1902 Encyclopedia > Sussex


SUSSEX, a maritime county in the south of England, lying between 50° 43' and 51° 9' N. lat. and 0° 49' E. and 0° 58' W. long. It is 76 miles from Lady Holt Park to Kent Ditch, and 28 miles from Tunbridge Wells to Beachy Head, and adjoins Kent on the N.E., Surrey on the N, Hampshire on the W., and the English Channel on the S. Its total area is 933,269 acres or 1458 square miles.

Hills. The range of chalk hills known as the South Downs divides the county into two districts—that of the coast and that of the Wealden—which are of unequal extent and possess very different characteristics. In the west-ern part of the county the South Downs are about 10 miles distant from the sea; they continue eastwards for about 45 miles, and terminate in the bold headland of Beachy Head. Their average height is about 500 feet, though some of the summits reach 700 (Ditchling Beacon, 813 feet; Chanctonbury Bing, 783; Firle Beacon, 700; and the Devil's Dyke, 697). The Forest Ridge extends through the northern part of the county from Petworth to Crowborough, reaching the coast in Fairlight Down. The principal summits are Crowborough Beacon (796 feet), Brightling Hill (647), and Fairlight Down (528). The county has suffered greatly from incursions of the sea. The site of the ancient cathedral of Selsey is now a mile out at sea. Between 1292 and 1340 upwards of 5500 acres were submerged. In the early part of the 14th cen-tury Pagham harbour was formed by a sudden irruption of the sea, devastating 2700 acres. Becentlyall this land has been reclaimed and again brought under cultivation,

There is considerable reason for believing that the whole coast-line of the county has been slightly raised in the last 800 years (possibly by earthquake shock), as the large estuaries at the river mouths no longer exist, and the archipelago round Pevensey (eye signifies "island") has only a slight elevation above the neighbouring marsh land.

Rivers. The rivers are small and unimportant. The principal are the Bother, the Cuckmere, the Ouse, the Adur, the Aran, and the Lavant. The Bother rises in the Forest Bidge, in the parish of Botherfield, and enters the sea near Rye, its course having been diverted by a great storm on 12th October 1250, before which date its exit was 12 miles to the east, beyond Dungeness. The Cuckmere also rises in the Forest Ridge, near Heathfield, and empties itself into the sea a little to the east of Seaford. The Ouse rises in St Leonards Forest, to the north-west of Lindfielcl, and, passing through Isfield and Lewes, enters the sea at New-haven, now the principal port in the county. The former outlet was at Seaford, but in the reign of Elizabeth the sea broke through the beach bank at some warehouses just below Bishopstone and formed what is now called the old harbour, which was in use until the Newhaven one was made a safer exit. The Adur has three sources, all in the neighbourhood of St Leonards Forest, and flows southwards, entering the sea at Southwick. The mouth of the river formerly shifted from year to year, ranging both east and west over a distance of 2 miles. The Aran rises in St Leonards Forest, in the parish of Slinfold, flows through Amberley and Arundel, and enters the sea at Littlehampton. The Lavant has its source in Charlton Forest and encircles Chichester on all sides except the north, entering the sea through creeks in the extreme south-west corner of the county.

Forests. The portion of the county to the north of the South Downs is called the Weald; it formerly formed part of the forest of Andredsweald (" the wood or forest without habit-ations"), which was 120 miles in length and about 30 in breadth. The total area of forests in 1885 was 113,043 acres, being the greatest of any county in England. About 1660 the total was estimated at over 200,000 acres. The chief remains of the ancient forests are Tilgate, Ashdown, and St Leonards, but the names in many parts indicate their former wooded character, as Hurstpierpoint (hurst meaning "wood"), Midhurst, Fernhurst, Billingshurst, Ashurst, and several others. The forests were interspersed with lagoons, and the rainfall being very great caused marshes and the large river estuaries; the rainfall, how-ever, abated in consequence of the cutting down of the Wealden forests for fuel in the extensive ironworks that formerly existed in that district. The wood was exported in the reign of Edward VI.

