proc. (1837, &c.) and Trans. (1844, &c.); Scottish Arboric. Soc. (1854), Trans.; Cryptogamic Soc. of Scotl. (1875). CANADA: Kingston, Bot. Soc. of Canada (1860), Annals (1861, &c.).

UNITED STATES: Boston, Hortic. Soc. (1829). New York, Torrey Botanical Club, Bull. (1870, &c.). San Francisco, State, Hortic. Soc. FRANCE: Beauvais, Soc. d’Hortic. et de Bot. (1864), Bull. (1864, &c.). Bordeaux, Soc. d’Hortic. Chartres, Soc. d’Hortic. et de Viticulture. Chauny, Soc. de Pomologie. Dijon, Soc. d’Hortic. Fontenay-le-Comte, Soc. d’Hortic. Lisieux, Soc. d’Hortic, et de Bot. (1866), Bull. (1866, &c.). Lyons, Soc. d’Hortic. Pratique. (1844), Bull. (1844, &c.); Soc. Bot. (1872), Annales (1872, &c.); Soc. Pomologique (1872), Bull. (1872, &c.). Moulins, Soc. d’Hortic. Nîmes, Soc. d’Hortic. Niort, Soc. d’Hortic. Orleans, Soc.d’Hortic (1839), Bull. (1841, &c.). Paris, Soc. Nat. d’Hortic. (1827; declared of public utility 1852), Journal; Soc. Bot. de Franee, Bull. (1854, &c.). Rouen, Soc. Centr. d’Hortic. Saint Germain-en-Laye, Soc. d’Hortic. Senlis, Soc. d’Hortic. Troyes, Soc. d’Hortic. Versailles, Soc. d’Hortic. GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Berlin, Bot. Ver. (1859), Verhandl. (1859, &c.); Deutsche Bot. Ges. (1882); Horticult. Ges. Blankenburg, Bot. Ver. Bonn, Bot. Ver. (1818), Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Dresden, Flora-Ges. f. Bot., Mittheil. (1841, &c.). Erfurt, Gartenbau Ver. Frankfort, Gartenbau Ges. Freiburg, Bot. Ver. Görlitz, Gartenbau Ver. Gotha, Thüringer Gartenbau Ver. Klagenfurt, Kärntnerische Gartenbau Ges. Landshut, Bot. Ver. (1864). Meiningen, Ver. f. Pomologieu. Gartenbau. Munich, Baierische Gartenbau Ges. Ratisbon, K. Baierische Bot. Ges. (1790), Flora (1818, &c.) and Repertorium (1864, &c.). Reutlingen, Pomolog. Inst. Sondershausen, Bot. Ver. Stuttgart, Gartenbau Ges., Flora. Vienna, K. k. Gartenbau Ges.; Botan. Ver., Verhandl. (1851, &c.). Weimar, Ver. f. Blumistik. Würzburg, Bot. Inst., Arbeiten (1871, &c.). ITALY: Milan, Soc. Crittog. Ital., Atti (1878, &c.). BELGIUM: Fédération des Soc. d’Hortic. de Belgique (1860), Bull. Antwerp, Soc. Roy. D’Hortic. et d’Agr.; Soc. Phytologique, Annales (1864, &c.). Bruges, Soc. d’Hortic. et de la Bot. Brussels, Soc. Roy. do Bot. (1862), Bull. (1862, &c.); Soc. Roy. de Flore; Soc. Centr. d’Arboric., Annales. Liége, Soc. Roy. D’Hortic. HOLLAND: Leyden, Nederl. Bot. Vereen. Luxembourg, Soc. de Bot., Recueil (1874, &c.). Nimeguen, Nederl. Bot. Vereen., Archief (1871, &c.). DENMARK: Copenhagen, Bot. Forening, Tidsskrift (1866, &c.).


Societies dealing with natural history in general, or zoology and botany together, are arranged underclass i. The Zoological Society of London (founded 1826, incorporated 1829) is famous for its collection of live animals in its gardens at Regent’s Park. It publishes Proceedings (8vo, 1830, &c.) and Trans-actions (4to, 1835, &c.). The other metropolitan societies are—British Ornitho-logists Union (1859); Entomological Society of London (1833), Trans. (1834, &c.); National Fish Culture Association (1883). The Marine Biological Association of Great Britain (1884), for the study of marine food fishes and shell-fish, has a laboratory at Plymouth. The Royal Zoological Society of Ireland (1831) has gardens in the Phoenix Park. There is the British Beekeepers’ Association (1874).
AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND: Auckland, Acclimatisation Soc. Brisbane, Acclimat. Soc. Christchurch, Acclimat. Soc. Melbourne, Zoolog. and Acclimat. Soc. of Victoria, Report (1861, &c.). Sydney, Acclimat. Soc. of N.S. Wales, Report (1862, &c.); Entomolog. Soc. of N.S. W., Trans. (1863, &c.). Wel-lington, Westland Nat. and Acclimat. Soc. AFRICA: Cape Town, Zoolog. Soc. Port Louls (Mauritius), Soc. d’Acclimat. CANADA: Toronto, Entomolog. Soc.; Beekeepers’ Assoc.

UNITED STATES: Cambridge, Nuttall Ornitholog. Club, Quart. Bull. (1876, &c.); and Entomolog Club, Psyche (1874, &c.). Cincinnati, Zoolog. Soc. (1874), Report (1875, &c.). Illinois Central Beekeepers’ Association. Philadelphia, Zoolog. Soc. (1873), Report (1874, &c.); and Amer. Entomolog. Soc., merged in the Acad. of Nat. Sc. Washington, Biolog. Soc.; and Entomolog. Soc. FRANCE: Alais, Soc. Séricicole, Bull. (1876, &c.). Amiens, Soc. d’Apiculture, Bull. (1875, &c.). Cler-mont, Soc. Centr. d’Apicult., Bull. (1875, &c.). Lille, Inst. Zoolog. á Wimereux, Travaux (1877, &c.). Paris, Soc. Nat. d’Acclimat. (1854), Bull. Mensuel (1854, &c.) and Chron. Bimens. (1875, &c.); Soc. Zoolog. de France, Bull. (1876, &c.); Soc. Entomolog. do France; and Soc. de Biologie, Comptes Rendus (1850, &c.). GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Wanderversammlung Deutscher Bienenzáüchter, Verhandl. (1856, &c.). Bendorf, Akklimat.-Ver. Berlin, Akklimat.-Ver. (1856), Zeitschr. (1858, &c.); Central-Inst. f. Akklimat., Mittheil. (1859, &c.); Deutsche Zoolog. Ges. ; Deutsche Ornithologen-Ges. (1845), Ber. (1850, &c.); Deutsche Fisch-erei Ver., Publikat. (1871, &c.); Deutsche Entomolog. Ges. (1856), Entomolog. Zeitschr. (1857, &c.); Ver. zum Beförd. des Seidenbaues; Jahresber. (1869, &c.); Physiolog. Ges., Verhandl. (1877, &c.). Breslau, Physiolog. Inst., Studien (1861, &c.); Ver. f. Schles. Insektenkunde, Zeitschr. (1847, &c.). Brunswick, Deutsche Ornitholog. Ges. Carlsruhe, Badischer Ver. f. Geflügelzucht, Monatsblatt (1872, &c.). Frankenberg, Bienenwirthschaftl. Haupt-Ver., Sächs. Bienenfreund (1865, &c.). Frankfort, Zoolog. Ges., Der Zoolog. Garten (1860, &c.); Deutsche Malakozoolog. Ges., Jahrbüch. (1874, &c.) and Nachrichtsblatt (1869, &c.). Halberstadt, Deutsche Ornitholog. Ges. ; Halle, Ornitholog. Central-Ver. Hamburg, Zoolog. Ges., Ber. (1862, &c.). Hanover, Bienenwirthschaftl. Central-Ver., Centralblatt (1865, &c.). Leipsic, Sächs. Seidenbau Ver., Zeitschr. (1868, &c.). Munich, Entomolog. Ver. (1876); Fischerei Ver., Mittheil. (1876, &c.). Nördlingen, Ver. Deutscher Bienenwirthe, B-Zeitung, (1845, &c.). Ratisbon, Zoolog.-Mineralog. Ver. (see class i). Stettin, Ornitholog. Ver. (1873), Jahresber. (1873, &c.) ; Entomolog. Ver. (1837), Ent. Zeitung (1840, &c.). Triest, Zoolog. Inst. u. Zoolog. Station, Arbeiten (1878, &c.). Troppau, Schles. Bienenzucht-Ver. (1873). Vienna, Entomolog. Ver.; Embryolog. Inst., Mittheil. (1871,&c.); Ornitholog. Ver. Würz-burg, Zoolog.-Zootomisches Inst. (1872), Arbeiten (1874, &c.). SWITZERLAND: Bern, Schweiz. Entomolog. Ges. Geneva, Assoc. Zoolog. du Léman; Soc. Ornitholog. Suisse (1865), Bull. (1866, &c.). ITALY: Casale, Soc. Bacologica, Boll. (1866, &c.). Florence, Soc. Allantina Ital., La Sericicultura (1865, &c.); Soc. Entomo-log. Ital., Bull. (1869, &c.). Naples, Zoolog. Station, Mittheil. (1878). Palermo, Soc. di Acclimaz., Atti (1861, &c.). Pisa, Soc. Malacolog. Ital., Bull. (1875, &c.). Rome, Soc. di Pisicolt. Ital. (1872). BELGIUM: Antwerp, Soc. Roy. de Zoologie. Brussels, Soc. Roy. de Zoologie; Soc. Entomolog. de Belgique (1855), Annales and Bull. (1857, &c.); Soc. Malacolog. (1863), Annales (1863, &c.) and Procés-Verb. (1872, &c.). HOLLAND: Amsterdam, K. Zoolog. Genootschap "Natura Artis Magistra," Jaarboekje (1852, &c.) and Tijdschr. (1863, &c.). The Hague, Nederl. Entomolog. Vereen., Tijdschr. (1857, &c.). Rotterdam, Nederl. Dierkundige Vereen., Tijdschr. (1874, &c.). NORWAY: Bergen, Selskabet for Norges Fiskerier. SWEDEN: Stockholm, Entomolog. Förening. RUSSIA: Moscow, Acclimat. Soc. St. Petersburg, Russian Entomolog. Soc. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC: Buenos Ayres, Soc. Zoolog. Argentina, Period. Zoolog. (1875, &c.); Soc. Entomolog. Argent.


