1902 Encyclopedia > Wine


WINE. The word "wine" in its widest sense includes all alcoholic beverages derived from sacchariferous vegetable juices by spontaneous fermentation; in the narrower sense of its ordinary acceptance it designates the fermented product of grape juice, with which alone the present article proposes to deal.


Vinous fermentation, phenomenally and chemically, is fully explained under FERMENTATION (vol. ix. p. 92 sq.). From what is said there it will be readily understood that wine-making is an easy art where there is a sufficient supply of perfectly ripe grapes. In Italy, Spain, Greece, and other countries of southern Europe nature takes care of this; in the more northern of the wine-producing districts of France, and especially on the Rhine in Germany, the culture of the vine means hard work from one end of the year to the other, which only exceptionally finds its full reward. And yet it is in those naturally less favoured districts that the most generous wines are produced. Southern wines excel in body and strength; but even the best of them lack the beautiful aroma (Blume or bouquet) characteristic of high-class Rhine wine. The large proportion of sugar in southern grape juice would appear to be
inimical to the development of that superior flavour. Yet in Missouri, for instance, where wine is produced in pretty much the Rhenish way, from Rhenish kinds of grapes, which there ripen far more readily than they do at home, no wine equal in flavour to real Rhine wine has as yet been made. It seems that the hard struggle for existence which the vine-plant has to fight on the Rhine is essential for the development of the peculiar flavour of the wine.

To secure the highest attainable degree of maturity in
for j.jle grapeS) the vintage on the Rhine is postponed until wine.' S *ne graPes almost begin to wither, and the white grapes on the sunny side of the bunches exhibit a yellowish brown (instead of a green) colour and show signs of flac-cidity. In the best vineyards (where it is worth the trouble) the bunches are carefully sorted, the ripest being put aside and pressed by themselves. In some places even the individual bunches are analysed and the best berries cut out with a pair of scissors, to be used by themselves. The processes concerned in the extraction of the juice are described below (p. 605). If the production of red wine is intended, the juice is allowed to ferment over the stalks and skins until enough of alcohol has been produced to enable the juice to extract the pigment from the skins. After that juice and residue are separated. The alcohol, however, extracts other things besides the pigment, especi-ally tannin, which imparts to red wines their characteristic astringency. The must (or magma of crushed grapes) is immediately conveyed to a cool cellar, the temperature of which should lie between 9° and 12° C, and is placed in large tubs or vats or open casks, and is then left to itself. Although no yeast is added from without, vinous fermenta-tion sets in sooner or later, and after some four to five days is in full swing. On the seventh day, as a rule, the pro-cess has passed its climax, and after ten to fourteen days the yeast-scum on the surface disappears and the liquid clears up. It now constitutes what is called Jungwein, which still contains a considerable remnant of unfermented sugar. This young wine is drawn off into large casks and placed in cellars having a temperature of 9° to 12° C.; there it is left for some months, generally until the following March. The casks are filled almost to the bung-hole and kept full by the occasional addition of wine, the small bung-hole being covered so as to provide an outlet for the carbonic acid, without giving any greater access to the air than is absolutely unavoidable, to prevent acetous fer-mentation. During this period the small remnant of sugar in the young wine gradually ferments away, while the percentage of alcohol undergoes a corresponding gradual in-crease. As this after-fermentation progresses very slowly, there is no perceptible increase of temperature in the liquid, and even the newly-formed yeast cells remain deposited at the bottom as a precipitate. On it certain components of the must, being less soluble in (alcoholic) wine than in the must, separate out, as, for instance, the albumenoids and, most markedly, the bitartrate of potash; this last separates out conjointly with tartrate of lime and colour-ing-matters, as a coherent crust known as argol. The finished young wine is drawn off clear into smaller casks, bunged up, and allowed to mature. It is during this period that the "bloom" of the wine develops, probably through the very slow formation of ethers from the alcohol and the acids previously produced, or from traces of higher alcohols by oxidation. How long a wine should be allowed to mature depends on its richness. With relatively poor wines a year's maturing may be amply sufficient; rich wines continue improving for years.

To give an idea of the composition of grape juice, we quote two analyses of high-class musts of 1868, by Neubauer :—

== TABLE ==

Combined organic acids and Water (by diff.)

== TABLE ==

Supposing such musts to ferment, the albumenoids are partly precipitated as components of the yeast or other-wise, or decomposed, with formation of ammonia salt; part of the phosphates go into the yeast likewise; the greater part of the bitartrate of potash of the juice is pre-cipitated as argol; and the greater part, if not all, of the sugar is decomposed, with formation from every 100 parts of sugar destroyed of alcohol 48'5, carbonic acid 46'9, succinic acid 0'7, glycerin 3-0, matter passing into the yeast 0'9 as principal products.
Besides the predominating process of vinous fermenta- Minor tion proper, certain minor fermentations and other bye- fernlen-reactions take place, which lead to the formation of freetatlons-acetic and other fatty acids, ethers, and traces of higher alcohols. Of these last, however, which play such an important part in whisky-brewing, only very little is formed in grape-juice fermentation. Of the bye-products the ethers are undoubtedly the most important, because it is they that constitute the bloom; but our knowledge regard-ing them is very limited. The flavour of a wine is due to two sets of volatile bodies, namely—(i.) cenanthic ether (see CENANTHIC ACID, vol. xvii. p. 731), to which is due the smell common to all wines (which remains in an empty wine cask after the bloom proper has gone), and (ii.) a set of ethers (are they ethers ?) which constitute the Blume. Geiger distilled a bottle of good wine and then re-mixed residue and distillate. But the mixture was not drink-able ; yet, after having been bottled up for a long time, it gradually regained its original virtues. These remarks apply only to white Rhenish wines. Red wines, in addi-tion to the components named, contain chiefly colouring and astringent matters. The wines of Hungary, France, &c, as is well known, have a different character from those of the Rhine region o but the scientific analysis of the relations is of comparatively little importance.

In all rich musts part of the sugar escapes fermentation and imparts to the wine a higher or lower degree of sweet-ness ; southern wines (port, sherry, &c), even in their natural condition, contain relatively large percentages of sugar. In their case it is chiefly this sugar, in Rhine wine the glycerin and what there may be of unchanged sugar, which constitute the " body " of the wine. Spanish and Portuguese wines, however, especially those intended for exportation into Great Britain, are habitually doctored by the addition of cane sugar and cognac.

Wine-Brewing.—One mode of assisting nature in wine-brewing, unking is the process of " gallisizing," so called from its inventor (Gall), which is largely practised on the Rhine. In a given vineyard the must produced in a good year is characterized by certain percentages of free acid and of sugar. In bad years the latter decreases and the former increases. But this, according to Gall, can be easily remedied by adding sugar and water in sufficient quantity to establish the percentages' of free acid and sugar which are characteristic of the best years, and then allowing the mix-ture to ferment. The sugar is added sometimes in the form of cane sugar (which is no doubt the best substitute for natural grape sugar obtainable), but more frequently in the form of what is known in commerce as " grape sugar," which is in reality more or less impure dextrose produced from potatoes or maize starch (see SUGAR, vol. xxii. p. 623). Scientifically speaking, Gall's method appears to be un-objectionable ; but that it does so is really owing to our ignorance of the intricacies of the actual process of grape-juice fermentation. In any case, grape juice is one thing and dextrose plus so much pump-water is another; and the sale of gallisized as " natural" wine must be pro-nounced a fraud. Science affords a means of distinguishing a gallisized from a natural wine, if the added sugar con-sisted of dextrose. The sugar of normal grape juice is half dextrose and half lasvulose; a similar mixture is pro-duced from added cane sugar. In the process of fermenta-tion the dextrose is the first to disappear; the rest of the Isevulose then follows. Hence a finished natural wine, if it turns the plane of polarized light at all, will turn it to the left; but, if the wine was doctored with dextrose, certain dextro-rotatory impurities survive to the end and the wine turns the plane of polarization to the right (Neubauer). A commission of experts who met in Berlin in 1884 declared gallisizing to be a legitimate practice as long as the water added does not amount to more than twice the weight of the added sugar. Liebig long ago recommended the addition of a concentrated solution of neutral tartrate of potash to ready-made wine, as a means for reducing its acidity. If the free acid is tartaric, it combines with the tartrate into cream of tartar, which gradually separates out and can be removed by decanta-tion or filtration. Long before Gall, Chaptal showed that bad must may be improved by adding the calculated weight of (cane) sugar and neutralizing the excessive acid by means of powdered marble. The principal feature in Chaptal's, as compared with Gall's method, is that it dis-cards the resources of the pump. Plaster- In Spain, Portugal, and France it is a very common ing wine, practice to dust over the grapes with plaster of Paris or to add the plaster to the must. The intention is, in the former case, to prevent putrefaction of the berries, in the latter to add to the chemical stability of the wine. Ac-cording to experience, a plastered wine is ready for bottling sooner than it would be in its natural condition. The chemical process involved consists in this : the sulphate of lime, CaS04, decomposes the bitartrate of potash, (C4H406) KH, of the must, with the formation of insoluble tartrate of lime, (C4H406)Ca, and soluble acid sulphate of potash, KHS04. The latter takes up potash from, chiefly, the ^phosphate present and becomes normal salt, K2S04, with the formation of free acid {e.g., phosphoric acid). A plastered wine is relatively rich in potash and in sulphuric acid. Amongst German wine-analysts it is customary to report all the sulphuric acid found as sulphate of potash, K2S04. If the calculated sulphate amounts to less than 2 grammes per litre, the wine is passed as being at any rate not excessively plastered. But the interpretation of a sulphuric acid determination, in the case of German wines more especially, is rendered very uncertain owing to the widely spread practice that prevails of disinfecting wine-casks with sulphurous acid (by burning sulphur within them) before they are used.

Want of space will not allow of the treatment of wine analysis generally; but sufficient has been said to show how far the genuineness of a wine can be proved by chemical analysis. Against the most important and fre-quently occurring fraud, namely, the substitution of a genuine, but inferior, for a high class wine of a similar kind, chemical analysis is at present absolutely powerless.