Geology. The greater portion of the county is occupied by the Chalk formation, of which the South Downs are almost entirely composed. Firestone is found in the west, and Steyning is built upon it. At the base of the Downs the Greensand crops up, but is of small extent. The Wealden formations occupy nearly all the inland district of the county, and in these was found the ironstone from which iron was extracted. Sussex was at one time the centre of the English iron manufacture; before 1653 there were 42 iron-forges or mills (reduced to 18 before 1667) and 27 furnaces (reduced to 11 before 1664), which employed 50,000 men[723-1] and furnished the main supply of ordnance for the national defence. The last forge at Ashburnham was not extinguished until 1809. Between 1872 and 1876 boring was carried on at Netherfield, near Battle, with the object of discovering what beds were below the Wealden, and if possible of reaching the Palaeozoic rocks, which at Kentish. Town, Harwich, Ostend, and Calais had been found at a depth of about 1000 feet below the sea-level. Some slight hope "was entertained of the occurrence of Coal-measures, as in the Boulonnais the Carboniferous limestone, where last seen, dips south. The boring was continued to a depth of 1905 feet, the Oxford Clay being reached. The chief result was the discovery of the unusual thickness of the Kimmeridge Clay, which began at 275 feet from the surface and continued to a depth of about 1469 feet. The most practical result was the finding of thick beds of gyp-sum (at about 160 feet), which were before unknown in the Weald and are now worked at Netherfield. From Beachy Head to Selsey Bill there lies, south of the Downs, a low and level tract belonging to the Tertiary period, of which there is no such record at any other place in England. The towns of Hove, Worthing, Littlehampton, Bognor, &c, are built on gravel, sand, and loam of the Post-Pliocene or Pleistocene series, and these superficial beds overlie the Eocene series in patches and contain a large fossil fauna. Remains of the mammoth occur in the mud deposit (or Lutraria clay) of this district, and the Chichester museum contains the greater portion of a fine skeleton of the Elephas antiquus obtained off Selsey Bill. Of the British Quater-nary fossils forty-five are peculiar to Selsey, and twenty others probably find here their earliest place in British geological history. The Bracklesham beds occur at the bay of that name, and their main divisions extend from Wittering on the west to the Barn Bocks, east of Selsey Bill, a distance of 7 miles. They are full of fossil shells, particularly nummulitic.[724-1]

Flora and fauna. An analysis of the flora of the county was placed before the British Association in 1872 by Mr W. B. Hemsley (Report, 1872 p. 128), who stated the total number of indigenous plants to be 1000, to which 59 introduced species must be added. The most interest-ing features of the flora are the number of species to the county area, the species peculiar to certain formations, viz., the Chalk (56), maritime species (76), and the rare species, especially of the Atlantic and Scottish types. Amongst the rarer marsh plants are Isnardia palustris, Scirpus triqueter, S. carinatus, Pyrola media, Habeneria albida, Festuca sylvatica of the " Scottish " type of Watson ; this last is not found in adjoining counties. A prominent feature of the Wealden flora is the extent of heath land and the large size the heath attains. The fauna includes 29 species of Mammalia. The birds are very numerous, no less than 291 species having been recorded. There are about 76 species of general migratory visitors. Of the 216 species of marine fishes found round the British coasts 106 have been observed off Sussex, and there are also 19 freshwater fish.[724-2]

Climate. The county presents two distinct climates, that of the coast district being mild, equable, and dry, whilst that of the Wealden district is continental, extreme, and rainy. The coast rainfall is about 25 to 26 inches annually and that of the Weald about 33 inches ; this is due partly to the South Downs, which rise up in the path of the rain-clouds, and partly to the large extent of forest. In the wet years of 1852 and 1872 the rainfall at several Wealden stations exceeded 50 inches. At Crowborough Beacon the average yearly rainfall from 1871 to 1884 was 38'16 inches ; at Brighton during the same period it was only 28'87. Temperature in the Weald at Uckfield has ranged from 98° Fahr. on 14th July to - 4° on 20th January 1838. The mean daily range of temperature in the Weald is about half as much again as on the coast. The in-fluence of the sea in modifying the temperature of the coast district is specially noticeable in the autumn months, when the temperature ;s higher than in the Weald and other parts of England northwards, and fashion has (perhaps unconsciously) selected the period from September to November for the Brighton season. Sea-bathing, first introduced about the middle of the 18th century, together with the fresh pure air, has turned the stream of health-seekers from Bath and Tunbridge Wells and other watering-places into Sussex. The poor but populous fishing-town of Brighthelmston developed into the fashionable town of Brighton ; the new town of Worthing sprang up in Broadwater parish ; and the fishing village of East-bourne rose in importance. The Cinque Port town of Hastings afterwards developed its fashionable suburb St Leonards, and Sea-ford was also resorted to ; in the western part of the county the hamlet of Bognor became a fashionable place. The opening of the railway from London to Brighton in 1840, soon followed by coast lines from east to west, occasioned a great increase in the coast towns, and now almost the entire coast (except in its steep parts) presents a line of fashionable "health resorts" unequalled in any English county; these indeed form the special distinguishing feature of Sussex amongst other counties.