The Congrès International d’Anthropologie et d’Archéologie Préhistoriques held its first meeting at Neuchâtel in1866 ; it issues Comptes Rendus (1866, &c.). The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland was founded in 1871 upon the Ethnological Society (1843), which published a Journal (1848-56) and Transactions (1859-69), and the Anthropological Society (1863), which issued Memoirs (1863-69) and the Anthropological Review (1854-70). The Institute brings out a Journal (1871, &c.).

UNITED STATES: Ashtabula Anthropolog. Soc. New York, Amer. Ethnolog. Soc., Trans. (1845-53) and Bull. (1860-61); Anthropolog. Inst., Journ. (1871, &c.). Washington, Anthropolog. Soc. FRANCE: Paris, Soc. d’Anthropologie (1859; recognized 1864, Bull. and Mém. (1860, &c.); Soc. d’Ethngor., Annuaire (1862, &c.) and Revue (1869, &c.); Soc. des Traditions Populaires (1886), Revue. GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Berlin, Ges. f. Anthropologie, &c. (1869), Ztschr. (1870, &c.) and Verhandl. (1871, &c.). Brunswick, Deutsche Ges. f. Anthropologie, Archiv (1870, &c.) and Corr.-Blatt (1874, &c.). Göttingen, Anthropolog. Ver., Mittheil. (1874, &c.). Leipsic, Ver. f. Anhropolog., Ber. (1871, &c.), afterwards joined to the Ver. der Erdk. Munich, Ges. f. Anthropolog. (1870), Beitr. (1876, &c.). Stuttgart, Anthropolog. Ges. Vienna, Anthropolog. Ges., Mittheil. (1870, &c.). ITALY: Florence, Soc. Ital. di Antropologia, Archivio (1873, &c.). SWEDEN: Stockholm, Antropologiska Sällskapet, Tidskr. (1875, &c.). SPAIN: Madrid, Soc, Antropolog. Esp., Revista (1875, &c.). Havana (Cuba), Soc. Antropológ. RUSSIA: Imp. Soc. for Friends of Research in Nat. Sc., Anthropology, &c.

XII. SOCIOLOGY (Economic Science, Statistics, Law Education).

The international societies are the Association Internationale pour le Progrès des Sciences Sociales and the Congrès International de Statistique, which first met at Brussels in 1853. Both have issued Comptes Rendus. The Congrès International de Bienfaisance may be traced to a suggestion at the Congrès Pénitentiaire held at Frankfort in 1847. The first meeting took place at Brussels in 1856. The National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (1857) had united with it in 1864 the Society for Promoting the Amendment of the Law. It holds a yearly migratory meeting, and publishes Transactions (1858, &c.) and Social Science (1866, &c.). The Statistical Society (1834), with a Journal (1839, &c.); Political Economy Club (1821); Cobden Club (1866), for the diffusion of the political and economical principles with which Cobden’s name is associated, having various publications ; Institute of Actuaries ; Institute of Chartered Accountants (1880) ; and the Institute of Bankers (1879) meet in London. There are also the Man-chester Statistical Society (1833), with Transactions; the Actuarial Society of Edinburgh (1859); and the Social and Statistical Society of Ireland (1847), with a Journal, at Dublin. After the INNS OF COURT (q.v.), the most important of English legal societies is the Incorporated Law Society of the United Kingdom (1827, incorporated 1831); it began courses of lectures for students in 1833, and was appointed registrar of solicitors ten years later, and obtained supple-mentary charters in 1845 and 1878 ; it has fifty provincial law societies in association. The Verulam Society (1846) published a few books and came to an end. The Selden Society for the promotion of the study of the history of law was established in 1887. The headquarters of the Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations are in London, but conferences are held in various Continental towns. The Institute of Patent Agents (incor-torated 1882) issues Transactions. The Juridical Society of Edinburgh (1773) has published five editions of a Complete System of Conveyancing. The Ascham Society was founded in 1879 for the improvement of educational methods; and the Society for the Development of the Science of Education (1875) issues Transactions.

UNITED STATES: Boston, Amer. Assoc. for Promotion of Soc. Sc., Amer. Statist. Assoc., Collections (1847, &c.). New York, Soc. for Polit. Education, Publ. FRANCE: Grenoble, Soc. de Statist. (1838), Bull. (1840, &c.). Marseilles, Soc. de Statist. (1827), Répertoire (1837, &c.). Paris, Soc. Int. des Etudes Pratiques d’Écon. (1856, recognized 1869); La Réforme Soc.; Soc. Fran. de Statist. Univ. (1829), Journal issued jointly with Acad. Nat. since 1849; Soc. de Statist. de Paris (1860, recognized 1869), Journ. (1860, &c.); Soc. de Législation Comparée (1869 recognized 1873), Bull., Annuaire de Lég. Franç., and Ann. de Lég. Étran.; Soc, pour l’Instr. Élément. (1815, recognized 1831), Bull. St Maixent, Soc. de Statist. des Deux- Sèvres. GERMANY: Berlin, Volkswirths. Ges. (1860), Volkswirths. Zeitfragen (1879, &c.); Ver. f. deutsche, Volkswirths. (1876), Ztschr. (1880, &c.); Ver. f. Förderung d. Handelsfreiheit (1878), Mittheil. (1879, &c.); Ver. f. d. Statist.; Jurist. Ges. (1859), Jahresber. (1863, &c.). Dresden, Statistischer Ver. (1831), Mittheil. Frank-fort, Statistische Ges.; Juristische Ges. (1866), Rundschau (1867. &c.). Laibach, Jurist.Ges. Leipsic, Ver. f. wiss. Pädagogik, Jahrbuch and Mittheil. BELGIUM: Brussels, Ligue de l’Enseignement (1864), Bull. ; Soc. Centr. des Instituteurs Belges (1860), Le Progrès. HOLLAND: Amsterdam, Ver. voor de Statist. in Nederland, Jaarboekje (1849, &c.) and Jaarcijfers (1882, &c.). SPAIN: Madrid, Junta Estadist. RUSSIA: Moscow, Juridical Soc. St Petersburg, Pedagogical Soc. EGYPT: Cairo, Bureau Central de Statist. JAPAN: Tokio, Statist. Soc.


