1902 Encyclopedia > Yokohama, Japan


YOKOHAMA, situated in 35° 26' 53" N. lat. and 139° 38' 39" E. long, (see map in vol. xxiii. p. 433), is the most important of the five ports in Japan open by treaty to foreign commerce and residence, both on account of its

proximity to Tokio, the capital, and of the extent of its trade. It stands on a plain, extending along the Bay of Tokio and shut in by hills, one of which, towards the south-east, terminates in a promontory called Honmoku-misaki. Its area extends over -873 of a square mile, of which '26 is occupied by the foreign settlement. The climate is variable, the range in temperature being from 95° to 43° Fahr., and the mean temperature 57°-7. The cold in winter is severe owing to the prevalence of northerly


winds, while the heat is great in summer, though it is tempered by sea breezes from the south-west. The rain-fall is large—according to Dr Hepburn's observations {1863-1869) 69^ inches annually. In 1859, when the neighbouring town of Kanagawa was opened to foreigners under the treaty with the United States, Yokohama was an insignificant fishing village; and notwithstanding the protests of the foreign representatives the Japanese Govern-ment shortly afterwards chose the latter place as the settle-ment instead of Kanagawa. The town has since increased so rapidly that in 1886 the population was 111,179 (3904 foreigners, including 2573 Chinese, 256 Americans, and 625 British). The Japanese Government has constructed various public buildings, a granite breakwater, and a cause-way 2 miles long, connecting the town with Kanagawa. Waterworks on the most improved principle have been completed recently, the water being supplied from the Sagamigawa. The foreign settlement consists of well-oconstructed streets with business establishments. The wealthier portion of the foreigners reside, however, on a hilly locality to the south of the town, called the Bluff. The land occupied by foreigners has been leased to them by the Japanese Government, 20 per cent, of the annual rent being set aside for municipal expenses.
The harbour, which is a part of the Bay of Tokio, is good and commodious, extending from Honmoku-misaki (Treaty Point) to the mouth of the Tsurumi, a distance of about 5 miles. The average depth at high water is about 46 feet, with a fall of tide of about 8 feet, the entrance being marked by a lightship and two buoys. There are two landing-places, the English and the French " hatoba "; but, as there are no quays available for large vessels, goods have to be carried to the shore in junks. Steamers from San Francisco, Vancouver's Island, China, &c, call re-gularly. A railway about 18 miles long connects Yoko-hama with Tokio. This, the first railway in Japan, was constructed in 1872. Yokohama is the terminus of the Tokaido line, which will ultimately connect Yokohama with Kioto, the former capital.
The following table shows the value of the foreign trade of Yoko-hama from 1878 to 1886 ;—

== TABLE ==

The figures for the bullion trade in 1886 were—export (gold) £9291, (silver) £1,243,569; import (gold) £4776, (silver) £1,903,010. The revenue from custom duties, &c., in the same year was—export duties, £212,587 ; import duties, £198,866 ; warehouses, £1979 ; harbour dues, £1870.

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