It sometimes happens that wine becomes viscous and Injurious forms threads when poured from the bottle. This mischief, ferments, which is caused by the development of a foreign ferment, &c-can be cured by the judicious addition of a solution of tannin, which precipitates the "gum." From a similar cause comes acetous fermentation, which always takes place in a moderate degree, but may assume undue dimensions. Red wines are liable to develop a foreign substance which imparts to them a bitter taste. A wine kept in a mouldy cask assumes of course a mouldy taste and smell. Some-times a wine will " capsize" : the alcohol and the acid disappear and what was wine becomes an insipid un-drinkable liquid. Most of the injurious effects caused in wine by foreign ferments can be prevented by a process introduced by Pasteur. The wine is kept for a sufficient time at a temperature of 70° C. in the absence of air, and then transferred to a germ-free cask, without allowing it to come in contact with more air than can be helped. The only objection to Pasteur's precautionary method is that it renders the wine slightly flat through the removal of part of its carbonic acid. No doubt these deleterious con-sequences might be prevented to a very great extent if the fermentation were conducted from the first in casks which communicated with the air only through a (wide enough) tube full of cotton wool, which medium is known to filter off all germs (see FERMENTATION, vol. ix. p. 95).

Effervescing or Sparkling Wines.—These wines are Spark-largely impregnated with carbonic acid engendered by an ling after-fermentation in the closed bottle by means of added wmes-sugar. The art originated in Champagne, where the best sparkling wines are produced, and whence it has spread to the Rhine, the Moselle, and other districts. The natural wine of Champagne is not of a very high order; yet it pro-duces the best champagne. For champagne-making blue grapes are preferred. In eliminating the juice excessive pressure is avoided, so as to keep the must clear of particles of skin. The processes of fermentation and clearing, as well a3 those connected with the making of champagne generally, are described in detail below (p. 606). Cham-pagne-makers distinguish three grades of effervescence. In mousseux the pressure in the bottle amounts to from 4 to 4 J atmospheres; in grand mousseux it reaches 5 atmospheres; and less than 4 atmospheres' pressure con-stitutes cremant (from la creme, "cream"), a wine which throws up a froth but does not give off carbonic acid violently. A champagne which contains relatively little sugar is called "dry"; it is chiefly this kind which is imported into Great Britain, where champagne is used habitually as a dinner wine. In France a sw*=.t wine is preferred. The intensely sweet substance called "saccha-rine " (see SUGAR, vol. xxii. p. 623) has been utilized for producing a sparkling wine which is both sweet and dry. Cheap champagnes may be (and we believe are) produced by simply adding sugar and some flavouring matter to wine, and then pumping in carbonic acid in the soda-water fashion. The following extract from a table by August Dupre will show the chemical composition of the wines most popular in Great Britain. The numbers may be read as grammes per litre or as ounces per 1000 fluid ounces.

== TABLE ==

(W. D.)


At the present day wine is practically a European product, although a certain quantity is made in the United States, at the Cape of Good Hope, and in Australia. The principal countries in Europe where the vine is grown to any extent are France, Spain, Portugal, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany, and the southern portions of Russia and Greece ; but in the first six alone is wine an article of much commercial importance.

Historical Sketch.

In the lands of the Levant the use of wine is as old as the earliest memory of civilization, and we find its introduction ascribed to gods (Dionysus in Greece, Osiris in Egypt), or, in the case of the Hebrews, to the patriarch Noah, the second father of mankind. Corn, wine, and oil appear together (as in the Old Testament) as the main gifts of the soil, the material bases of life and comfort. The cultivation of the vine was the highest achievement of ancient husbandry, impossible to semi-nomadic peoples, who might grow a corn crop, but did not remain long enough in one spot to form vineyards. Thus the vine and the olive are in antiquity the marks and almost the symbols of settled and cultured life. Starting perhaps from Armenia and eastern Pontus, viticulture gradually made its way through the lands of ancient civilization, rejected only by a race like the NABATJSANS (q.v.), whose laws were directed to prevent the transition from nomadic to settled life (cp. the Old Testament Rechabites). Of Asiatic wines the most famous was that of Chalybon (Helbon) near Damascus, which was an article of Phoenician commerce in the time of Ezekiel (xxvii. 18) and at a later date furnished the tables of the Persian kings. Of Greek wines the most famous came from the islands (as Chios, Lesbos, Cos) or from points on the Asiatic coast (Strabo, xiv. p. 637). The vine reached Spain through the Phoenicians, and Italy and southern Gaul (Marseilles) from Greece ; it had no place in the oldest Roman husbandry, nor was wine used in the oldest Roman ritual. But in time Italy became a great wine country, and Cato regards viticulture as the most profitable branch of hus-bandry. It was indeed artificially fostered by the Roman republic, which prohibited the import of foreign growths into Italy and stimulated exports by restrictions on wine-growing in the provinces, especially in southern Gaul, which thus became a great market for Italian wines. These restrictions were not wholly removed till the time of PP.OBUS (q.v.), when the reins of empire were no longer in Italian hands. In the first century of our era Spanish and Gaulish as well as Greek wines were drunk at Rome (Pliny), but in Gaul the production seems to have been limited to the districts of the Allobroges and Bituriges on the Rhone and the Gironde. It was after Probus's time that viticulture seems to have been established on the Seine and the Moselle, and Julian when in Gaul still found occasion to discharge an epigram against the false Dionysus of Celtic beer. The northward spread of the vine was doubtless also retarded by difficulties of acclimatization, which were only gradually over-come. In the Middle Ages, when transport was difficult, wine was produced in the south of England and in several parts of Germany where there is now no motive for urging a precarious husbandry. The exact mode of vine-culture and wine-making amongst the ancients is somewhat obscure ; but there is reason to believe that the latter, although in a somewhat cruder form, closely resembled the system in use at the present day. As far as viticulture is con-cerned, we find from Pliny and others that the Romans encouraged the upward growth of the vine upon trees and palisades in prefer-ence to the dwarf system now followed in the more northern regions, such as France,—a fact doubtless attributable to the almost tropical luxuriance which the vine attains in Italy. Little comparative information can be obtained as to the style of wine made by the ancients ; but from the few facts we do know it may be presumed that, apart from alcoholic qualities, the wines of Greece and Rome had not the high properties possessed by those of the present day.

The introduction of resinous flavours or of salt, then usually resorted to, would hardly suit the present high rearing of vinous products. The vintage in the more favoured districts began towards the end of September and in the less favoured during the following month. Grapes were not gathered until they had attained their fullest maturity, and in many instances they were allowed to dry three or four days in the sun after gathering in order to obtain further sweetness aud body. The grapes were trodden and then submitted to the press, much after the custom still prevalent in Burgundy and Portugal. When, however, the juice was deemed too thin and watery for the production of good wine, it was boiled down to a greater consistency, whilst a small portion of gypsum was added to it. The original receptacles for wine appear to have been the skins of animals, rendered impervious by oil or resinous substances, but later on the principal vessels were made of earthenware (amphora) and the like) or, in certain districts, though less frequently, of wood, after the style of modern casks. In modern as compared with ancient times the wine-growing industry has considerably changed its locality. Although Italy and (in a very minor degree) Greece still produce a considerable quantity of wine, yet France, Spain, and Portugal must now be recognized as the chief homes of viticulture. France is the country whose modern agricultural history and export trade are most connected with wine production ; and, although, in consequence of the Phylloxera and mildew, the yield has fallen off of late years, it still holds the premier position for quantity, variety, and general excellence of quality.


It was only by degrees, owing partly to its soil and partly to France, the aptitude of its inhabitants, that France developed the position which it now holds as a wine-producing country. Geographically and meteorologically speaking, it is in every way eminently fitted for this. The winters are not too cold, nor, on the other hand, have the summers the intense heat and drought which are often so prejudicial to the vine in southern climates. The country is throughout of that gently undulating character which is so import-ant for the proper exposure and ripening of the grape, whilst the calcareous properties of the soil are especially favourable to the growth of the plant. The habits of the people, moreover, and the system of small holdings have also undoubtedly done much in developing the industry ; for there is, perhaps, no branch of agri-culture which requires more minute attention, or for which such a system of land tenure is more suitable, than vine culture. At present throughout all France there are only ten departments in which wine is not produced,—Calvados, Côtes-du-Nord, Finistère, Manche, Nord, Oise, Orne, Pas-de-Calais, Seine-Inférieure, and Somme ; and in 1887 the total production amounted to 24,333,284 hectolitres, or some 535,332,250 gallons, which, however, is con-siderably less than the average for the previous ten years, owing to the immense injury caused by the Phylloxera. In 1875, the annus mirabilis of wine-production in France, the yield amounted to 83,632,391 hectolitres, or nearly three and a half times that of twelve years later.