The first meeting of the Congrès Mèdical International was held at Paris In 1867 ; a Bulletin has been issued annually since 1868. The Proceedings of the British National Veterinary Congress date from 1881. The Royal Colleges of Physicians and of Surgeons of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin do not come within our scope. The Medical Society of London (1773) is the oldest in the metropolis; it has issued Memoirs (1787-1805), Transactions (1810, &c.), and Proceedings (1872, &c.). The other London societies include the Abernethian Society (1795), which issues Proceedings; British Dental Association (1879), with a Journal (1880, &c.); British Gynaecological Society (1884); British Homoeopothic Association (1859), with Annals (1860, &c.); British Medical Association (1832), which has more than forty home and colonial branches, and publishes British Medical Journal (1857, &c.); Clinical Society (1867), with Transactions; Dermatological Society (1882); Epidemiological Society (1850), with Transactions (1855, &c.); Hahnemann Publishing Society (1852), Materia Medica (1852, &c.) ; Harveian Society (1831); Homoeopathic Association (1845); Hunterian Society (1819); New Sydenham, Society (1858), whiph publishes Biennial Retrospect (1867, &c.), and translations and reprints of books and papers of value, succeeded the Old Syden-ham Society (1844-57), which issued 40 vols.; Obstetrical Society (1858), with Trans-actions (1860, &c.); Odontological Society (1856), with Transactions (1858, &c.); Ophthalmological Society (1880); Parkes Museum (1876), founded in memory of the services of Dr. E. A. Parkes to sanitary science ; Pathological Society (1846) Transactions; Pharmaceutical Society (1841), with museum, which has a branch at Edinburgh, Pharmaceutical Journal (1842, &c.) ; Physiological Association (1876), Journ. Of Physiology (1878, &c.); Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society (1805; charter 1834), with library, and Transactions (1809, &c.) and Proceedings (1857, &c.); Sanitary Institute (1876), the council of which appoint examiners; Society of Medical Officers of Health (1856), Transactions. The provincial societies are very numerous and include—Birmingham, Midland Med. Soc. (1848). Dublin, Acad. of Med. in Ireland (1882), Trans. (1883, &c.). Edinburgh, Roy. Med. Soc. (1737 ; charter 1778); Harveian Soc. (1752); Medico-Chirurg. Soc. (1821), Trans. (1824, &c.); and Obstetrical Soc. (1840). Glasgow, Medico-Chirurg. Soc. (1866), based upon Med. Soc. and Med.-Chirurg. Soc. (both 1814). Manchester, Med. Soc. (1834).

AUSTRALIA: Melbourne, Med. Soc. of Victoria, Austr. Med. Journ. (1856, &c.). CANADA: Montreal, Union Méd. du Canada, Revue (1872, &c.); Canada Med. Assoc., Trans. (1877, &c.). INDIA: Bombay, Med. and Physical Soc., Trans. (1838, &c.). Calcutta, Med. Soc., Trans. (1883, &c.).

UNITED STATES: Amer. Pub. Health Assoc., Reports (1873, &c.); Amer. Dental Assoc., Trans. (1860, &c.); and Amer, Inst. Of Homoeop., Trans. (1878, &c.). The State medical associations include those of Alabama, Trans. (1869, &c.); Georgia, Trans. (1873, &c.); Maine, Trans. (1853, &c.); Missouri, Trans. (1851, &c.); and South Carolina, Trans. The State medical societies include those of Arkansas Trans. (1877, &c.); California, Trans. (1870, &c.); Illinois, Trans. (1851, &c.); Kansas, Trans. (1867, &c.); Michigan, Trans. (1869, &c.); Minnesota, Trans. (1874, &c.); Nebraska, Trans. (1869, &c.); New Jersey, Trans. (1859, &c.); Pennsylvania, Trans. (1851, &c.); Rhode Island, Trans. (1877, &c.); Texas, Trans. (1874); and Wisconsin, Trans. (1880, &c.). To these have to be added the following town associations. Albany, Med. Soc., Trans. (1807, &c.). Balti-more, Med, and Chirurg. Faculty of Maryland, Trans. (1856, &c.). Boston, Amer. Gynaecolog. Soc., Trans. (1876, &c.); Mass. Medico-Legal Soc., Trans. (1878, &c.). New York, Acad. of Med., Trans. (1847, &c.) and Bull. (1860, &c.); Med. Soc., Trans. (1815, &c.); Medico-Chirurg. Soc., Trans. (1878, &c.); Amer. Surg. Assoc., Trans. (1883, &c.); Medico-Legal Soc., Sanitarian (1873, &c.); Amer. Ophthalmolog. Soc., Trans. (1865, &c.). Philadelphia, Amer. Med. Assoc., Trans. (1848, &c.); Med. Soc., Trans. (1850, &c.); Obstet. Soc., Trans. (1869, &c.); Amer. Pharm. Assoc., Proc. ; Patholog. Soo. Richmond, Med. Soo., Trans. (1871, &c.).

