1902 Encyclopedia > Moscow > Moscow Universities, etc.

(Part 3)


Moscow has many educational institutions and scientific societies. The university, fouded in 1755, exercised a powerful influence on the intellectual life a Russia during the years 1830-1848; and it still continues to be the most frequented Russian university. In 1882 it had 2430 students and a teaching staff of 334; the students are mostly poor, the sum of 107,588 roubles having been given in 1881 in scholarhips to 854 of their number, and 14,000 roubles in the form of occasional assistance. The library contains nearly 200,000 volumes, and his rich collections in minerally, geology, and zoology. There is also an excellent higher technical school; and an agricultural college is situated in the Petrovskoye suburb. Moscow has also a theological academy, a commercial academy, a school of topography, an institute (of Lazareff) for the study of Oriental languages, a musical conservatory, four institutes for women, a free university for women, seven colleges for boys and three for girls, three corps o military cadedts, very numerous primary and technical schools, and many private schools. But still these are insufficient for the population, and the municipal schools every year refuse admission to about 1500 boys and girls.

The scientific societies are specially distinguished for their services in the exploration of the country. The following deserve particular mention: —the society of naturalists (founded in 1805); the society of Russian history and antiquities, which has published many remarkable works; the society of amateurs of Russain literature ; the physical and medical society; the mathematical society; the society for the diffusion of the diffusion of useful books; the very active archaeological society, founded in 1864; a society of gardening and of agriculture ; several technical, artistic, and musical societies ; and the very active young society of the friends of natural science, which already has published may useful volumes.

Among the museums of Moscow, the museum, formerly Ruman-tseff’s, now connected with the so-called "public museum," occupies the first rank. It contains a library of 150,000 volumes and 2300 MSS., remarkable collections of old pictures, sculpututes, and prints, as well as a rich mineralogical collection, and an ethonographical collection representing very accurately the various inhabitants of Russia. The historical museum has already been mentioned. The private museum of Prince Golitzyn contains a good collection of painting and MSS.; and great treasure of archaeology are amassed in various private collections in Moscow and its suburbs.

The periodical press does on the whole exercise great influence; twenty-five periodicals are published, besides those of scientific societies. But Moscow publishes a far larger number of books for primary instruction and of humblest kind of literature and prints for the use of peasants than any other Russian city.

The philanthropic institutions are numerous, the first rank being occupied by the immense Foundlings’ Hospital, erected in 1764. The hospitals, municipal, military, and private, are very large, but much below the standard of other capitals. The number of private philanthropic institutions is very considerable.

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