Administration. Sussex is divided into the six rapes [724-3] of Hastings, Pevensey, Lewes, Bramber, Arundel, and Chichester. The only rapes which exist for practical purposes are that of Hastings, wdiich has a separate coroner, and the last three, in which the liability to repair bridges falls as of common right upon the rape instead of the county division. The Act 19 Hen. VII. cap. 24 directed that for convenience the county court should be held at Lewes as well as at Chichester, and this apparently gave rise to the division of Sussex into east and west parts, and separate quarter sessions are now held for these two divisions. The boroughs of Hastings, Bye, Brighton, and the city of Chichester have separate commissions of the peace and courts of quarter sessions. There are eighteen petty and special sessional divisions. At the time of the Domesday survey the county con-tained 65 hundreds, but the modern total is 68. Of the 7 municipal boroughs which the county contains Arundel, Chichester, Hastings, and Bye existed long before the passing of the Municipal Corpora-tions Act, 1835 ; Brighton was incorporated in 1854, Lewes in 1881, and Eastbourne in 1883. Winchelsea, Seaford, Pevensey, and Mid-hurst were unreformed corporations existing under old charters, the first being governed by a mayor and the last three by bailiffs, but all their privileges have lately been abolished. "Sussex," as Mr Freeman observes,[724-4] "is no shire, no department, but a component element of England, older than England." The diocese of Chichester is nearly coextensive with the county and the old kingdom of Sussex. In the year 681 the county was converted to Christianity by St Wilfrid (afterwards archbishop of York), who founded the see of Selsey, but in 1075 the see was transferred from Selsey to Chichester. The diocese consists of two archdeaconries, Lewes and Chichester, and five deaneries. There are 322 civil parishes, with parts of seven others.

Parliamentary representation. Prior to the Reform Bill of 1832 Sussex returned twenty-eight members to the House of Commons, two for the county and two each for the boroughs of Arundel, Bramber, Chichester, East Grinstead, Hastings, Horsham, Lewes, Midhurst, New Shoreham (with the rape of Bramber), Rye, Seaford, Steyning, and Winchelsea. The borough of New Shoreham was in 1771 added to the rape of Bramber. In 1832 Bramber, East Grinstead, Seaford, Steyning, and Winchelsea were entirely disfranchised, the first-named being classed with the worst of the "rotten" boroughs ; Arundel, Hors-ham, Midhurst, and Rye were each deprived of one member ; the county was divided into two parts (East and West), each returning two members ; and a new borough, Brighton, was created, to which two members were allotted. Chichester and Lewes were each de-prived of one member in 1867, and Arundel was disfranchised in 1868. The Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885, disfranchised Chi-chester, Horsham, Midhurst, New Shoreham (with the rape of Bramber), and Eye, and deprived Hastings of one member. It also divided the county into six (instead of two) divisions, viz., Lewes, Southern or Eastbourne, Eastern or Rye, South-western or Chiches-ter, Northern or East Grinstead, North-western or Horsham, each returning one member. Brighton still retains two members.

Landowners. According to the latest owners of land Return (1873), there were 11 proprietors with more than 10,000 acres each; 8 of 5000 to 10,000 ; 1015 of 100 and less than 5000 ; of 10 and less than 100 acres, 1677 ; of 1 and less than 10, 2347 ; and of less than an acre, 14,675,— making a grand total of 19,733 landowners, having a gross esti-mated rental of £2,418,522 ; there were in addition 23,738 acres of common or waste lands. The eleven principal landowners wore— Lord Leconfield, 30,221 acres ; the duke of Norfolk, 19,217 ; the duke of Richmond, 17,117 ; the earl of Chichester, 16,232 ; the marquis of Abergavenny, 15,364 ; Rev. John Goring, 14,139 ; the earl of Ashburnham, 14,051; the earl of Egmont, 14,021; Viscount Gage, 13,739; the Earl De la Warr, 11,185 ; and the duke of Devon-shire, 11,062. At the time of the Domesday survey there were 15 tenants in capite, 534 under-tenants, and 2497 bordarii (or cottagers), also 765 cotarii (or cottars). The custom of borough-English, by which land descends to the youngest son, prevailed to an extraordinary degree in Sussex, and no less than 140 manors have been catalogued in wdiich it was found.[724-5] Gavelkind tenure existed in Rye, in the large manor of Brede, and in Coustard manor (in Brede parish).