FRANCE: Besançon, Soc. de. Méd. (184-5), Bull. (1845, &c.). Bordeaux, Soc. de Méd. (1798), Journ. (1829, &c.); Soc. de. Pharm. (1834), Bull. (1860, &c.); Soc. de Méd. et de Chirurg. Caen, Soc. de Méd. (1799 ; known by its present name since 1875), Année Méd. (1876, &c.). Chambéry, Soc. Méd. (1848), Comptes Rend. (1848, &c.) and Bull. (1859, &c.). Grenoble, Soc. de Méd. et de Pharm. Havre, Soc. de Pharm. (1858), Mém. Lille, Soc. Centr. de Méd. (1845), Bull. (1846, &c.). Lyons, Soc. Nat. de Méd. (1789), Le Lyon Méd. (1869, &c.); Marseilles, Soc, de Méd. (1800), Comptes Rend. (1826-53) and Le Mars. Méd. (1869, &c.); Soc. Méd.-Chirurg. (1872). Paris, Soc. de Méd. Pratique (1808), Bull. ; Acad. Nat. de Méd. (1820); Soc. de Chirurg. (1843, reorganized 1859), Mém. (1847, &c.) and Bull. (1848, &c.); Soc. Anat., Bull. (1826, &c.); Soc. Clinique, Bull. (1877, &c.); Soc. Méd. des Hôpitaux, Bull. (1849, &c.), Soc. Méd. Legale; Soc. de Pharm., Journ. (1815, &c.); Soc. de Thérapeutique; Soc. Fran. de Hygièno; Soc. Centr. de Méd. Vétérinaire. Rouen, Soc. de Méd. (1821), Union Méd. (1861, &c.); Soc. Libre. des Pharmaciens (1802), Bull. Toulouse, Soc. de Méd. (1804), Bull. and Revue (1867, &c.). Tours, Soc. Méd. (1801). GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Deutscher Aerztevereinsbund (1872), Verhandl. ; Central Ver. d. Zahnärzte. (1859), Mittheil. ; D. Veterinärrath, (1874); D. Apotheker-Ver. (1820), Archiv (1822, &c.). Berlin, Ver. f. Heilkunde (1832), Magazin (1835, &c.); Ges. f. Geburtshülfe u. Gynaekologie (1876), Ztschr. (1877, &c.); Ges. f. Heilkunde (1855); Berl. Med. Ges. (1860), Verhandl. (1865, &c.); Physiolog. Ges. (1860), Verhandl. (1877, &c.); D. Ver.f. Med. Statistik (1868); Ver. Homöop. Aerzte (1871), Ztschr. (1882, &c.); D. Ges. f. Chirurgie (1872), Verhandl. Bonn, Verband der Aerztl. Vereine (1865). Breslau, Ver. f. Physiolog. Heilkunde (1848), Ztschr. (1850, &c.); Verband d. Schles. Aerzte-Ver. (1878). Cologne, Rhein. Med.-Chirurg. Ver. (1848), Organ (1852, &c.). Darmstadt, Aerztl. Kreisver. (1844). Dresden Ges. f. Natur-u. Heil-Kunde (1818), Jahresber. (1848, &c.). Erlangen, Physik.-Med. Soc., (1808), Sitzungsber. (1870, &c.). Frankfort, Aerztl. Ver. (1845), Johresber. (1857, &c.). Hamburg, Aerztl. Ver. (1816). Hanover, Ver. Analyt. Chemiker (1878). Heidelberg, Ophthal. Ges. (1857). Königsberg, Ver. f. wiss. Heilkunde (1851). Leipsic, Med. Ges. (1829); Ges. f. Geburtshülfe (1854), Mittheil.; Homöop. Central-Ver. (1829). Magdeburg, D. Chirurgen-Ver. (1844), Ztschr. (1847,&c.). Munich, Aerztl. Ver. (1833), Int.-Blatt (1854, &c.). Strasburg, Soc. de Méd. (1842), Mém. (1850, &c.); Soc. Vètèrin. (1864). Stuttgart, Württemb. Aerztl. Ver. (1831), Corr.-Blatt. (1832, &c.); Hahnemannia (1868), Mittheil. (1873, &c.); Apotheker-Ver. (1822), Pharm. Wochenbtatt (1861, &c.). Vienna, K. k. Ges. der Aerzte, Ztschr. (1844, &c.). Weimar, Med.-Naturwiss. Ver. (1863). Würzburg, Physikal.-Med. Ges. (1849), Verhandl. (1850, &c.). SWITZERLAND: Geneva, Soc. Méd. Zurich, Soc. de Méd.; Schweiz. Apotheker-Ver. ITALY: Bologna, Soc. Med.-Chirurg. Genoa, Accad. Med. Chirurg. Milan, Soc. Ital. d’Igiena. Modena, Soc. Med.-Chirurg. Naples, Real. Accad. Med.-Chirung. Rome, R. Istit. Fisico-Pato-logico. Turin, Accad. Real. Med.-Chirurg. BELGIUM: Antwerp, Soc. de Méd. (1839), Annales. Brussels, Acad. Roy. de. Méd. (1841), Bull. (1841, &c.) and Mém.; Soc. Roy. de Pharm. (1856), Bull. ; Soc. Anat. Pathalog. (1857), Annales; Soc. Belge. de. Méd. Homoeop. Ghent, Soc. de Méd. (1834), Annales. Liége, Soc. Méd. Chirurg. HOLLAND: Amsterdam, Genootschap ter Bevordering der Genees- en Heel-Kunde, Verhandel. (1841, &c.); Nederl. Maatschappij ter Bevord. der Pharmacie. Batavia (Java), Geneeskundige Vereeniging. DENMARK: Copenhagen, K. Med. Selskab; Veterinaer Selskab. NORWAY: Christiania, Med. Selskab. SWEDEN: Stockholm, Farmaceutiska Inst. SPAIN and PORTUGAL: Lisbon, Soc. de Sc. Med.; Soc. Pharm. Lusitana. RUSSIA: Dorpat, Pharm. Soc. Moscow, Phys.--Med. Soc. Riga, Soc. of Practical Physicians. St Petersburg, Soc. of Practical Physicians; Imp. Pharm. Soc. Warsaw, Med.-Chirurg. Soc. GREECE: Athens, Soc, Méd. TURKEY: Constantinople, Soc. Imp. de Méd.; Soc. de Pharm. CENTRAL and SOUTH AMERICA: Buenos Ayres, Asoc. Med. Caracas, Escuela Med. Guadalajara (Mexico), Soc. Med. Merida (Mexico), Soc. Med. Mexico, Acad. de Med. ; Soc. Med. Monte Video, Soc. de Med. Santiago, Soc. Med. JAPAN: Tokio Soc. for Adv. of Med. Sc., Trans. (1885, &c.).


The principal English society dealing with mechanical science is the institu-tion of Civil Engineers (established in 1818, incorporated in 182S), which pub-lishes Transactions (4to, 1836-42) and Minutes of Proceedings (8vo, 1837, &c.). George Stephenson was the first president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, which was founded at Birmingham in 1847, removed to London in 1877, and registered under the Companies Act in 1878. It holds migratory meetings and publishes Proceedings. The Society of Engineers (1854), with Transactiohs (1861, &c.); the Civil and Mechanical Engineers’ Society (1854); the Iron and Steel Institute (1869), with Transactions ; the Surveyors’ Institution (1868, incorporated in 1881), which publishes Transactions and holds professional examinations; and the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (1866) also meet in London. There are institutions in the provinces at Cardiff (1857 incorporated in 1881), Chesterfield (1871), Dublin (1835, incorporated in 1857), Glasgow (1857, with Transactions), Middlesborough (1864), and Newcastle-on-Tyne (1852, incorporated in 1876, with Transactions).

The leading architectural society is the Royal Institute of British Architects, founded in 1834, incorporated in 1837, and granted a new charter in 1887. It appoints examining professional boards and publishes Transactions (1836; 1879, &c.) and Proceedings (1879, &c.). There are also the associations of Birmingham (1874), Edinburgh (1850), Exeter (1843), Glasgow (1868), Leeds (1876), Leicester-shire (1855), Liverpool (1848), Manchester (1875), Newcastle-on-Tyne, and the societies of Manchester (1865) and Oxford (1837). The Architectural Association of London publishes a Sketch Book (1870, &c.). The Architectural Publishing Society (1849) has published Essays (1848-52), and since 1852 has been bringing out a Dictionary of Architecture. There is also a Society of Architects.

UNITED STATES: Easton, Pa., Inst. of Mining Engineers. New York, Amer. Soc. of Civ. Eng., Trans. ; Amer. Inst. of. Min. Eng. ; Amer. Inst. of Architects. FRANCE: Lyons, Soc. Acad. d’Arch. (1830), Annales (1867, &c.). Paris, Soc. des Ingénieurs Civils, Mém. (1848, &c.); Soc. Cent. des Architectes, Bull (1851, &c and Annales (1875, &c.); it has held a congress since 1875. Saint-Étienne, Soc. de l’Industrie Min. (1855), Bull. GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: Berlin, Ver. Deutscher Ingenieure, Ztschr. (1857) and Wochenschrift (1877, &c.); Ver. f. Eisenbahnkunde; Akad. des Bauwesens; Architekten-Ver., Ztschr. Breslau, Ver. f. Ges. der Bild. Künste (1862). Constance, Münsterbau Ver. (1881). Dresden, Sächs. Ingen.-u. Architeken-Ver., Protak. Hanover, Arch.-u. Ingen-Ver., Ztschr. Klagenfurt, Berg-und Hutten-MannischenVer. Leoben, K.k.Berg-Akad. Munich, Bayr. Arch.-u. Ingen.-Ver., Ztschr. Prague, Arch.-und Ingen.-Ver. Vienna, Oesterr. Ingen.- u. Arch.-Ver., Ztschr. ; Ges. f. Bild. Künste. SWITZERLAND: Lausanne, Soc. Vaudoise des Ingén. et des Arch. Zurich Ver. Schweiz. Ingen. u. Arch. ITALY: Turin, Soc. degli Ingeneri, Atti (1868-70). BELGIUM: Brussels, Assoc. des Ingén. Liége, Assoc. des Ingén. (1847), Annuaire (1851, &c.). HOLLAND: Amsterdam, Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Bouwkunst, Bouwkun-dige Bijdragen (1843, &c.). The Hague, Kon. Inst. van Ingen., Verslag (1848, &c.), Verhandel. (1848, &c.) and Tijdschr. (1870, &c.). SPAIN and PORTUGAL: Lisbon, Assoc. dos Engenheiros Civ. Port.; Soc. dos Architectos e Archeologos. Madrid, Soc. Central de Arquitectos.