As France is the home of wine-growing, so must the Médoc dis- Médoc trict in its turn be considered the very heart of that industry in France, for nowhere have such elegance, finesse, and distinct variety been obtained as on the banks of the Gironde. Unlike the products of the different vineyards of most other districts, which are purchased by the merchant and vatted to supply a general wine of commerce, the yields of the principal estates of Médoc are kept distinct, and reach the consumer as the product of the particular growth and the particular year. This practice is, almost without exception, resorted to with what are known as the classed growths and the superior bourgeois, whilst in seasons in which the wines are of good quality it is continued down to the lower grades. The area of the department of Gironde is about 2,407,000 acres, of which some 500,000 acres are under the vine. There are six descriptions of soil :—(1) that of the valleys, chiefly alluvial, the vines on which produce wines of considerable colour and vinosity, but wanting in finesse ; (2) the strong lands, which require frequent working and the assistance of lighter earths and manures, although, when of a ferruginous colour, this soil is very favourable to the vine ; (3) the marshy lands, which are of considerable extent, and which, when gravel enters into their composition, are extremely fertile ; (4) lands formed at the surface of gravel, quartz, and heavy sand, with clay subsoil, over which are grown most of the finest vines of the Médoc ; (5) the silicious or flinty soils, covering about one-half of the department, of which some portions, when worked with clay and calcareous elements, are suitable for vine cultivation ; (6) the intermediate lands, between the strong soil and the last-named, which are chiefly available for the growth of the commoner descrip-tions of white wines. The principal vines used in the Médoc are, for red wines, the Cabernets (2), the Merlot, and the Malbec, and for white wines, the Semillon, the Sauvignon, and the Muscatelle. The vines of the Cabernet species, although producing excellent grapes, are especially susceptible to damage from weather at flower-ing time, and consequently are not so greatly used as the Merlot, which is very productive, and not so liable to attacks from Oidium as other descriptions. The grapes of this vine, however, have to be gathered with promptitude, as they ripen very quickly and if subjected to rain soon become rotten. The vine most generally selected, however, is the Malbec, which is a remarkably early bearer, its chief disadvantage being that it is very susceptible to frost. Of the various vine diseases and pests the chief is undoubtedly the Phylloxera (see VINE, p. 238 above), which was first seen in Medoc in 1869. The amount of damage caused by this insect during the past fifteen years is almost incredible, and at one time it was feared that the vineyards would be wholly destroyed. Of late, however, con-siderable success has been met with in checking its inroads, the area now under vine cultivation being larger than was the case when its ravages first began to make themselves severely felt. Another evil which has occasionally been very virulent is the Oidium, a species of fungus, which first made its appearance in France in 1851, about which time it also devastated the vineyards of Madeira. Another cause from which an enormous amount of damage has been done of recent years is the mildew, which not only destroys the leaves and fruit, but further leaves its taint on wines made from grapes affected by it. It is believed, however, that a complete cure or prevention for this pest has been found in a solution of sulphate of copper. In addition to these enemies, the vine-grower has to take account of hail, frost, and coulure— this last caused by too great humidity of the soil, which leads to large quantities of flowers falling from the branches before turning into grapes, and also to the grapes themselves falling. The vintage in Medoc usually commences between the middle and end of Sep-tember and lasts from two to three weeks. The process is a very simple one. The grapes are gathered and brought on bullock drays to the press-house ; here they are separated from the stalks and placed in vats, where they are allowed to ferment for a period of from seven to fifteen days. As soon as the wine is sufficiently made, it is drawn off into hogsheads and removed to light and airy stores. The first month the bung is put lightly in and the cask filled up everj'three or four days ; the second month it is put in more firmly and the cask filled every eight days. In March, the lees having fallen, the first soutirage or drawing-off takes place. A second is made in June and a third in November, after which the hogsheads are turned on their side and the fillings-up cease. In the second and following years, after the wine has been removed to dark cellars, two drawings-off suffice, one in spring and the other in autumn. After this, if the wine ferments, it is drawn off in a sulphured cask, and if necessary fined with eggs and again drawn off in a fortnight.
The great variety of qualities that the wines of Medoc possess has necessitated their classification, by which they have been divided into paysan, artisan, bourgeois, and fine growths, the last-named being subdivided into five categories, and known as the " classed growths." This classification is the result of years of observation and study, going back to the 18th century, its present form being the result of a conference of brokers in 1855. Subjoined is a list of the red wines of Medoc (the English " claret"), with the names of the cantons to which they belong.

Chateau Lafltte, Pauillac. I Chateau Latour, Pauillac.
,, Margaux, Margaux. | „ Haut-Briou, Pessac.
Château Gruand-Larose, St Julien.
„ Branne-Cantenac, Cantenac.
,, Pichon-Longueville, Pauillac.
,, Pichón-Longueville-Lalande, Pauillac.
,, Dueru-Beaueaillou, St Julien. Cos d'Estournel, St Estèphe. Château Montrose, „
Château Mouton-Rothschild, Pauillac.
,, Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux.
„ Rauzan-Gassies, „
,, Léoville-Lascases, St Julien.
„ Léoville-Poyferré,
„ Léoville-Barton, ,,
,, Durfort-Vivens, Margaux.
,, Lascombes, ,,
„ Gruaud - Larose o Sarget, St Julien.
Château Kirwan, Cantenac.
,, D'Issan, Cantenac.
,, Lagrange, St Julien.
„ Langoa, ,,
„ Giscours, Labarde.
„ Malescot, Margaux.
,, Brown Cantenac, Cantenac.
Chateau Palmer, Cantenac. „ La Lagune, Ludon. ,, Desmirail, Margaux. „ Calon-Ségur, St Estèphe. ,, Ferrière, Margaux. ,, Becker, „
Château Saint-Pierre, St Julien. ,, Branaire-Duluc, „ Talbot,
,, Duhart-Milon, Pauillac. ,, Poujet, Cantenac.
Château La Tour Carnet, St Laurent.
,, Rochet, St Estèphe.
,, Beychevelle, St Julien. Le Prieuré, Cantenac. Marquis de Therme, Margaux.
Château Le Tertre, Arsac. „ Haut-Bages, Pauillac. ,, Pedesciaux, „ ,, Belgrave, St Laurent. „ Camensac, ,,
Cos-Labory, St Estèphe.
Château Clerc-Milon, Pauillac. „ Croizet-Bages ,, ,, Cautemerle. Macau.
Château Pontet-Canet, Pauillac.
,, Batailley, ,,
Grand-Puy-Lacoste, ,,
Ducasse-Grand-Puy, „
Château Lynch-Bages, ,, Lynch-Moussas, ,, ,, Dauzac, Labarde.
Mouton-d'Armailliacq, Pauil-lac.

The average yield of the Gironde drmng the ten years 1876-1886 amounted to 1,435,863 hectolitres, or about 31,589,000 gallons, an average which has been placed considerably lower than that of the preceding decade by the small yields of 1881, 1882, 1884, and 1885. In each of the prolific years of 1874 and 1875 the production of the Gironde exceeded 5,000,000 hectolitres, and in 1869 it reached 4,500,000. The principal claret vintages of the 19th century are considered to have been those of 1815, '25, '28, '31, '34, '41, '47, '48, '58, '64, '69, '70, '74, and '75. From 1875 to 1882 nothing exceptional was produced. Of the vintages since 1882 it is still too early to speak, although it is probable that some of the 1884's, where the}7" have escaped the mildew, and the 1887's will turn out well.

Sauterne, or what is known as the white-wine-producing district Sauterne of Medoc, lies to the south of Bordeaux ; and to those who are only familiar with the Medoc vineyards it gives the impression of being quite a distinct country, having more the appearance of the Rhine provinces than of the south of France. The vintage in the Sauterne district is frequently as late as the end of October, and in some cases does not take place until November. The method followed differs from that of Medoc, the grapes being gathered almost one by one, and not until they have almost assumed the appearance of rottenness, or extreme ripeness, so that in fact fermentation has commenced before the fruit is taken from the plant. The Sauterne grapes are white and of medium size, and yield a must which does not lose the whole of the sugar during fermentation, but remains sweet without the addition of spirit. In gathering the grapes, it is customary for women to cut off with scissors the berries as they ripen, the vintage thus lasting over a considerable time. The grapes, moreover, are not put into vats, but are carefully pressed and the juice put into hogsheads, while the fermentation completes itself. The first result is a very sweet luscious wine, known as the tite, which is chiefly sent to Russia, where it makes enormous prices. Following this a second wine, of a drier character, called millieu, is made from the less saccharine grapes, this being the class of wine generally known as Sauterne. There is also a third process, in which all the remaining grapes are mixed together and pressed, the result being called the queue. In the preparation of the better class wines for the English market the three varieties are usually mixed in certain proportions, so that the wine sent to the United Kingdom is very different from the oily liqueur-like article which is in such favour in the colder climate of Russia. As a rule all the finer descriptions are put into bottle before ship-ment, the corks bearing the name of the chateau and the vintage, as is the case with the chateau-bottled red wine. The character of Sauterne may be best described as being, in good years, very luscious and yet very delicate, and possessing a special seve, or, in other words, having that special taste which, while it remains in the mouth, leaves the palate perfectly fresh. The Sauterne district comprises the communes of Sauternes, Bommes, and Barsac, with part of those of Preignac, Saint-Pierre-de-Mons, and Fargues. The finer growths, like the red wines of Medoc, are arranged in classes, in the following order:—

Château Climens, Barsac.
„ Bayle (Guiraud), Sauternes. „ Rieussec, Fargues. ,, Rabaut, Bommes.
Château La Tour Blanche, Bommes.
„ Peyraguey, „
,, Vigneau, ,,
„ Suduiraut, Preignac. ,, Coutet, Barsac.
Château Myrat, Barsac. ,, Doisy, ,, ,, Peyxotto, Bommes. „ D'Arche, Sauternes. Filhot,
Château Caillou, Barsac. ,, Suau, ,, ,, Malle, Preignac. ,, Romer, „ „ Lamothe, Sauternes.
,, Bronstet-Nerac, Barsac.

The prices of the "grand" Sauterne wines vary enormously accord-ing to the year, the quality of which is also very various. Between 1870 and 1885 the first growths have ranged from £8 to £60 per hogshead. Chateau Yquem in the ordinary way fetches from one-fifth to one-fourth more than the other first growths, whilst a rather greater difference rules between the first and second growths. There is, however, no positive rule in this respect; for if, as occasionally happens, a first growth is vintaged a little too late and does not succeed so well as some second growths, the latter will fetch quite as high, if not higher, prices.
Champagne takes its name from the old province which is now Cham-represented by the departments of Marne, Haute-Marne, Aube, and pagne. Ardennes. It is from the first two that the greater portion of this description of wine is derived, the best qualities being pro-duced in Marne. The vineyards are situated on the banks of the river in the neighbourhood of Epernay, and extend from the right bank over the mountains of Rheims to the vicinity of that city and from the left bank to the small town of Yertus. Of those near the river the principal are at Ay, Dizy, Hautvillers, and Mareuil on the right bank, and at Pierry and Moussy on the left, whilst in the district reaching to the south of these are those of Avize, Cramaut, and Vertus. The vineyards of the mountain include those of Verzenay, Sillery, Rilly-en-Montagne, and Bouzy. The sparkling champagnes are made from both white and red grapes, carefully pressed, and the wine is of an amber colour, more or less deep ac-cording to vintage and to the proportion of black grapes used. The grapes are pressed in a large pressoir, the first pressing yielding the best quality, whilst the second and third are proportionately in-ferior. The wine from the first pressing is about equal in quantity to that of the other two combined. The vintage usually takes place in the first week in October, the young wines being left to ferment in the cask until the winter, when the first racking takes place, which operation is repeated a month later, when the wines are fined previously to being put in bottle. The wines of the various growths are mixed in the proportions desired, and a certain quantity of old wine (preserved in cask) is added. The amount of saccharine in the wine is also ascertained, and if deficient the requisite quantity in the form of refined candied sugar is added to bring it to the necessary degree for producing fermentation in the bottle. The bottles, which are carefully selected, —those showing the least flaw being rejected,—have sloping shoulders, in order that the sediment may not adhere to the sidSs in the after-process. The wine, after being corked, is secured by an iron clip, and the bottles are arranged in piles in a horizontal position, in which they remain throughout the summer months. During this time the carbonic acid gas is generated, as is also a sediment, which falls to the side of the bottle. The wines are then stacked away in cellars until required for shipment. Previous to the wine being prepared for this pur-pose, the bottles are placed in a slanting position, neck downwards, in cranks made in the shape of the letter A, and are daily shaken very slightly, so that by degrees the sediment falls into the cork. This operation is very delicate, the slightest twist being disastrous. The incline is gradually increased, so that at last the bottle is almost perpendicular,—a process which generally takes from three to six weeks. With the sediment thus on the cork, the iron clip is removed, when the force of the wine sends out the cork together with the sediment. The wine is now subjected to dosage or liqueur-ing, the amount of which depends upon the sweetness required ; the bottles are then filled up with wine, corked, and wired ready for shipment. The liqueur used is made from the finest wine, candied sugar, and cognac, the usual amount of which for wine sent to the United Kingdom is from one to four per cent. For colder countries the percentage of liqueur is much greater, in some eases exceeding twenty per cent. The liqueuring is regulated by a machine, by which the quantity is measured to a nicety ; but in some establishments it is still measured by hand with a small ladle. The principal centres of the champagne trade are Rheiins and Epernay, although important establishments exist at Ay, Avize, Chalons, and Dizy. The total production of Marne averages about a million hectolitres annually. A large proportion of this, however, is unsuited for making champagne. At the same time the supply is still considerably in excess of the demand, the stock in mer-chants' cellars in the district having amounted in May 1887 to upwards of 82,000,000 bottles, whilst at least half that quantity existed in cask, the total stock thus equalling nearly six years' requirements.