Agriculture. The coast district has been under cultivation from the time of Romans and is very fertile, beng specially suitable for market gardens and for growing food and trees. The fig gardens of West Tarring are celebrated. Marshall,[724-6] describing the Weald in 1788, says: "The townships of the Weald are in general very large, owing, as it would seem, to the fewness of sites fit for habitation. . . . A large portion of the vale lands remain in a state of common-age, particularly on the outskirts and towards the extremities of the district. . . . There is scarcely an acre of natural herbage or old grass-land "; of the coast district he observes that there is strong circumstantial evidence that the lands were not only brought to their present form but cultivated before the laying out of town-ships. He also mentions that in the Isle of Selsey he observed some common field land, as well as about Chichester. The South Downs afford excellent pasture for sheep, Sussex being famed for a special breed of blackfaced sheep. The total number in 1886 was 518,665,—seventh in order amongst English counties. The total area of land and water in Sussex is 933,269 acres (1881), of which in 1886 there were 682,072 under crops, bare fallow, and grass, made up of 74,518 acres of wheat, 18,067 of barley, 66,509 of oats, 399 of rye, 6307 of beans, and 9493 of pease,—the total of corn crops being 175,293 acres. The green crops were 73,315 acres in extent, including 3405 of potatoes, 28,686 of turnips and swedes, 12,152 of mangolds, 326 of carrots, 11,847 of cabbage, kohl-rabi, and rape, and 16,899 of vetches and other green crops. Clover, sain-foin, and grasses under rotation occupied 03,724 acres (47,851 for hay). Permanent pasture or grass amounted to 340,352 acres (117,956 for hay), included chiefly in the South Downs and used for sheep pasture, and the extensive pastures of Pevensey Marsh, used for fattening stock. The total area cultivated with hops was 10,391 acres, Sussex ranking next to Kent. In 1833 the total of hops was only 7701 acres. The number of horses in 1886 was 24,964, of which 20,473 were used solely for agricultural purposes. Cattle in the same year numbered 115,633, of which 40,693 were cows and heifers in milk or in calf. The total of pigs was 41,064. Poultry in 1885 included 317,712 fowls, the fattening of which for the London market forms an important industry in the north-eastern part of the county, the centre being at Heathfield.

Population. The earliest statement as to the population of Sussex is made by Bede, who describes the county as containing in the year 681 land of 7000 families; allowing ten to a family (not an unreasonable estimate at that date), the total population would be 70,000. At the time of the Domesday survey (about 400 years later) the total number of tenants in capite, under-tenants, bordarii, cotarii, servi, villani, &c. (in fact all able-bodied males), was 10.410.[725-1] Assuming each of these to represent a family of ten, the total population was then 104,100. In 1693 the county is stated [725-2] to have contained 21,537 houses. If seven were allowed to a house at that date, the total population would be 150,759. It is curious, therefore, to observe that in 1801 the population was only 159,311. The decline of the Sussex iron-works probably accounts for the small increase of population during several centuries, although after the massacre of St Bartholomew upwards of 1500 Huguenots landed at Rye, and in 1685 (after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes) many more refugees were added to the county. In 1881 the total population was 490,505, of whom 232,331 were male and 258,174 female. The principal towns were Brighton (population, 107,546; 128,440 in parliamentary borough), Hastings (42,258 ; 47,738 in parliamentary borough), Chichester (8114), Lewes (10,815), and Rye (4667).

Fisheries. Bede records that St Wilfrid, when he visited the county in 681, taught the people the art of net-fishing. At the time of the Domesday survey the fisheries were extensive, and no less than 285 salinse (or salt-works) existed. The customs of the Brighton fishermen were reduced to writing in 1579. The census of 1851 returned 915 fishermen, but a parliamentary return in 1869 stated the number of men and boys to be 2236, and they manned 780 boats. The census of 1881 returned 1471 fishermen. The approximate value of the fish landed at Brighton yearly is about £20,000.

