Today in History - July 21
Tamerlane Defeats the Turks
The British Capture Gibraltar
-- Compiled by James Finlayson-Bald
Sir George Rooke (1650-1709) was an English admiral who captured Gibraltar for the British in 1704.
On this date:
July 21 is the Feast of St. Victor of Marseilles, patron of cabinetmakers.
905Louis III, King of the Lombards, blinded. In 900 he was called to Italy by a group of nobles in opposition to Berengar of Friuli; he crossed the Alps, was crowned at Pavia in October 900 and received the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV at Rome in February 901. He gained a temporary authority in Northern Italy, but was soon compelled by Berengar to leave the country. In 904, however, he went to Italy, where he secured the submission of Lombardy; but on this day, 905, was surprised at Verona by Beremgar, who blinded him and sent him back to Provence, where he remained until his death.
1402Timur (Tamerlane) defeated the Turks at Ankara halting their eastward expansion. Continuing on he captured Smyrna from the Knights of Rhodes, and received offers of submission from the Sultan of Egypt and from John VIII, co-Emperor of the East.
1571An arm of the Inquisition was formed for the Portuguese navy.
1588The English fleet put out to tackle the Spanish Armada.
1704Gibraltar was attacked by the British under Sir George Rooke and Sir Clowdisley Shovel.
1773The Jesuit Order was dissolved by Pope Clement XIV. Its main objects were defined as educational work, the suppression of heresy and missionary work among the heathen, but from the beginning they aimed at political influence, and these activities resulted in their expulsion during 1759-1768 from Portugal, France and Spain.
1809Daniel Lambert died, age 30, height 5'11", weight 739 lbs. (52 st. 11 lb.)
1814The Inquisition was restored in Spain by Ferdinand VII after the fall of Napoleon, who had suppressed it in 1808. It was finally abolished in Spain in 1834.
1831Belgium and Holland separated to become two separate kingdoms.
1861Confederate victory at the first Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas), Virginia.
1873Jesse James and his band held up their first train. In the early months of the civil war the James family favoured the Southern cause and as a result suffered at the hands of the Union forces. By way of revenge Jesse turned informer and later at 15-years-old joined the Confederate guerrilla forces of W. C.Quantrill. At the conclusion of the war Jesse and other members of the band surrendered but he was treacherously shot and wounded. In 1867, declared an outlaw, he became leader of the "James Gang" of bank and train robbers, and attained notoriety for crimes of the most cold-blooded and daring type. Attracted by a reward of $10,000 offered in Missouri, the Ford brothers of his own band, shot and killed him at St. Joseph on April 3, 1882.
Baron Paul Julius von Reuter, (1816-1899)
Hart Crane, poet (1899-1932)
"The world is a much worse place than I ever thought it."
W. R. Inge, Dean of St. Paul's.
The above article was written by James Finlayson-Bald.
Edited and illustrations added by David Paul Wagner.