1902 Encyclopedia > Today in History > Tamerlane defeats the Turks, the British capture Gibraltar, Jesse James, and more

Today in History - July 21
• Tamerlane Defeats the Turks
• The British Capture Gibraltar
• Jesse James

-- Compiled by James Finlayson-Bald

Sir George Rooke (image)

Sir George Rooke (1650-1709) was an English admiral who captured Gibraltar for the British in 1704.

On this date:

July 21 is the Feast of St. Victor of Marseilles, patron of cabinetmakers.

905—Louis III, King of the Lombards, blinded. In 900 he was called to Italy by a group of nobles in opposition to Berengar of Friuli; he crossed the Alps, was crowned at Pavia in October 900 and received the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV at Rome in February 901. He gained a temporary authority in Northern Italy, but was soon compelled by Berengar to leave the country. In 904, however, he went to Italy, where he secured the submission of Lombardy; but on this day, 905, was surprised at Verona by Beremgar, who blinded him and sent him back to Provence, where he remained until his death.

1402—Timur (Tamerlane) defeated the Turks at Ankara halting their eastward expansion. Continuing on he captured Smyrna from the Knights of Rhodes, and received offers of submission from the Sultan of Egypt and from John VIII, co-Emperor of the East.

1571—An arm of the Inquisition was formed for the Portuguese navy.

1588—The English fleet put out to tackle the Spanish Armada.

1704—Gibraltar was attacked by the British under Sir George Rooke and Sir Clowdisley Shovel.

1773—The Jesuit Order was dissolved by Pope Clement XIV. Its main objects were defined as educational work, the suppression of heresy and missionary work among the heathen, but from the beginning they aimed at political influence, and these activities resulted in their expulsion during 1759-1768 from Portugal, France and Spain.

1809—Daniel Lambert died, age 30, height 5'11", weight 739 lbs. (52 st. 11 lb.)

1814—The Inquisition was restored in Spain by Ferdinand VII after the fall of Napoleon, who had suppressed it in 1808. It was finally abolished in Spain in 1834.

1831—Belgium and Holland separated to become two separate kingdoms.

1861—Confederate victory at the first Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas), Virginia.

1873—Jesse James and his band held up their first train. In the early months of the civil war the James family favoured the Southern cause and as a result suffered at the hands of the Union forces. By way of revenge Jesse turned informer and later at 15-years-old joined the Confederate guerrilla forces of W. C.Quantrill. At the conclusion of the war Jesse and other members of the band surrendered but he was treacherously shot and wounded. In 1867, declared an outlaw, he became leader of the "James Gang" of bank and train robbers, and attained notoriety for crimes of the most cold-blooded and daring type. Attracted by a reward of $10,000 offered in Missouri, the Ford brothers of his own band, shot and killed him at St. Joseph on April 3, 1882.

Baron Paul Julius von Reuter, (1816-1899)
Hart Crane, poet (1899-1932)

"The world is a much worse place than I ever thought it."
— W. R. Inge, Dean of St. Paul's.

The above article was written by James Finlayson-Bald.
Edited and illustrations added by David Paul Wagner.

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