Manufactures and trade. There are now no important industries ; the chief is the brick, tile, and pottery, the main centre of which is St John's Common. The census of 1881 returned 1485 brickmakers in the county. The London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway Company have extensive works at Brighton. There is a daily service of passenger steamers from Newhaven to Dieppe in France, and large quantities of fruit, vegetables, butter, and eggs are conveyed from France to London.

History. The earliest settlers in the county were the Celtic tribes whose memorials are found in the hill-forts of Mount Caburn, Hollingbury, White Hawk, Ditchling Beacon, Devil's Dyke, Chanctonbury Hill, Cissbury, &c., the latter being a great factory for flint implements. They gave the names to the rivers. Little is, however, known respecting them beyond the fact that they had a distinct coinage some two centuries before the Roman invasion,—a coarse imitation of the Greek stater of Philip II. of Macedon. These coins have been found in various parts of Sussex. At the time of Caesar's landing (55 B.C.) the Belgic tribe of the Regni inhabited the county and had their capital at Regnum (Chichester). Sir G. B. Airy fixed on Pevensey as the place of Caesar's landings in 55 and 54 B.C.; this is, however, much disputed, and opinion generally puts the landing near Deal. A few years after this Sussex appears to have formed part of the kingdom of Commius, a British chieftain, and upon his death seems to have been allotted to his son Tincommius. These two are the only British rulers of the county whose coins have been found. Upon the conquest of Britain under Claudius the Romans found a ready tool in a king named Cogidubnus, who is mentioned by Tacitus, and who was created imperial legate, and may probably be identified with the king of that name mentioned in the celebrated inscription on the temple of Neptune and Minerva found at Chichester. Sussex was reduced to submission prior to the reign of Vespasian, and Major-General Pitt-Rivers suggests that the hill-fort of Mount Caburn may have been one of the twenty oppida Suetonius states to have been reduced by that emperor. Roman settlements became numerous in the county and villas sprang up, the remains of which are still occasionally found, the chief being that at Bignor, near Stane Street, the Roman road connecting Chichester with London and still partly traceable. A fortress was erected at Anderida (Pevensey), and there was another town named Mutu-antonis, which is thought to be Lewes ; but, having regard to the Antons in West Sussex, it may have been situated farther west than Lewes, perhaps at Littlehampton. Sussex was the first county invaded by the Saxons, who in 477 landed under Aelle at Keynor near Chichester. After fourteen years of struggle they reached the point where the South Downs abut on the sea at Beachy Head, and in 491, as the Saxon Chronicle grimly records, "Aelle and Cissa beset Andredes-ceaster (Anderida), and slew all that were therein, nor was there a Briton left there any more." This resulted in the formation of a distinct kingdom of South Saxons, whence its name of Sussex. The subjugation of the county was very complete, for it is still one of the most thoroughly Saxon counties in England, and its inhabitants, speech, place-names, customs, &c, are almost entirely Saxon. The next important event in the history of the county was the landing of William of Normandy (28th September 1066), followed by the battle of Senlac [725-3] or Hastings (14th October 1066). The Conqueror erected on the battlefield a state abbey dedicated to St Martin, but it was not completed until after his death. The next chief event was the battle of Lewes between Henry III. and the barons under Simon de Montfort in 1264, which "wiped out the stain—if stain it were—of Senlac." The only other important events have been the rebellion of Jack Cade in 1450, which received very substantial support in East Sussex, and the naval engagement fought off Beachy Head in 1690, in which the English and Dutch fleets combined were defeated by the French. Charles II. in his flight after the battle of Worcester escaped in 1651 from Brighton in a fishing-boat.

The foremost place amongst the illustrious natives of Sussex must be assigned to Shelley the poet. Of statesmen we have Richard Cobden and John Selden, and of eminent ecclesiastics Archbishops Frewen, John Peckham, and William Juxon, also Archdeacon Hare. Its poets include Thomas Otway, Thomas Sackville (afterwards earl of Dorset), and John Fletcher. Of antiquaries we find Sir William Burrell, John Elliot, Rev. Thomas W. Horsfield, Mark Antony Lower, Dr Mantell (geologist), and Dr Richard Russell (founder of modern Brighton).