Saumur. Another district of France which produces large quantities of sparkling white wine is that of Saumur, in the department of Maine-et-Loire. These wines have been known for centuries, but up to 1834 were only used as still wines. At that date a successful attempt was made to convert them into sparkling wines, after which they were principally used to supplement the deficient vintages in Champagne. In 1874 sparkling Saumur was introduced into the United Kingdom in its own name, and has since made con-siderable advance in the English market, owing mainly to its good quality and its moderate price. It has a great resemblance to the wines of Champagne, and is very fine and wholesome; and, although it lacks the body and finesse of the best growths of Marne, it com-pares very favourably with the lower grades of these wines, and is also much lower in price, the best descriptions being obtainable by the English consumer at little more than three shillings a bottle. The judges of taste and analysis at the Paris exhibition in 1878 gave the following award: '' The wine does not differ from Cham-pagne in respect of sweetness and lightness ; it is equally white, clear, and sparkling. It contains in nearly the same proportion the same substances as the wines of Champagne." The town of Saumur Is situated on the banks of the Loire and at the foot of a command-ing range of hills, to which latter fact the country in a great measure owes its success as a producer of sparkling wines, as the hills furnish, at a trifling cost and in excellent quality, mile upon mile of the excellent cellarage which is indispensable to their preparation. These cellars are excavations in the hills from which the limestone has been taken, and possess the advantages of easy access and even temperature. The best wines of the district are made from black grapes pressed en blanc, as in Champagne, the usual variety of vine being the Breton. The white grapes employed are the Pineau blanc, which are vintaged a full fortnight later than the red grapes. According to the system of manufacturing sparkling Saumur, one-half of each year's must is put into barrels by itself to ferment and become wine, and is kept to be mixed with one-half of the next year's must. In the following May the mixture is put into bottles to undergo its second fermentation, which is induced in the same manner as in champagne, the wine being treated in precisely the same manner. The sediment is also worked into the neck in a similar way, and is thrown off by the system of disgorgement. The average yield of Maine-et-Loire for the ten years ended 1887 was about 11*990,000 gallons.

Next to those of Medoc, the wines of Burgundy are the best French red wines known in England. This district comprises the departments of Côte-d'Or, Yonne, and Saône-et-Loire, known in former days as Upper and Lower Burgundy. By far the finest qualities are grown in Cote-d'Or, in the two communes of Nuits and Beaune. The former lies in the neighbourhood of Dijon, and comprises some of the choicest growths, merging into Beaune in the south, which in its turn adjoins the Macon district, in the department of Sa6ne-et-Loire. The wines of Cote-d'Or are grown on the slopes of a range of hills which traverses the department, the best vineyards lying about half-way up the side, where they get the full rays of the sun, the vine apparently deteriorating as it is planted above or below this altitude. As in the case of Medoc wines, the best growths are kept distinct and have a high reputa-tion. The usual classification is as follows :—

Class III.—Continuai.
mont, Cailles, Cras-Murge, Bou-dots, Porrets, Pruliers, Thaurey, Vauerains, Cailleret, Champans, Clavoillon, Clos Margeot, Clos Tavannes,, Noyer, Bart, part of Corton, Echezaux, Fèves, Grèves, Feriïère, Sautenot.
Red Wines.
Class I.—Romanée-Conti, Chambertin, Clos Vougeot, Richebourg, La Tàche.
Class II. — Musigny, Romanée - St-Vivant, Le Clos Saint-Georges, Le Corton, Les Bonnes Mares, Le Clos du Tart.
Class III.—Arvelets, Rugiens, Beau- I
Class I.—Montrachet. Class II.—Chevalier Montrachet, Bâtard Montrachet, Charmes,
ÌVìiite Wines.
Class II.—Continued.
Combettes, Genevrières, d'Or, Charlemagne.

The wines of Côte-d'Or are full-bodied and of excellent colour ; they are of great reputation on the Continent, especially in Belgium, although till recently not so well known in England, owing to the difficulty experienced in keeping them. But this drawback has now been removed by increased care in their treatment, and by a system of freezing in the young wines, by which a quantity of the natural water is removed and the alcoholic strength of the re-mainder thereby increased. One of the principal features of the -Côte-d'Or is the Hospice de Beaune, a celebrated charitable institu-tion and hospital, the revenues of which are principally derived from certain vineyards in Beaune, Corton, Volnay, and Pommard. The wines of these vineyards are sold every year by auction on the -first Sunday in November, and the prices they make serve as standards for the various growths of Burgundy. In Yonne, lying to the north-west of Côte-d'Or, a considerable quantity of wine is made, both red and white. The former has good colour and body, with a fair bouquet, but is much inferior to the wines of Burgundy proper. The latter, grown mostly in the commune of Chablis, is Chablis, of fair quality and is generally known by the name of this district. Saône-et-Loire, which lies to the south of Beaune, produces the wine known as Mâcon, grown in the neighbourhood of that town, Macon, the best growths being those of Théorine. The wines of Mâcon have most of the Burgundy characteristics, but are lighter in colour and body, and lack much of their bouquet and flavour.

Red and white wines are produced in the arrondissement of Hermit-Valence in the department of Drome. These wines are of excellent age. quality and improve greatly in bottle, in which state they will keep for many years. The white wines are especially choice, and have a far greater reputation than the red. They are soft and rich, and are said to have no analogy to any other white wine known.

The departments of Charente and Charente-Inférieure, although Charente their wines are unknown in the United Kingdom, are celebrated on account of the brandy distilled from them. This industry has suffered enormously of late years from the ravages of the Phylloxera, which has destroyed many of the best vineyards in the neighbour-hood of Cognac. The wines of the district are in themselves common and of little use but for the still, for which purpose they cannot be approached by those of any other department. But the proportion of wine required to make brandy is so high that, unless it can be produced at a moderate price, the cost of the spirit becomes enormous ; hence the proprietors have been unable to obtain a sufficiently high price for their wines to make it worth their while to incur the cost of resisting the plague, and consequently a large quantity of vine-land has gone out of cultivation. In 1874 the produce of the two departments amounted to over 250,000,000 gallons, whereas that of 1887 was little over 14,000,000 gallons. During the last two or three years re-planting has been diligently carried on.

The above constitute the principal varieties of French wines known in the United Kingdom ; they form, however, but a small fraction of the entire production of the country. Enormous quantities are produced in the southern provinces, but they are of a commoner description and are reserved for home consumption. Thus in 1887 the two departments of Aude and Hérault yielded between them 5,643,832 hectolitres, or about 124,160,000 gallons, which was considerably in excess of the total produce of the districts previously alluded to. In the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, in the old province of Roussillon, a full-bodied and deep-coloured wine is produced, a small portion of which is sent to Great Britain and is of a better quality than most southern growths. This wine is known by the old name of the province and is of considerable value for blending light thin wines. There are also some very fair wines made in the department of Jura and in the district lying east of Burgundy. Algeria. Algeria.—Owing to the devastation caused by the Phylloxera in France much attention has of recent years been bestowed on vine culture in Algeria. The result of the first experiments has been very encouraging. M. Bouchardat in a recent report to the Medical Society of Paris wrote—" In the not very distant future by means of the vine we may look for the definite conquest of Algeria. Through its cultivation new colonists will be brought into the country and the habit of labour and its accompaniment, wealth, will result both for them and for the natives. It is through the cultivation of the vine also that we may hope to remove the greatest present obstacle to progress in Algeria, viz., the nuhealthiness of the marshlands ; for in reality on all the soils where the vine is cultivated we soon see those conditions disappear to which intermittent fevers owe their origin. " Algeria undoubtedly possesses soil and climate suit-able to vine culture ; in fact, the vine seems almost to grow at will and is productive in the third year after being planted. The laying out of vineyards is consequently proceeding very rapidly, and con-siderable improvement by means of skilled labour is becoming noticeable in the making of the wines. The wines of Algeria re-semble that of Roussillon in general character, being full-bodied, with good colour and alcoholic strength. The greatest quantity is produced in the province of Algiers, although there is a consider-able yield in the provinces of Constantine and Oran, the latter being cultivated principally by Spaniards.