The Royal United Service Institution, first known as the Naval and Military Library and Museum (1831), took the name of the United Service Institution in 1839, and was incorporated in 1860 ; it has a professional museum and publishes a Journal (1857, &c.). The home of the society is in London, as is also that of the Institittion of Naval Architects (1860), which publishes Transactions (4to, 1860, &c.). The Royal Artillery Institution (1838), which issues Minutes of Proceedings (1858, &c.), is at Woolwich, and the Royal Engineers Institute (1875), which issues Royal Engineers Professional Papers, at Chatham.
CANADA: Toronto, Military Inst. INDIA: Simla, United Service Institution.

UNITED STATES: New York, Military Service Inst., Journal (1879, &c.). FRANCE: Paris, Réunion des Officiers, now Cercle Militaire, Bull. (1871, &c.). GERMANY and AUSTRIA- HUNGARY: Munich Militär. Ges. (1868), Jahrbüch. (1871, &c.); Vienna, K. k. Milit.-Geogr. Inst., Arbeiten (1871, &c.). HOLLAND: Utrecht, Vereen. tot Verspreiding van Kennis aangaande s’Lands Verdediging, Jaarsverslag (1872, &c.) and Werken. NORWAY: Christiania, Militaere Samfund, Nordsk Milit. Tidsskrift (1848, &c.). DENMARK: Copenhagen, Krigsvidenskabedige Selskab, Milit. Tidsskrift (1872, &c.).


The Royal Agricultural Society of England began as the Englisk Agricultural Society in 1838 and was incorporated in 1840. It holds annually one migratory meeting in some part of England or Wales and two meetings in London, where are its head-quarters; it publishes a Journal (1840, &c.). The leading pro-vincial agricultural societies nnd associations are—Aberdeen, Roy. Northern Agr. Soc. (1843). Arbroath, Augus Agr. Assoc. Banbury (1834). Basingstoke, Roy. Counties Agr. Soc. (1859). Bath, Bath and West of Engl. Soc. and Souther. Counties Assoc. (founded in 1777, enlarged in 1852, and reorganized in 1866), Letters and Papers (1780-1816) and Journal (1852, &c.). Belfast, Chemico-Agr. Soc. of Ulster (1845), Proc. ; N. E. Agr. Assoc. of Ireland. Birkenhead, Wirrel and Birkenhead Agr. Soc. (1842). Brecknock (1855). Carluke (1833). Chelmsford, Essex Agr. Soc. (1858). Chertsey (1833). Doncaster (1872). Dublin, Roy. Agr. Soc. of Ireland (1841). Edinburgh, Highland and Agr. Soc. of Scotland (1784, incorporated in 1787), Trans. (1799, &c.). Halifax (1839, enlarged in 1858). Ipswich, Suffolk Agr. Assoc. (1831). Otley, Wharfedale Agr. Soc. Paisley, Renfrewshire Agr. Soc. (1802). Warwick. Worcester (1838).
AFRICA: Cape Town, Agr. Soc. AUSTRALIA: Sydney, Agr. Soc. of N. S. Wales. BRITISH GUIANA: Georgetown, Roy. Agr. and Commercial Soc. CANADA: Montreal, Soc. d’Agr. INDIA: Calcutta, Agr. and Hortic. Soc., Journ. (1842, &c.).

UNITED STATES: Albany, State Agr. Soc., The Cultivator and Journal. Atlanta, State Agr. Soc. Boston, Inst. of Technology. Hoboken, Stevens Inst. of Technol. Madison, State Agr. Soc., Trans. (1852, &c.). Sacramento, Soc. of Agr. and Hortic. San Francisco, Agr. and Hort. Soc. Troy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. Worcester, Free Inst. of Industry.

FRANCE: Algiers, Soc. d’Agr. (1840), Bull. Amiens, Soc. Industrielle (1861), Bull. Angers, Soc. Industr. et Agr. (1830), Bull. Bordeaux, Soc. d’Agr. Bou-logne, Soc. d’Agr. Caen, Assoc. Normande pour l’Agr., l’Industrie, &c. (1831), Annuaire (1835, &c.); Soc. d’Agr. et de Commerce (1762), Mém. (1853-58) and Bull. (1858, &c.). Châlons-sur-Marne, Soc. d’Agr., &c. (1798), Mém. (1807, &c.). Elbeuf, Soc. Industr. (1858), Bull. Grenoble, Soc. d’Agr. et d’Hortic. (1835), Sud- Est (1855, &c.). Le Mans, Soc. du Matériel Agr. (1857), Bull. Lyons, Soc. des Sc. Industr. (1862), Annales. Montpellier, Soc. d’Agr. (1799), Bull. (1808, &c.). Nancy, Soc. Centr. d’Agr. Paris, Soc. Nat. d’Agr. de France (1761 ; reconstructed in 1878 with a view of instructing Government on agricultural matters), Mém. and Bull. Rheims, Soc. Industr. (1833), Bull. (1858, &c.). Rouen, Soc. Industr. (1872), Bull. ; Soc. du Commerce et de l’Ind. Saint-Jean-d’Angély, Soc. d’Agr. (1819), Bull. (1833, &c.). St Quentin, Soc. Industr. (1868), Bull. Toulouse, Soc. d’Agr. GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: The migratory Congress Deutscher Volkswirthe first met at Gotha in 1858. Agram, Kroatisch-Slav. Landwirths. Ges., Blätter. Augsburg, Landwirths. Ver., Landw. Blätter. Berlin, Vereinigt. Berlinerkaufleute u. Industr. ; Ver. f. Beförd. des Gewerbeflerisses. Bonn, Landwirthsch. Central-Ver. Bremen, Landwirths. Ver. Breslau , Land-wirths. Central-Ver.; Schles. Central Gewerbe-Ver. Cassel, Landwirths. Central--Ver., Mittheil. Cracow, Akerbau Ges., Annalen. Dantzic, Volkswirths. Ges. (1850). Darmstadt, Landwirths. Ver., Ztschr. Dresden, K. Oekonomie Ges. ; K. Säcks. Polytechnicum. Fürth, Gewerbe-Ver. Gratz, K. k. Steiermarkische Landwirths. Ges. Greifswald, Baltischer Central-Ver. Halle, Landwirths. Cen-tral-Ver. Hanover, Gewerbe-Ver. Innsbruck, K. k. Landwirths. Ges., Wochen-schr.; Kärnt. Industrie-u. Gewerbe-Ver. Jena, Landwirths. Inst. Königsberg, Ostpreuss. Landwirths. Central-Ver. Lelpsic, Landwirths. Kreis-Ver.; Polytechn. Ges. Linz, K. k. Landwirths. Ges. Lübeck, Landwirths. Ver., Mittheil. Mühlhausen, Soc. Industr., Bull. Munich, Landwirths. Kreis-Ver. ; Polytechn. Ver. Nuremberg, Polytechn. Ver. Pesth, Ungar. Akerbau Ges., Mittheil. ; Industrielle Ges. Prague, Böhmischer Gewerbe-Ver. ; Industrie Ges., Mittheil. and Annalen. Ratisbon, Landwirths. Kreis-Ver., Bauernfreund. Stuttgart, K. Württemb. Central-Stelle, Wochenblatt. Trieste, Akerbau Ges. Tübingen, Landwirths. Ver. Vienna, K. k. Reich, Landwirths. Ges., Ztschr. Wiesbaden, Gewerbe-Ven. SWITZERLAND: Bern, Oekonom. Ges. Lausanne, Soc. d’Agr. de la Suisse Romande. Zurich, Ver. f. Landwirths. u. Gartenbau. ITALY: Bologna, Soc. Agraria, Annali. Cagliari, Soc. Agr. ed Econom. Florence, Soc. Econom. ed Agr., Rendiconti. Milan, Soc. Agr. di Lombardia; Soc. Gen. degli Agricolt. Ital. ; Soc. d’Incoragg. di Arti e Mestieri, Discorsi. Perugia, Soc. Econom. ed Agr.,Atti. Turin, Accad. Reale di Agricolt. ; Assoc. Agr. Ital., Esercitazioni. Verona, Accad. d’Agricolt. BELGIUM: Soc. Centr. d’Agricult. (1854), Bull. Ghent, Soc. Roy. D’Agr. et de Bot. Liége, Soc. d’Agr Journ. (1850, &c.). Verviers, Soc. Industr. et Commerc. (1863), Bull. HOLLAND: Amsterdam, Aardrijskundig Genootschap; Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt. DENMARK: Copenhagen, K. Landhuusholdnings Selskab; Det Statist. Tabelvaerk. NORWAY: Christiania, Polytekniske Forening. SWEDEN: K. Landtbruks Akademien. SPAIN and PORTUGAL: Barcelona, Soc. Econom., Actas. Lisbon, Inst. Real de Agric. ; Soc. Promotora de Industr. Madrid, Soc. Econom. Matritense, Anales. Oporto, Acad. Polytechn. RUSSIA: Dorpat, K. Livländische Oekonom. Ges., Jahrbuch. Kazan, Imp. Econom. Soc., Monthly Reports. Moscow, Imp. Soc. of Agriculturalists. Odessa, Imp. Agronom. Soc. of S. Russia. Riga, Technical Soc. St Petersburg, Imp. Econom. Soc., Trans. ; Technical Soc. ROUMANIA: Bucharest. Soc. Roumaine d’Agr.