Dialect.—A large number of Saxon words are still retained and pronounced in the old style ; thus gate becomes ge-at. The letter a is very broad in all words, as if followed by u, and in fact converts words of one syllable into words of two, as fails (face), taüst (taste), &c. Again, a before double d becomes ar, as arder and larder for adder and ladder; oi is like a long i, as spile (spoil), intmcnt (ointment); an e is substituted for a in such words as rag, flag, he. The French refugees in the 16th and 17th centuries introduced many words which are still in use. Thus a Sussex woman when unprepared to receive visitors says she is in dishabille (déshabillé, undress); if her child is unwell, it looks pekid (piqué), if fretful is a little peter-grievous (petit-grief) ; she cooks with a broach (broche, a spit), and talks of coasts (coste, Old French) or ribs of meat, &c. There is an excellent Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect by the Rev. W. D. Parish.

Bibliography.—Amongst standard historical works dealing with Sussex history are E. A. Freeman's History of the Norman Conquest and Life of William Rufus ; J. R. Green's Making of England ; W. H. Blaauw's The Barons' War; and Kemble's Saxons in England. The general history of the county is dealt with in Horslield's History of Sussex; Dallaway and Cartwright's History of the Western Division of the County of Sussex ; M. A. Lower's Compendious History of Sussex; Dudley C. Elwes and Charles J. Robinson's History of the Castles, Mansions, and Manors of Western Sussex ; P. de Putron's Nooks and Corners of Old Sussex; W. R. W. Stephens's Diocesan Histories (The South Saxon Diocese: Selsey—Chichester); Sussex Archaeological Society's Collections, 34 vols., and index to the first 25 vols.; Domesday Book in relation to the County of Sussex (1886). See also C. Fleet, Glimpses of our Sussex Ancestors, two series ; Swainson, Chichester Cathedral; Col. Lane-Fox (now Pitt-Rivers), "Examination into the Character and Probable Origin of the Hill Forts of Sussex," in Archaeología, xlii. 27, and "Further Remarks," &c, ib., p. 53 ; G. Slade Butler, Topographica Sussexiana ; M. A. Lower, The Churches of Sussex (illustrated by R. Nibbs) and The Worthies of Sussex ; J. C. Egerton, Sussex Folk and Sussex Ways ; Proceedings of the Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society ; W. E. Baxter, The Domesday Book for the County of Sussex, being that portion of a Return of Owners of Land in 1873 which refers to Sussex, Lewes, 1876 ; .1. T). Perry, Historical and Descriptive Account of the Coast of Sussex ; Frederick Dixon, The Geology of Sussex; M. A. Lower, Chronicles of Pevensey; William Topley, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of England and Wales: Geology of the Weald, parts of the Counties of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Hants ; J. G. Bishop, Brighton Pavilion and its Royal Associations ; Merrilield, A Sketch of the Natural History of Brighton and its Vicinity, 1864 ; H. D. Gordon, The History of Harting ; Basil Champneys, A Quiet Corner of England: Studies of Landscape and Architecture in Winchelsea, Rye, and the Romney Marsh, 1874 ; M. A. Tierney, History and Antiquities of the Castle and Town of Arundel; Holloway, History of Rye; Horsfield, History and Antiquities of Lewes; W. D. Cooper, History of Winchelsea ; M. A. Lower, Chronicles of Battle Abbey ; Howard, Hastings Past and Present, &c. (F. E. S.)


723-1 Suss. Arch. Coll., xxxii. pp. 22-25.

724-1 Address to Geological Section of British Association, 1882.

724-2 Good lists of fauna and flora of certain parts of the eastern division of the county have been published by the Hasting Literary and Philosophical Society and the Eastbourne Natural History Society.

724-3 Probably derived from the Icelandic herrpr, signifying land divided by a rope. It is first mentioned in the Domesday survey.

724-4 English Towns and Districts, p. 125.

724-5 Suss. Arch. Coll., vi. 164.

724-6 Rural Economy of the Southern Counties, &c.

725-1 Sir H. Ellis, General Introduction to Domesday Book.

725-2 Account by John Houghton, F.R.S., of Acres and Houses in each County (King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus.)

725-3 The hill of Senlac is now occupied by the abbey and town of Battle.

The above article was written by: Frederick E. Sawyer, F.S.A., Brighton.

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