Spain is second only in reputation to France among wine-growing countries. Its white wine, known as sherry, first brought it into prominence ; and the red wines of Tarragona and Rioja have of late years formed a great feature in the commerce of the Peninsula. The reduced yield of the French vineyards, especially of those pro-ducing the cheapest wines, owing to the ravages of the Phylloxera, combined with an increased home consumption, has compelled that country to import large quantities of wine for its own use, and Spain has taken a foremost place in supplying the demand which has thus sprung up. In addition to this, a considerable quantity is exported to other countries, Great Britain amongst the number, in the shape of Spanish claret and port, which are perhaps of as good an intrinsic value as any that reach the United Kingdom. The wines of Andalusia naturally claim a priority in description. Sherry. Sherry, so called from the town of Jerez (Xeres) de la Frontera, the headquarters of this industry, is produced in Andalusia in the area included between San Lucar in the north, Port St Mary in the south, and Jerez in the east. This tract of country contains in all about 25,000 acres of vine-growing soil. The system of pre-paring sherry is different from that followed in the case of most other wines. In France every small grower can make his few hogsheads of wine, and when these have been made the process is complete. In Jerez, on the contrary, the immense establishments, many of them owned by Englishmen, purchase the grape juice or fruit and make their own must. The wines, which are stored in bodegas or sheds above ground, are reared for a number of years as soleras. These soleras consist of vats of various characters of sherry, the style of which is unvaryingly kept up, and whenever a quantity is drawn off they are filled up with wines of the same description. Certain quantities taken from various soleras are blended in order to. make up the regular marks, by which means the style of different shipments is maintained. There are several different varieties of sherry known in the United Kingdom, which may be divided into the Amontillado and the Manzanilla classes. The Amontillado class may be again subdivided into Fino and Oloroso, the former being the more delicate ; frequently the two descriptions are different developments of exactly the same wine. The Manzanilla wines are very much lighter and drier, and are the produce of vines grown on the coast. In making up the marks for the different markets several varieties of sweetness and colour are required. These are obtained by the addition of vino dulce made from grapes which are allowed to grow dead-ripe, and of colouring matters made from wine boiled down almost to a liqueur. A cer-tain amount of grape spirit is added to check the tendency to re-fermentation. This system applies only to the Amontillado class. The Manzanillas are mostly shipped in their natural state, with spirit added in small quantities only where it is feared that the wines will otherwise not be able to stand the journey. This description of wine, however, has not hitherto been in great demand in Great Britain. In addition to Manzanilla, there is another description of somewhat similar wine, but with less characteristic taste and. some-what more body, known as Montilla ; it is grown in the province Montilia, of Cordova. Yet another description of wine grown in the vicinity, Moguer, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir, is that know_n as Moguer, &c which resembles a cheap sherry, and is only used for blending with the commonest qualities. Of late a large quantity of this wine has found its way to France to assist in making a cheap wine for the French consumers. Other districts in the south of Spain well known for the production of wine are those of Malaga and Rota. The former yields a sweet description, principally made from Muscat grapes, although a coarse drier wine of the sherry type is also produced. The Rota district is known principally for a sweet red wine, known in England as "tent" (tinto), mainly used for ecclesiastical purposes.

The central districts of Spain also produce some good red wines Val de suitable for exportation, such as Val de Peñas, which llave moderate Peñas, colour and considerable strength, and are said to be the produce of vines brought from Burgundy. The name Val de Peñas, how-ever, is often given also to wines grown in the neighbouring districts. The system of storing these wines is very similar to that mentioned by Horace in connexion with Falernian, and is still practised at Montilla. The wines are placed in large earthen jars (tinajas) like Roman amphorse, which are prepared inside with a kind of varnish with a view to the preservation of the wine.

Leon and Old Castile in the northern and central parts of Spain Rioja and furnish about one-half of the wine grown in the entire country. Tarra On the border of this region is the rich and fertile district of Rioja gona. (Logroño), which has a climate admirably suited to the production of wines of moderate strength. The wines of Navarre are more full-bodied and have more colour and alcoholic strength, but owing to want of care in their production are less suitable for exportation. In Catalonia there is a much more important wine industry, the district producing what is known in England as Tarragona or Spanish red. The best quality produced is the wine of the Priorato district (about 15 miles inland from Tarragona), which is very rich and full-bodied, and keeps well. Unfortunately this particular area, which is chiefly mountainous, is limited. The next descrip-tion to this is the wine of Huesca, which is also fine-coloured and full-flavoured. The wines of Aragón are also good, but require special care owing to their liability to a second fermentation. The best growth is that of Cariñena (Zaragoza). The greater part of the Spanish wines imported into France are supplied from Catalonia and Aragón. A French authority on the subject states that "of all the towns in Catalonia which supply wines to France Manresa is in reality the one which, for several years, has sent the largest quantity. This region enjoys a climate more temperate than that of Roussillon, and from hence are derived three-quarters of the wine shipped to France from Barcelona. Hence may be found all types of wines, including dry white and natural red."

The only islands of the Canary group on which vine culture is Canary now carried on on a commercial scale are those of Gran Canaria wine. (Grand Canary) and Teneriffe, for although a certain amount is pro-duced at Palma it is all used for local purposes. On the two first-named islands the industry has fallen away of late, owing to the attacks of Oidiwm, which destroyed the vines at about the same period as in Madeira. Since then the islands have been chiefly de-voted to the production of cochineal, until the recent discovery of aniline dyes, which has, to a great extent, ruined the industry, and again led the inhabitants to turn their attention to vine culture. This has been especially the case in Gran Canaria, where a consider-able area of ground is now planted with vines, and a fair return of wine is obtained. These are being treated similarly to those of Madeira, which they greatly resemble in character. In Teneriffe a wine known as Vidonia, which is of a somewhat similar type, is produced, and is exported in small quantities. Vine-growers in this island adhere more to the methods in vogue in Spain.


The generous, full-flavoured wines known as port are the produce Port, of the district of Alto Douro in the north-eaet of Portugal, which begins at a point on the river Douro some 60 miles above Oporto, whence these wines are shipped. The whole of the port-wine dis-trict, comprising a region between 30 and 40 miles in length with a maximum breadth of about 12, is rugged and mountainous, necessitating the construction of terraces supported by walls, with-out which protection the soil would inevitably be washed away by the winter rains. The climate of Alto Douro is very cold in winter and extremely hot in summer (frequently 108° Fahr. in the shade). It is owing to this intense heat combined with the peculiar richness of the soil, which is of argillaceous schist formation, that port wines attain to such perfection of colour, body, and ripeness. Till quite recently the means of communication between Oporto and Alto Douro were extremely limited. Roads in the district itself there were none, or very few, and the only way of getting the produce to the port of shipment was by the river, the navigation of which, at all times difflcuft and even dangerous, on account of the numerous rocks and rapids which obstruct its course, is often rendered impossible by freshets. The Douro railway, however, now traverses the whole length of the wine country along the river bank from Oporto, and other lateral railways are in course of con-struction which will open up several fine wine-producing districts hitherto unavailable owing to want of roads. Cultiva- The method of cultivating the vine in Alto Douro differs con-tion of siderably from those employed in various other parts of the country, the vine where the vines are either trained over pollarded trees or treillaged for port, at a certain height from the ground, or where they are planted in rows and grown like bushes. The method is as follows. In November or December trenches are dug, 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches deep, according as the soil is" heavy or light, and 2 feet broad, in which vine cuttings are placed at a distance of 3 feet to 4 feet 6 inches apart from each other. The trenches are then partly filled in, in order that the vines may get all the benefit of the rain-water collecting in them. During the first year of planting great care is taken to keep down all weeds whilst the vines are shooting. At the end of two years the young vines, if they have come on well, can be grafted, the best time for performing this operation being October or February ; in this way the period of production is hastened, and the vineyard will yield in four instead of five years' time. Should some of the vines die, their places are usually sup-plied by the process called mergulho or layering : that is, a trench is dug in the direction of the space left bare and in it the stock of the nearest vine is turned down. The trench is then partly filled in, leaving two or three shoots of the buried vine visible to the extent of a couple of " eyes " above the surface, which shoots are to take the place of the missing vines. There is also the system of planting from nurseries, which are made with either Portuguese or American varieties. The plot of ground used for the nursery must be kept well clear of weeds and, if in a dry situation, well watered. In two years' time and during the month of February the young vines can be transplanted, and the year after grafted, when the vineyard is planted. The first of the regular operations in the course of cultivation is to clear away the soil from the feet of the stocks, which takes place directly the vintage is over. At the same time manure may be given, and, if the vines are strong enough to bear the application, sulphate of carbon may be injected, on account of the prevalence of Phylloxera. After this the vines are pruned. In March the first annual turning of the soil takes place ; then the branches of the vines are tied to stakes or canes, in which process considerable skill is brought to bear so as to make the vine shoot in the required direction. Immediately after or about the time they blossom the vines are sulphured, to keep off the Oidium, which disease is still active in Portugal; and lastly in June the soil is hoed over to destroy the weeds. The turning of the soil, which is effected with an implement resembling a two-pronged hoe, and the cultivation of the vineyards generally, are to a great extent performed by labourers (Gallegos) from Galicia in Spain, but at vintage time serranos from the neighbouring serras also flock in to work.

Vintage The vintage in Alto Douro generally commences late in Sep-ia Alto tember. The grapes are cut by women and children, and are con-Douro. veyed in large baskets—twenty-two of which full of grapes will yield a pipe of wine—by Gallegos to the place where the wine is to be made. Here they are emptied into large stone tanks, 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches in depth, each holding from seven to thirty pipes of wine. Each tank is fitted with a beam press, except where the modern screw press has taken its place. As the grapes come in, the stalks are removed, either with a kind of rake or, as in the best managed establishments, with machines called desingacadores, made for the purpose. The white grapes are separated from the red, the " white port" being made from the former; this wine was formerly much appreciated in England, but now finds its chief market on the Continent. When the tank is full, a number of men, and sometimes even women, begin the process of treading, which is continued for about forty-eight hours ; after that the must is left to ferment by itself. When the weather has been cold or the year a very ripe one, it has sometimes been found necessary to give as much as seventy-two hours' treading ; nowadays, how-ever, there is seldom need for so much work. When the must has sufficiently fermented, it is drawn off into huge vats, holding as a rule about twenty-five pipes each; at the same time sufficient alcohol is added to prevent acetous fermentation and retain part of the sweetness of the grape. Formerly the drawing-off of the must from the tank was determined simply by taste or judgment, but of late years the saccharorneter is employed to decide when the must has reached the requisite degree of sweetness. The wines are left untouched in the vats till the cold weather causes them to deposit the lees, when they are racked, and at the same time another small addition of brandy is made. The brandy used is with hardly any exception simply distilled wine, and is of very fine quality. About March or April the wines are again racked from their lees into casks, and are sent down either by boat or rail to Oporto, where they are stored, in most cases for a considerable number of years previous to being shipped. The cheaper wines are an exception, being as a rule shipped when young, also those of the so-called "vintage" class, which are the finest wines of a good year kept separate and shipped as the produce of that particular year. The following is a list of the most famous "vintages" of the 19th century—1809, '12, '15, '20, '27, '34, '40, '47, '51, '63, '68, '70, 73, '78, '81, the last year when the wine was shipped as a vintage being 1884. The stores or lodges where the wines are warehoused are chiefly situated on the Villa Nova side of the river, facing Oporto, and generally speaking comprise a series of long one-storied stone buildings, with, thick partition walls and heavy tiled roofs. The wines are kept in casks ranged in rows of two or three tiers ; in some establishments large vats, holding from 10 to 110 pipes, are also used, being especi-ally serviceable for blending purposes. The amount of wine con-tained at the present day in these lodges is calculated at something like 80,000 pipes, the gross value of which cannot be less than two and a half or three million pounds sterling, by far the greater part of this sum representing English capital.