The Congrès International des Orientalistes first met at Paris in 1873 ; it issues Comptes Rendus (1874, &c.). The Congrès Bibliographique International held its first meeting in 1878, and the Congrès des Amèricanistes its first meeting in 1875. The Royal Society of Literature (1823, incorporated in 1826), with Trans-actions (4to, 1829-39; 8vo, 1843, &c.), and the Royal Asiatic Society (1823), with Journal (1834, &c.), have their headquarters in London, as well as the following literary societies and printing clubs, all of which issue publications:—Aristotelian (1879), Authors (1884), Ballad (1868), Browning (1881), Carlyle (1879), Chaucer (1868), Early English Text (1864), East India Association (1866), English Dialect (1873), Gaelic, Hebrew Literature (1872), Hellenic Studies (1879), Index (1877), Library Association (1877), London Dialectical (1865), New Shakspere (1873), Oriental Translation Fund (1828), Pali Text, Philobiblon (1853), Philological (1842), Roxburghe Club (1812), Shorthand, Wordsworth (1880), Wyclif (1882). The Cambridge Philological Society, the Glasgow Hunterian Club (1871), the Lancashire and Cheshire Historical Society (1828), at Liverpool, the Manchester Literary Club, with Transactions and Papers (1874, &c.), and the Manx Society (1858), at Douglas, may also be mentioned.

The oldest and most important society in England dealing with history and archaeology is the Society of Antiquaries of London, which enthusiasts trace to an association founded by Archbishop Parker in 1572. The meetings were not publicly recommenced until 1707; the present body was incorporated in 1751 ; it publishes Vetera Monumenta (fol., 1747, &c.), Archaeologia (4to, 1770, &c.), and Proceedings (8vo, 1849, &c.). The Royal Archaeological Institute (1843), issuing the Archaeological Journal (1845, &c.); the British Archaeological Association (1843), with Journal (1846, &c.); the Numismatic Society (1836), issuing the Numismatic Chronicle (1838, &c.); and the Royal Historical Society (1868), with Transactions, belong to London, as well as the following historical and antiquarian societies, all of which issue publications:—Arundel (1848), Camden (1838), Cymmrodorion (1751-73, revived in 1820), Dilettanti (1734), Folk Lore (1877), Harleian (1869), Holbein, Huguenot (1885), London and Middlesex Archaeol. (1855), Medallists (1885), Middlesex County Records (1884), Palaeographical, Pipe Roll (1883), Rabelais Club (1879), Seal (1883), Soc. Bibl. Archaeol. (1870), Soc. for Prot. Anc. Buildings (1877), Topographical (1880). The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1790), at Edinburgh, and the Irish Archaeology and Celtic Society, at Dublin, are the leading associations outside London. Among others are—-Aberdeen, New Spalding Club (1886); Bedfordshire Archaeol. and Architect. Soc. (1844); Bristol, Bristol and Gloucester Arch. Soc. (1876); Cambrian Arch. Assoc. (1846); Cambridge Antiq. Soc. (1840); Dublin, Roy. Hist. and Arch. Soc. ; Durham, Surtees Soc. (1834); Essex Arch. Soc. (1852), Exeter, Diocesan Arch. Soc. (1841); Glasgow Arch. Soc. (1856); Kent Arch. Soc. (1857); Lanc. and Cheshire Antiq. Soc. (1883); Manchester, Chetharn, Soc. (1843); Newcastle-on-Tyne Soc. ofAntiq. (1813); Norwich, Norfolk and Norwich Arch. Soc. (1846); Oxford, Architect. and Hist. Soc. (1839) and Hist. Soc. (1883); Purbeck Soc.; Sussex Arch. Soc. (1846); Welshpool, Powys Land Club (1867); and Yorkshire Arch. and Topogr. Assoc. (1863).

CANADA: Montreal, Soc. Hist., Mém. (1859, &c.); Numism. and Antiq. Soc., Journ. (1872, &c.). Quebec, Lit. and Hist. Soc., Trans. (1837, &c.). Toronto, Lit. and Hist. Soc. CHINA: Hong Kong, Roy. Asiatic Soc. Shanghai, Roy. Asiatic Soc., Journ. (1858, &c.). INDIA: Bombay, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (1841), Journ. (1844, &c.). Calcutta, Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, Journ. (1832, &c.) and Proc. (1865, &c.). Colombo, Roy. Asiatic Soc., Journ. (1844, &c.). Singapore, Roy. Asiatic Soc.

UNITED STATES: Baltimore, Hist. Soc. Boston, Mass. Hist. Soc., Collections (1792, &c.) and Proc. (1859, &c.); New Engl. Hist.-Gen. Soc. (1846), Proc.; Amer. Oriental Soc. (1843), Journ. (1849, &c.). Brunswick, Hist. Soc. Chicago, Hist. Soc. Concord, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1824, &c.). Hartford, Amer. Philolog. Soc. ; Hist. Soc., Coll. (1860, &c.). Madison, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1855, &c.). Minneapolis, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1869, &c.). Montpelier, Hist. Soc. of Vermont, Coll. (1869, &c.). New York, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1811, &c.); Genealog. Soc.; Amer. Library Assoc. (1876), Libr. Journ. Philadelphia, Hist. Soc., Mem. (1826, &c.); Numism. and Arch. Soc. (1865). Portland, Maine Hist. Soc., Coll. (1831, &c.). Providence, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1827, &c.). Richmond, Virg. Hist. and Phil. Soc., Publ. (1874, &c.). St Louis. Missouri Hist. Soc. Savannah, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1840, &c.). Topeka, Hist. Soc., Trans. (1881, &c.). Worcester, Amer. Antiq. Soc., Proc. and Arch. Amer. (1820, &c.).