The chief market for port wine is, as it always has been, England. Port-Its introduction into England, which was the beginning of the wine trade in these wines, dates from the end of the 17th century. At trade first the exportation was small, the annual average for the first ten years being just over 600 pipes. The consumption, however, gradu-ally increased till 1753, when, owing to adulterations and various other causes, port wine fell into disrepute, and the shipments receded to a very low figure. The prices of new wine to the farmer at this time varied between £2 and ¿£3 per pipe, whilst the shipping prices for old wine did not exceed £9. To remedy this state of things the Old Wine Company was established in 1756 by the marquis of Pombal. The first act of the company was to make an arbitrary circumscription of what they considered the viticultural region of Alto Douro, outside of which no vines could be planted. The territory within the limits of the demarcation was then divided into three districts,—(1) that producing the factory wines, i.e., those set apart for England, (2) that whence the supplies for the Brazils were drawn, and (3) that the produce of which was reserved for tavern use or distillation. For all the wine allowed to be exported permits were issued, without which not a single cask could be sent down to Oporto for shipment. Later on, however, these permits were openly sold in the market, fetching as a rule about £3. The inconvenience and damage to the trade resulting from these absurd regulations led to the abolition of the company in 1833. But in 1843 the creditors of the Old Wine Company, whose lodges, with their valuable contents, had been destroyed at the raising of the siege of Oporto by the retreating Miguelites, induced the Govern-ment, as an indemnity for their losses, to re-establish the former company's monopoly. The new company had no authority to pre-vent the planting of vines ; but their powers as to the classification and exportation of port wine were the same as those possessed by the old company. For instance, in 1848 over 11,000 pipes were produced, but only 7000 were approved for exportation to England. At this time the export duty on wine destined for England was £3 per pipe—in reality £6, if the £3 permit is taken into considera-tion, whilst that on wine destined for countries out of Europe was only 6d. per pipe. The consequence was that considerable quantities of wine were shipped to America and thence to England, the differ-ence in the duty just paying expenses with a slight profit to the shipper. This state of things lasted till 1853, when the company was finally "exonerated from its official duties" and the export duty equalized on wine to all countries. Since that time the port-wine trade has been entirely unrestricted.

Besides the curse of monopolies, Alto Douro has suffered severely Ravages from the Oidium and Phylloxera. The former appeared about 1848, of Phyl-but it was not till 1853 that the disease assumed serious proportions, loxera The climax was reached in 1856, when only 15,000 pipes were vin- and taged, about one-sixth of the usual quantity. At one time it Oidium. seemed as if the wdiole trade would collapse, as the exportation dropped from 41,621 pipes in 1856 to 16,696 pipes in 1858. Fortunately, however, the sulphur remedy was discovered and applied in time, and since then the Oidium, though not entirely got rid of, has at any rate been effectually prevented from doing much harm. The same, as yet, cannot be said of the Phylloxera, the ravages of which have been much more serious. Its presence in Alto Douro was suspected as early as 1868 ; but for years hardly any attempt was made to save the vines, owing to the incredulity of the large farmers, who considered the cause of the withering of their vines to be the continuous drought of successive dry seasons. More energetic efforts are now being made to cope with the disease ; but in the meantime the yield has been getting less year by year, and at the present time is little more than half wdiat it used to be during the three years previous to the appearance of the Oidium, when the average was over 100,000 pipes. The excess of exportation over production for the last few years is owing, in the first place, to the enormous increase in the Brazilian trade, which is largely made up of wines from the Minho and Beira districts, and, secondly, to the new trade in common country wines with France. The shipments of wine of all kinds from Oporto to the Brazils amounted during 1887 to over 25,000 pipes, whilst those to France exceeded 10,000. According to the latest accounts, the Phylloxera still continues to extend the area of its attacks, although, on the other hand, many of the abandoned vineyards are again being brought under cultiva-tion ; also the number and extent of the new plantations are steadily increasing.

Statistics Exportation of wine from Oporto from 1678 to 1756, when the of port- Wine Company monopoly was established :—1678-87, average 632 wine pipes per annum; 1688-97, 7668 ; 1698-1707, 7188 ; 1708-17, 9644 ; trade. 1718-27,17,692; 1728-37,19,234; 1738-47,18,556; 1748-56,16,354.

Total, 953,362 pipes. Total exportation of wine from Oporto from 1757 to 1833, or during the existence of the Wine Company mono-poly, 2,564,096 pipes. Average to Great Britain, 27,938 pipes; to rest of the world, 5362. Total, 33,300 pipes. Total exportation of wine from Oporto from 1834 to 1842 during the absence of re-strictions—to Great Britain, 233,469 pipes ; to continent of Europe, 11,980 ; to rest of the world, 41,600 ; total, 2S7,049 pipes. Average to Great Britain, 25,941 pipes per annum ; to continent of Europe, 1331; to rest of the world, 4622. Total exportation of wine from Oporto from 1843 to 1853 during the existence of the New Wine Company monopoly—to Great Britain, 272,799 pipes ; to continent of Europe, 47,271; to the rest of the world, 75,197 ; total, 395,267 pipes. Average to Great Britain, 24,800 pipes per annum; to continent of Europe, 4297J ; to rest of the world, 6836.

Exportation of Wine from Oporto from 1854 to 1887, during the absence of restrictions and equalised rate of export duties to all

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Lisbon In addition to port, a large quantity of wine is produced in other wines. districts of Portugal, notably in the neighbourhood of Lisbon. Of these the principal are Torres Vedras, to the north of the city, where a large quantity of red wine of a coarse claret type is grown ; Collares, the vineyards of which lie beyond Cintra, and where a higher class is produced ; Carcavellos, at the mouth of the Tagus ; and Bucellas, in which a wdiite wine is produced from the Riesling grape, known in the United Kingdom as Bucellas hock. Car-cavellos yields a fuller-bodied description, whick savours more of the Madeira type.

Madeira. There is every reason to believe that vines were introduced into Madeira soon after the discovery of the island. But it was not till some 200 years later, after the marriage of the infanta Catherine of Portugal with Charles II. of England, that British merchants established themselves at Funchal, from which point the wine trade of Madeira commenced. The system of cultivation is some-what peculiar. The vines are trained over a lattice-work of cane, about 4 feet from the ground, supported on stakes, thus giving room for the vine-dresser to pass underneath and keep the ground clear from weeds. This system of keeping the ground clear and moist has much to do with the excellent character of the wine produced. An English acre can yield about seven pipes (644 gallons), but the average is considerably below this quantity. The vintage commences as a rule about the last week in August, and the grapes are all pressed before the October rains set in. This latter operation is still carried out in the primitive fashion, the fruit being thrown into large presses and trodden with the naked feet. Madeira wine improves much with age, and is occasionally to be met with from fifty to a hundred years old. The choicest descriptions are Malmsey, Sercial, Bual, and Tinta. The Jesuits at one time contrived to hold the monopoly of the Malmsey wine, and were owners of the vineyards at Cama de Lobos, in which it was produced. Of the other wines tlie choicest are found on the south side of the island ; but here as the elevation above the sea increases the quality falls off. The grapes from which Malmsey is made are not gathered till a month later than those for other wines of a drier character. Sercial is also a much-esteemed wine ; it is said to combine all the attributes of a perfect wine, being full-bodied and having a rich aromatic flavour peculiar to itself. The grape from which it is produced is of the Riesling variety, and is supposed to have been transplanted from the banks of the Rhine. Bual is a very luscious wine, the produce of a white grape. Tinta, on the other hand, is obtained from a red grape, and has somewhat of the character and appearance of the wines of Burgundy, whence the vines are said to have been derived. Trade in Madeira wine became well known in England about the middle Madeira, of the 18th century, when it became fashionable, owing to' the strong recommendation of officers who had served in the West Indies and America. The great demand at the beginning of the 19th century caused the culture of the vine on the island to be greatly increased. The annual production must ultimately have reached over 30,000 pipes, larger quantities of the commoner sorts being consumed on the island or turned into brandy. So much of the land indeed was under the vine that nearly all bread-stuffs had to be imported, the corn grown on the island being at that time only equal to three months' consumption, whereas now, owing to the decreased number of the vineyards, it grows an amount equal to nine months' requirements. In evidence of the importance which at one time attached to the Madeira wine trade, it may be mentioned that in 1799 a fleet of ninety-six ships was convoyed from Portsmouth to the port of Funchal by three men-of-war. This fleet took on to the West Indies 3041J pipes of Madeira, partly for the supply of the West Indian colonies and partly shipped for the voyage there and back to England. For many years this practice of sending wine for a voyage to the East or West Indies and back has existed amongst the Madeira merchants. The voyage matures the wine, and at the same time gives it a peculiar bouquet and flavour, derived most probably from the intense heat of the ship's hold and the continual motion to which it is subjected. There is, however, a marked difference between wines shipped to the East and those sent to the West Indies, the only reason assign-able being the difference in the length of the voyage. A custom prevails of submitting the wine, shortly after its manufacture, to a high temperature in buildings especially designed for the purpose, the result of which is the earlier development and mellowing of the wine, and the prevention of re-fermentation. The exact tempera-ture to which the wines are thus subjected and the length of time depend on individual judgment, although the temperature never exceeds 130° to 140° Fahr. for inferior and 100° to 120° for better class wines. It is this process which gives Madeira its characteristic flavour, to which again its popularity in Great Britain is due. The large stone buildings, two stories high, in which this process is carried on are divided into compartments and heated by flues with hot air from stoves below. On the wines being removed after a lapse of three, four, or six months, as the case may be, they are fined and racked, a second proportion of brandy being added if necessary, and they are then left to themselves, except for an occa-sional fining and racking, until they are shipped, which scarcely ever takes place before the second or third year.