FRANCE: The Congrès Archéologique de la France first met in 1834. Algiers, Soc. Hist. (1856), Revue (1856, &c.). Amiens, Soc. des Antiq. (1836), Mém. (1838, &c.) and Bull. Angoulême, Soc. Arch. et Hist. (1844), Bull. Bordeaux, Soc. Archéol. (1873). Caen, Soc. des Antiq. de Normandie (1824), Mém. (1825, &c.) and Bull. (1860, &c.); Soc. Fran. D’Arch. (1834), Comptes, Rend. (1834, &c.) and Bull. Mens. (1835, &c.). Constantine, Soc. Arch. (1852), Recueil. Dijon, Comm. des Antiquités (1830), Mém. (1832, &c.). Limoges, Soc. Hist. et Arch. (1845), Bull. Lyons, Soc. Hist., Litt., et Arch. (1807), Mém. (1861, &c.). Montpellier, Soc. Arch., Mém. (1835, &c.). Nancy, Soc. d’Arch. de Lorraine (1848), Mén. (1850, &c.) and Journ. (1852, &c.). Nantes, Soc. Arch. (1845), Bull: (1859, &c.). Orleans, Soc. Arch. et Hist. (1849), Mém. (1851, &c.) and Bull. Paris, Soc. Nat. des Antiq. de Fr. (based on the Académie Celtique), Mém. (1817, &c.) and Bull. (1857, &c.); Soc. de l’Hist. de France (1833), has published about 270 vols. ; Soc. de l’École Nat. des Chartes (1854), Bibliothèque; Soc. Asiatigue (1822), Journal Asiat. (1822, &c.), &c. ; Soc. Fran. D’Arch. et de Numism. ; Soc. de, l’Hist. du Prot. Fran. ; Soc. de Linguistique ; Soc. Bibliogr. (1868), Polybiblion. Poitiers, Soc. des Antiq. (1834), Mém. Rouen, Soc. de l’Hist. de Norm. (1869), Publ. Toulouse, Soc. Arch (1831), Mém. Tours, Soc. Arch. (1840), Mém. (1842, &c.). GERMANY and AUSTRIA--HUNGARY: Gesam. Ver. d. D. Gesch. u. Alt. Vereine (1852). Agram. Ges. f. Süd--Slav. Alterth. Altenburg, Gesch. u. Alterthums, Ges. (1838), Mittheil. (1841, &c.). Augsburg, Hist. Ver. (1820, reorganized in 1834), Jahresber. (1835, &c.). Baden, Alterthums-Ver. (1844), Schriften. Bamberg, Hist. Ver. (1830), Ber. (1834, &c.). Berlin, Ver. f. Gesch. d. Mark Brandenb. (1836), Forschungen, (1841, &c.); Ver. f. d. Gesch. Berlins (1865), Schriften; Hist. Ges. (1872), Mittheil.; Archäolog. Ges. (1841), Archäol. Zeitung; Numism. Ges. (1843), Jahresber. (1845, &c.), Herold (1869); Phil. Ges. (1843), Der Gedanke (1861, &c.); Ges. f. D. Philologie (1877), Jahresber. (1879, &c.). Bonn, Ver. f. Alterth. (1841), Jahresber.; Soc. Philologa (1854). Bran-denburg, Hist. Ver. (1868), Jahresber. (1870, &c.). Braunsberg. Hist. Ver. (1856), Ztschr. (1858, &c.). Breslau, Ver. f. Gesch. u. Alt. Schl. (1846), Ztschr. (1856, &c.); Broslauer Dichterschule (1860). Cassel, Ver. f. Hess. Gesch. (1834), Ztschr. (1837, &c.). Cologne, Hist. Ver. (1854), Annalen (1855, &c.). Darmstadt, Hist. Ver. (1834), Archiv (1835, &c.). Dresden, K. Sächs. Alt. Ver. (1824), Jahresber. (1835, &c.) and Mittheil. (1835, &c.). Frankfort, Ges. f. Deutschlands ält. Geschichts-kunde (1819; since 1875 under guidance of Central-Dir. d. Mon. Germ.), Mon. Gem. (1826, &c.); Ges. f. Gesch. u. Kunst (1837), Mittheil. (1858, &c.); Freies D. Hochstift in Goethe’s Vaterhaus (1859). Halle, Thür.-Sächs. Ver. (1819), Mittheil. (1822, &c.); D. Morgenl. Ges. (1844), Ztschr. (1847, &c.) and Abhandl. (1859, &c.). Hanover, Hist. Ver. (1835), Ztschr. Kiel, Ges. f. Gesch Schl.-Holst. (1833, re-organized in 1873), Archiv (1833, &c.) and Ztschr. (1870, &c.). Leipsic, D. Ges. z. Erforschung vaterl. Spr. u. Alterth. (1697, reorganized in 1824), Jahresber. (1825, &c.) and Mittheil. (1856, &c.); Fürstlick Jablonowski’s Ges. (1768), Acta (1772, &c.); Börsenver. d. D. Buchhändler (1825), Börsenblatt (1834, &c.); Hist. Theolog. Ges. (1814). Lübeck, Hansischer Ges. Ver. (1870). Munich, Hist. Ver. (1837), Archiv (1839, &c.); Alterthums-Ver. (1864). Nuremberg, Pegnesischer Blumenorden (1644), had united with it in 1874 the Lit. Ver. (1839). Prague, Ver. f Gesch. Ratisbon, Hist. Ver. (1830), Verhandl. (1832, &c.). Schwerin, Ver. f. Meckl. Gesch.u. Alterthumsk. (1835), Jahrbuck (1836, &c) and other publications. Stuttgart, Lit. Ver. (1839), Bibliothek (1843, &c.); Württemb. Alterth. Ver. (1843). Vienna, K. k. Orient. Akad. Weimar, D. Shakespeare Ges. (1864), Jahrbuch (1865, &c.) Wiesbaden, Ver. f. Nass. Alterth. (1821), Annale (1830, &c.) Würzburg, Hist. Ver. (1830), Archiv (1833). SWITZERLAND: Basel, Hist. u. Antiq. Ges. Bern, Schweiz. Hist. Ges. Freiburg, Soc. d’Hist. Geneva, Soc. d’Hist. et d’Arch. Lausanne, Soc. d’Hist. Zurich Soc. d’Hist. ; Antiq. Ges. ITALY: Genoa, Soc. di Storia Patria. Naples, R. Accad. ; R. Accad. Ercolanese. Rome, Accad. Rom. di Arch. Soc. Rom. di Storia Patria ; Inst. di Corr. Arch. ; Brit. and Amer. Arch. Soc.; K. Deutsch. Archäolog. Inst., Arch. Ztng. (1843-85) and Jahrb. Turin, Real Deputaz. di Stor. Patr. BELGIUM: Antwerp, Acad. d’Archéol. (1842), Bull. (1865, &c.). Bruges, Soc. pour l’Hist. et les Antiq. de la Flandre (1839), Publ. Brussels, Soc. de l’Hist. de Belgique (1858), Publ. ; Soc. Roy. de Numism. (1841), Revue.; Soc. des Bibliophiles (1865). Ghent, Soc. Roy. des Beaux-Arts et de la Litt. (1808), Annales (1844, &c.); Willems Fond (1851). Liége, Inst. Archéol. (1852), Bull. (1852, &c.). Louvain, Soc. Litt. (1839), .Mém. and Publ. Mons, Cercle Archéol. (1856), Annales (1857, &c.). Tournai, Soc. Hist. et Litt. (1846), Bull. (1849, &c.). Verviers Soc. Arch. Ypres, Soc. Hist. (1861). HOLLAND: Leyden, Acad. Lugduno-Batava. Luxembourg, Inst. Archéol., (1846, reorganized in 1862), Annales (1849, &c.). Utrecht, Hist. Genootschap. DENMARK: Copenhagen, Island. Litt. Selskab; K. Danske Selskab; K. Nordisk Oldskrift Selskab. Reykjavik (Iceland) Fornleifarfelag. NORWAY: Christiania, Norske Hist. Forening; Norske Oldskrift Selskab. SWEDEN: K. Vitterhets Hist. och Antiq. Akad.; Svenska Akad. SPAIN: Barcelona, R. Acad. de Buenas Letras; Madrid, R. Acad. de Cienc. Mor. y Pol.; R. Acad. Esp. Arq. ; R. Acad. de la Hist. GREECE: Athens, Soc. Archéol. RUSSIA: Helsingfors, Finska Litt. Sällskapet. Mitau, Courland Soc. of Lit. and Art. Moscow, Imp. Russ. Soc. of Hist. and Antiq. ; Archaeolog. Soc. Narva, Archaeolog. Soc. Odessa, Hist. and Antiq. Soc. Riga, Lett. Lit. Ges. ; Hist. and Antiq. Soc. St Petersburg, Russ. Hist. Soc. TURKEY: Constantinople, Soc. for Adv. of Turkish Lit.; Hellenic Philolog. Soc. JAPAN: Yokohama, Asiatic Soc. of Japan, Trans. (1874, &c.).