As long ago as 1785 the quantity of Madeira shipped to England was 120,000 gallons, which gradually increased up to 1820, when it reached 520,000 gallons. After 1852, however, this amount was greatly reduced, and, although it has again improved of late years, the quantity imported in 1885 was only 108,771 gallons. With reference to the wine trade of Madeira with all parts of the world; it appears that in 1646 as many as 2000 pipes were exported. About this time English and other foreign houses established them-selves in Funchal, and it is without doubt owing to them that the culture of the vine was increased and an export trade of some im-portance commenced. It was not, however, until the latter half of the 18th century that, in consequence of the wars between France and England and the closing of the French ports, the Madeira trade increased to large proportions. In 1774 some 7000 pipes were shipped, which by 1780 had increased to over 16,000. In 1813 it is said some 22,000 pipes of Madeira were exported, at an average price of 300 dollars per pipe. After the war the large convoys to the East and West Indies ceased, but the Indiamen still called at Madeira on their outward voyage. Nearly all the regimental messes in the East Indies were supplied with Madeira wine, whilst large shipments were also made to America, Russia, and Germany. The taste for Madeira has of late very much died away, the cause of which must be traced to the appearance, in the spring of 1852, of the Oidium Tuckeri, which devastated the vineyards of the island. Vines were rooted up and sugar-canes planted in their stead, whilst, with production practically at a standstill, holders refused to part with their wines except at enormous figures. In consequence of these high prices Madeira was soon placed beyond the reach of all but the wealthiest classes. When in the course of time a cessation of the disease came about, the Madeira vineyards began to be re-planted, so that the produc-tion of the island has again reached some 5000 to 6000 pipes annu-ally, and brought about a corresponding reduction in price, genuine wine being now obtainable at considerably less than £20 per pipe. Popular prejudice is in consequence being removed, and a gradual although slow revival in the Madeira trade is taking place.


In point of quantity of production, though far inferior in quality, Italian Italy ranks ahead of France. The estimated area under the vine wines, is in excess of that of France. The annual yield is some 660,000,000 gallons, valued at about £100,000,000. Whereas in France and Spain the acreage under the vine is devoted exclusively to that plant, the vine in Italy is grown simultaneously with the olive, corn, &c. The vines are simply trained on wires at some distance from the ground, and are frequently allowed to run from tree to tree, mingling in the general vegetation, nature doing so much for the vine-grower that he, in most instances, does but little to assist her. The vintage usually takes place in September and October, and, except in Sicily and some of the southern provinces, the system employed is somewhat rude in comparison with those of other nations. Yet considerable improvement has taken place during the last few years. Greater attention is being paid to the selection of suitable plants, whilst on the larger estates modern wine-presses and utensils are coming into use, and the necessity of care and cleanliness for the production of good wine is beginning to be better understood. Amongst the chief faults still noticeable, but remediable with cultivation and care, are a strong flavour peculiar to the soil and a disposition on the part of the proprietors to over-alcoholize wines destined for exportation. In many instances also the grapes are gathered indiscriminately, often before they are ripe, whilst the quality is also frequently further damaged by want of attention and cleanliness in treatment. There can be no doubt that with proper treatment the wines of Italy would hold a much higher position than they do at present, the exports being, so far, trifling compared with the amount of production, and consisting to a great extent of Sicilian wines. Of the wines of northern Italy the best known descriptions are perhaps those of Montferrat and Asti. These are mostly light in colour, hard, and somewhat diffi-cult to keep. Some of the white wines of this district are very good. A large quantity of sparkling wine is also produced. The general nature of the soil is extremely fertile and the climate moderate, so that everything points to northern Italy as very suit-able for wine production. In central Italy the best wines are those of Montepulciano, Chianti, Pomino, Montalcino, and Carmignano. The greater proportion of the wine made here is from the province of Tuscany, which is also a very suitable one for the vine. These wines have considerable alcoholic strength, and are fit for consump-tion in about six to twelve months after the vintage, attaining per-fection in two years. The price usually varies from lid. to 2s. lid. per gallon, according to growth. The wines of Montepulciano have a brilliant purple colour and a luscious flavour, although not cloy-ing to the palate, their sweetness being generally tempered with an agreeable sharpness and astringency. The rocky hills of Chianti near Siena furnish another description of red wine, which is also sweet, but less aromatic. An excellent wine of the claret type is produced at Artimino. But perhaps the choicest wines grown in Italy are those of the Neapolitan district. Of these tire best known are the Lacryma Christi a red wine of good bouquet and an elegant taste, several descriptions of good class Muscat wine, and also a de-scription of Malvoisie. These three sorts are the produce of vines grown on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius nearest the sea. Of the Lacryma Christi only a small quantity is made, but many of the second-rate wines of the neighbourhood take the name and pas'1 in common for the growth.

Until recently the greater portion of the wines exported by Italy to other countries were for blending purposes. Lately, however, there has been a marked improvement in this respect, and a con-siderable quantity of wine is now exported in bottle. A trade of some importance is being developed with the United States, the imports in 1887 having amounted to 26,340 dozen bottles and 71,020 gallons in bulk. Sicilian. The principal wine produced in Sicily is that grown in the neigh-bourhood of Marsala, from which town it takes its name. The character of the wine is somewhat after the style of Madeira, it having good bouquet and improving with age. It is the result of a mixture of various kinds of grapes carefully selected, amongst which are included the usual Madeira varieties. Thanks to the care bestowed upon its production, Marsala has of late years acquired considerable reputation. The vintage usually takes place about the third week in September, which, although somewhat late for so southern a latitude, allows the grapes to mature thoroughly, whilst all the rotten ones are carefully picked out before the fruit is put into the press. The shippers usually arrange to purchase the vintage from the growers, subject to the condition that the wine is made in a certain manner. The must is collected in large casks capable of holding about 250 gallons each, in which it is allowed to ferment. The system pursued in the preparation of Marsala, as in the case of other strong wines, consists in the addi-tion of a certain quantity of spirit, according as the wine is intended for shipment to lingland or for consumption in Italy, the former being generally brought up to a strength of 33° to 35°, or about 5° more than that reserved for home consumption, the extra strength being to enable the wine to stand the sea voyage. Taken generally, there is very little difference between the qualities of the different growths of Marsala ; in fact, where the system of fortifying and sweetening is properly carried out and the best description of finings used to reduce the reddish tint found in most of the wines, it is almost impossible when the wines are two or three years old to detect any great variation, whilst such a thing as bad Marsala can scarcely be said to exist. Formerly all Marsala wines judged not sufficiently good for consumption as such were made into spirit for fortifying the better description ; but, since the Italian Govern-ment have raised the duty on alcohol, a different system is adopted. The inferior class of must is not now fermented, but is reduced by evaporation to about two-thirds of its original bulk, thus forming a sort of essence. This essence is added to the wine intended for consumption in the proportion of from 5 to 10 per cent, at the com-mencement of the fermentation. Within about two months of the first drawing-off of the wine the contents of each cask are carefully examined, and all which may be considered not sufficiently good for Marsala is set aside ; and this operation is repeated in March or April. Immediately after the next vintage it is examined for the third time, after which it is fined and drawn off into large vats capable of holding up to 18,000 gallons each. These vats, like the Spanish soleras, are never entirely emptied, a certain quantity of old wine being allowed to remain in them, which gives the new wines the bouquet and character peculiar to true Marsala.

A ustria-Hungary.

Of the Austrian-Hungarian empire Hungary, from a viticultural Hun-point of view, forms by far the most important part. The quantity garian. of wine produced in that country has assumed of late years considerable proportions, the white wines being both greater in quan-tity and of better description than the red. Inclusive of Croatia and Slavonia, it is estimated that there are in Hungary upwards of 1,000,000 acres of vineland, producing annually some 250,000,000 gallons of wine, the value of which is estimated at over £16,000,000. The wines of central Hungary are strong, and include white varieties varying in colour from a light to a deep yellow tinge, as well as wines of considerable depth of colour. Those of the south of Croatia are as a rule less strong, but are for the most part of a deep colour and are generally known as black wines. The produce of Transylvania ranks extremely high, and is for the most part white, although some excellent red wines are grown. The strength of Hungarian wines is moderate, that of Tokay being from about 20 to 25 per cent, of proof spirit, wdiilst Carlowitz averages from 24 to 25. The other descriptions generally have a less alcoholic strength. Foremost among the wines of Hungary is the sweet Tokay, grown in the submontane district around the town of Tokay, which covers a space of about 20 square miles. Throughout the whole of this district it is the custom to collect the grapes only when they have become dry and sweet, almost like raisins. The fruit is gathered separately and the best wine made from selected grapes. The grapes are first put together in a cask, in the bottom of which holes are bored to let that portion of the juice escape wdiich will run away without pressure. This forms the highest quality. The grapes are then squeezed for the ordinary wine. In abundant years the yield of Tokay reaches nearly 2,000,000 gallons, of which about 15 per cent, are of really superior quality, and of this about one-fifth is classified as extra fine. The three classes of Tokay are known as essentia, ausbruch, and mdslds, the first-named being the yield of the juice taken without pressure. It is, however, so scarce that it never appears in the market. The vineyards of Menés (in the county of Arad) produce a sweet red wine. Carlowitz is produced farther south, on the banks of the Danube, some 40 miles north-west of Belgrade. It has somewhat of the character of port wine, although more astringent and lacking in fruitiness. Many of the Hungarian vineyards also produce Muscat-flavoured wines wdiich are highly appreciated. The vintage in Hungary lasts from the commencement of October to the end of November, and ' for the most part is conducted on an imperfect principle, although great improvements have been introduced of late years. The grapes are crushed by the feet in some places, whilst in others a kind of mill is used, and in others again they are pressed in sacks. The wine is usually prepared in wooden utensils, generally made on the spot, the trade of the cooper being but little known. The system of carrying on the fermentation in closed barrels is not always adopted, and the wine is frequently spoilt by not being drawn off in time.

Next to Hungary the principal vine-growing district of the empire Dalma is Dalmatia, in which the vine culture has of late increased to an tian. enormous extent. Fifty years ago the vine was scarcely grown, except in the islands and on the sea-coast ; but it has now pene-trated into the interior, and. occupies about one-twentieth part of the soil under cultivation. The Dalmatian wdnes, which are almost entirely red, have generally full colour and contain a high degree of alcohol, wdiilst they also possess a good body and bouquet, re-sembling in a yeat measure the wines of Burgundy. The average annual production is 22,000,000 gallons, of which only about 4,000,000 are exported ; but this branch of the trade is gradually increasing. Defective cellarage, imperfect fermentation, and general ignorance as to manipulation prevented the development of the wine trade of Dalmatia for many years ; but these defects have of late been in a great manner remedied by the action of the Austrian Government in educating the proprietors in this respect. The best wines produced in the province are Moscato Roso, Vino Taitaro, Prosecco Vugova, Maraschino, and Malvasia.


German wines, genetically spoken of as Hock and Moselle, are Rhine the products of the most northern latitude of successful vine-culture wines, in Europe. To this circumstance must be attributed the fact that a greater inequality exists in the different vintages than is known in connexion with the wines of any other country. In a successful season, when the grapes have been able to mature thoroughly, per-haps no class of wine shows more elegance and quality than do those of the Rhine provinces, while, on the other hand, there are none on which the adverse influence of cold and wet is more appar-ent. The principal wine-producing districts of Germany are Alsace-Lorraine, Baden, Wurtemberg, the Hessian and Bavarian Palatinates, and the Rheingau, the total annual production of which is about 80,000,000 gallons. Of these the first three give half the aggregate yield ; but their wines are chiefly light and poor, and are only used for home consumption. The best wines of Germany are grown on the banks of the Rhine in the neighbourhood of Mainz: the Rhein-gau, in which the choicest descriptions are grown, lies on the right bank of the river, whilst the vineyards of Hesse lie on the left. The wines produced on the left bank are full-bodied and with good flavour, the best growths being Liebfraumilch, Nierstein, Schar-lachberg, and Forst, which are considered nearly equal to the Rheingau wines. Amongst the latter are the wines of Johannisberg and Steinberg ; the first-named is looked upon as the king of German wines. In the same neighbourhood are also the celebrated vineyards of Riidesheim, Grafenberg, and Rauenthal. The vineyard of Johannisberg is said to have been planted about the year 1009, under the direction of Ruthard, archbishop of Mainz. During the Thirty Years' War these vineyards were destroyed, but in 1722 the abbot of Fulda built a chateau on the site of the old convent and re-planted the vineyards. Hochheimer is the produce of a compara-tively small district situated on the banks of the Main, several miles above its junction with the Rhine. The name (whence Hock) has been known in England for upwards of two hundred years, and no doubt originally included and denoted the general body of Rhine Moselle wines. The wiires of the Moselle, many of which are shipped as wvnes. sparkling wines, occupy only a secondary position, although in favourable seasons they are characterized by a light pleasant flavour with a marked aroma. The wines of Germany, at least of the descriptions exported, are mostly white, although a small quantity of red is grown in the Palatinate, notably at Assmannshausen, which resembles Burgundy. The yield, however, is comparatively trifling. Amongst the leading descriptions of vine plants in German vineyards the Riesling stands out pre-eminent. It is gener-ally planted on the rocky mountain slopes, and the bunches of white grapes which it produces only ripen perfectly in years of high temperature. When this is the case, however, they yield a wine of high quality, the characteristics of which develop as the wine grows older. On the lower lands the species known as the Klein-berger and Oestreicher are planted, the grapes of which ripen more easily and produce more freely than the Pineau Riesling grape. The French vines, the Pineau and Gros Blanc, are also cultivated in Germany. But one-half of the vines growing on the banks of the Rhine are Riesling plants, which are probably indigenous to the valley, as, although planted elsewhere, they have never been found to yield fruit of such quality as in the Rheingau. Great care is bestowed upon the process of vintage, which usually takes place at as late a date as possible, as a rule not before the end of October or beginning of November, in order to allow the grapes to ripen as thoroughly as may be. The wine is allowed to ferment in casks instead of in vats, as in most other countries, owing to which cir-cumstance considerable difference in quality and price is apt to exist in the produce of the same growth and vintage. After the grapes are gathered, they are pressed as they attain ripeness ; and, after the fermentation is duly effected, the wine is fined and racked into vats, which are constantly filled up so that the wine improves with age. The time for racking varies with different proprietors, some taking the wine off the lees in the February following the vintage, whilst others allow the lees to remain a year irr the wine, a process which gives it a fuller and sweeter taste. Several years are required to get the wine fit for bottling, as there is no fixed period at which it will finish its fermentation, in fact the finer the wine the longer the time requisite to get it in condition. During this period it receives the greatest attention and is frequently tested, condition beirrg perhaps the greatest difficulty in connexion with German wines.

Russia and Greece.

Russia A certain quantity of wine is made in the southern portions of and Russia and in Greece ; but the quality is mostly coarse and common, Greece, and the produce is almost entirely used for home consumption.

United States.

The cultivation of the vine has made rapid progress of late years in the United States, and American wines are steadily taking the place of the foreign product. The soil and climate of the Pacific coast seem best adapted to the growth of the vine, and wine-making appears likely to become one of the leading industries of California, where the vine was first introduced by tire Franciscan fathers about the year 1769. The variety of grape first planted in that region was known as the "Mission" grape, and is generally supposed to have been imported from Mexico. Subsequently the principal varieties of French, Gorman, and Spanish vines were introduced into that State and have all been tried with more or less success. The result is that several descriptions of wine are now made in California resembling, to a certain extent, the leading European types, although, as a rule, of a coarser style,—a defect, however, which is disappearing witlr the spread of technical knowledge. Although California is by far the largest grape-growing State in the Union, producing nearly one-half of the wines made in the United States, yet the rate of increase of the product during the past five years has been greatest in other States. In Ohio, upon the shores of Lake Erie and along the Ohio river, the vine is ex-tensively cultivated. The champagnes and clarets made in the neighbourhood of Sandusky and Cleveland, and the "sparkling Catawba," made originally by Nicholas Longworth of Cincinnati, are produced in considerable quantities. New York, Missouri, Illinois, and Pennsylvania are likewise large wine-producing States, the largest wine-manufacturing establishment being in New York State, in Steuben county. The annual yield in each of these States ranges now (1888) from 2,000,000 to 4,000,000 gallons. Wines of inferior quality are made in small quantities in nearly all the States. In the eastern and middle States the principal grapes are the Catawba and Ives seedling, while in the south the Virginia seedling and the Scuppernong grapes are the favourites. The wine-grapes in these regions resemble the grapes of Germany and France, con-taining more acid and flavour, while those grown on the Pacific coast are of a milder and sweeter character, resembling the wines of Spain. The principal obstacles in the way of the cultivation of the vine in the United States are mildew and blight, which sometimes destroy the entire foliage of the vine, and the grape-rot, which in some localities has baffled the grower and caused the abandonment of grape-culture. The ravages of the Phylloxera are likewise encountered in certain localities, but these are not so ex-tensive in the United States as in France, and, indeed, certain varieties of vine are entirely free from them. The exports of American wines, though still small, are rapidly increasing. The imports of foreign wines have steadily decreased during the past fifteen years. The total annual production of wine in the United States now amounts to about 35,000,000 gallons.

Cape of Good Hope.

Previous to the alteration of the wine duties in 1860, which placed Cape of foreign and colonial wines on a similar basis, a considerable business Good was developing in the Urrited Kingdom in favour of Cape wines, Hope, especially of those descriptions most resembling the traditional port and sherry. The Cape of Good Hope in its geographical and climatic elements greatly resembles the vine-growing countries of Europe, and, notwithstanding certain earthy characteristics (due in the main to imperfect cultivation) which were inseparable from its wines, bade fair at one time to rival the best of its competitors north of the equator. The equalization of duty, however, has con-siderably checked the trade in Great Britain, notwithstanding the great improvement which has since taken place in wine-making at the Cape.


Wine-producing has been prosecuted as an industry for many Australia, years in the Australian colonies, and irr some instances with con-siderable energy. But it has not hitherto developed to any great extent, owing to the absence of differential duties to favour the growers and the cost of freight, although from the quality of their production they have no reason to dread competition with the wine-growers of Europe. The Australian colonies (Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales) have suffered much from want of technical knowledge both in vine selection and wine preparation, though in both of these branches considerable progress has been made during the last few years. According to Mr J. P. Stow, in his History of South Australia, the tentative stage of vine culture in that colony has now passed. Good markets for its vintages may be expected in Eu-ope as soon as wines of certain qualities are made in sufficient qirantities to allow of heavy stocks being kept. As with the growths of Medoc, attempts are being made to keep the yields of the various vineyards distinct, those of Highercombe, Auldana, Tintara, &c, in South Australia being well known in Great Britain. In their principal characteristics these wines re-semble those of France, the red wines being intermediate between claret and Burgundy, while the white wiires, although the fuller descriptions conre near Sauterne and Chablis, as a rule take more after those of the Rhine. The quantity imported into England during 1887 amounted to 168,188 gallons.


Although holding a position of little importance in wine-growing, as compared with Europe, Asia yields a certain quantity for home consumption. Chief amongst these are the wines of Caucasia and Armenia, which, according to Thudicum, are more notable for their alcoholic strength than for their colour. Wines are also, made in Persia, especially in the district of Shiraz; these, however, rarely find their way into the market. (H. J. N.)


On the history of viticulture, see especially Hehn, Culturpflanzen, &c, 3d ed., p. 63 sq., and Mommsen, Rom. Gesch., v. 98 sq. In accordance with the history of the plant, the names wine, vinum, &c, are traced by philologists to eTVo?. The further history of the name is obscure ; but it seems to be Indo-European ; the Hebrew yayin is almost certainly a loan-word.

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