The Congrés International pour les Progrés des Sciences Géographiques first met in 1871. The Royal Geographical Society of London, founded in 1830, had joined to it in the following year the African Association (1788), the successor of the Saturday Club; the Palestine Association (1805) became merged with it in 1834. It publishes Journal (1832, &c.) and Proceedings (1857, &c.). The Hakluyt Society (1846) has printed more than 70 vols. of rare voyages and travels. The Alpine Club (1858). whose publications are Peaks Passes, and Glaciers (1859-62) and Journal (1863, &c.), and the Palestine Exploration Fund (1865), publishing Quarterly Statement (1869, &c.) and Memoirs, meet in London. The Scottish Geo-graphical Society (1884) has its centre at Edinburgh, and issues the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Manchester has also a Geographical Society.
AUSTRALIA: Melbourne, Geogr. Soc. Sydney, Geogr. Inst. CANADA: Quebec, Geogr. Soc. INDIA: Bombay, Geogr. Soc., Trans. (1836, &c.).

UNITED STATES: New York, Amer. Geogr. (and Statist.) Soc., Bull. (1852, &c.), Journ. (1859, &c.), and Proc. (1862, &c.); Palestine Exploration Soc. (1870). FRANCE: Bordeaux, Soc. de Géogr. Commerciale (1874), Bull. Lyons, Soc. de Géogr. (1873), Bull. Marseilles, Soc. de Géogr. (1876), Bull. Paris, Soc. de Géogr. (1821, reorganized in 1827), Bull. (1822, &c.). GERMANY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: D. Geographentag (1881), Verhandl. ; D. Alpen-Ver. (1869), Ztschr. u. Jahrb. (1869, &c,). Berlin, Ges. f. Erdkunde, (1828), Ztschr. (1853, &c.) and Verhandl. (1873: &c.); Ges. zur Erforschung Aequat. Afrikas (1873), Corr.-Blatt. ; Afrik. Ges. (1878), Mittheil. Bremen, Geograph. Ges. (1877), Geogr. Blätter. Carlsruhe, Badische Geogr. Ges. (1880), Verhandl. Cassel, Ver. f. Erdk. (1882). Darmstadt, Ver.f. Erdk.(1845), Notizblatt (1854, &c.). Dresden, Ver. f, Erdk. (1863), Jahresber. Frankfort, Ver. f. Geogr. u. Statist. (1836), Jahresber. Halle, Ver. f. Erdk. (1873). Hamburg, Geogr. Ges. (1873), Jahresber. Hanover, Geogr. Ges. (1878), Jahresber. Jena, Geogr. Ges. (1880), Mittheil. Leipsic, Ver. f. Erdk. (1861), Jahresber. Lübeck, Geogr. Ges. (1880). Munich, Geogr. Ges. (1869), Jahresber. Pesth, Hung. Geogr. Soc. (1873). Vienna, K. k. Geogr. Ges., Mitth. (1857, &c.); Ver. der Geogr. Weimar, Geogr. Inst. SWITZERLAND: Bern, Inst. Geogr.; Schweiz. Alpen--Club. Geneva, Soc. de Géogr., Mém. (1860, &c.). Zurich, Karten-Ver. ITALY: Rome, Soc. Geogr. Ital., Bull. (1868, &c.). Turin, Circolo Geogr. Ital. (1868). BELGIUM: Antwerp, Soc. Belge de Géogr. (1870), Bull. Brussels, Soc. Belge de Géogr. HOLLAND: Amsterdam, Het Aardrijkskundig Genoot., Tijdschrift (1874, &c.); Landkundige Genootsckap. DENMARK: Copenhagen, Geogr. Selskab. SPAIN and PORTUGAL: Lisbon, Soc. de Geogr., Bol. (1876, &c.). Madrid, Soc. Geogr., Bol. (1876, &c.). RUSSIA: Irkutsk, Geogr. Soc., Bull. (1871, &c.). St Petersburg, Imp. Russ. Geogr. Soc., Mem. (1849, &c.) and Bull. (1865, &c.). Tiflis, Geogr. Soc., Mem. (1852, &c.). EGYPT: Cairo, Soc. Khédiviale de Géogr., Bull. (1876, &c.). JAPAN: Tokio, Geogr. Soc. CENTRAL and SOUTH AMERICA: Buenos Ayres, Inst. Geogr. Argent. Mexico, Soc. de Geogr. ed Estad., Bol. (1861, &c.). Rio Janeiro, Roy. Geogr. Soc.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.—The Catal. of Printed Books in the British Museum (1841), folio, s.v. "Academies," contains a list of all the publications of societies at that time in the museum. This has been re-arranged and greatly enlarged as Academies (1885-86), 5 parts folio. See also Annuaire des Soc. Sav. do la France et de l’Etranger (1846), 8vo; A. d’Héricourt, Annuaire, 1863-66, 3 pts. 8vo; Cat. of Periodicals in Bodleian Lib., pt. iii. Foreign, 1880 8vo; S. H. Scudder, Cat. of Scientific Serials, 1633-1876, Camb. (U. S.), 1879, 8vo, very complete; P. E. Richter, Periodica im Besitze des k. öff. Bibl. zu Dresden, 1880, 8vo ; Cat. of Trans., &c., in Radcliffe, Lib., 1884, 8vo; List of Foreign Corr. of the Smithsonian Inst. 1886, 8vo. British societies are now well represented in the Year Book of the Scientific and Learned of Great Brit. and Ireland, 1884, &c. See also Hume’s Learned Societies and Printing Clubs of the U. K., 1853, 8vo; E. Mailly, Inst. Sc. de la Grande Bret., 1861-67, 6 pts. ; H. G. Bohn, App. to Bibliographer’s Manual, 1864, 8vo; Engl. Catal. of Books, 1864-82, 3 vols. 8vo; and "Sc. Societies and Field Clubs," in Nature, v., viii. For France, see U. Robert, Bibl. des Soo. Sav de la France, pt. i, 1878; F. Bouillier, L’Institut et les Acad. do Province, 1879, 8vo; Bibliogr. des Travaux Hist. et Arch. publ. par W Soc. Sav. de la France, 1885, &c., 4to (in prog.). For Germany and Austria-Hungary, see H. A. Stöhr, Allg. Deutsches Vereinshandbuch, 1873, &c., 8vo; J. Müller, Die wiss. Vereine u. Ges. Deutschlands im 19ten Jakrh., 1883, 4to (in prog.); J. Winckler, Die period. Presse Oesterreichs, 1875, 8vo; and P. A. F. Walther for German historical societies (1845). E. Huth, Verzeichniss, Berlin, 1887, &c. (in prog.), describes publications of societies relating to natural science. See also "Les Congrès Scientifiques," by Count de Marsy, in Compte Rendu du Congrès Bibliogr., 1879. For Belgium, see Introd. á la Bibl. de la Belgique, 1875. For Italy, see G. Ottino, La Stampa Periodica in Italia, 1875, 8vo. For Russia, consult C. Woldemar, Gesch. d. russ. Gelehrten-und Schul-Anstalten, St Petersburg, 1865, 8vo, and Kawall, Die neuen russ. Naturforschergesellschaften, Riga, 1872-74. (H. R. T.).

The above article was written by: Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.; Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club; librarian to Lord Acton, 1873-74; one of the organisers and joint-sec. of 1st International Conference of Librarians, 1877; President of the Library Assoc., 1897-98; treas. and sec. Metropolitan Free Libraries Committee, 1878-80; joint-editor of the first three voluumes of Transactions of Library Association, and of Reports of 1st and 2nd International Library Conference.

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