Picture Galleries (Art Galleries) of Europe
The following list givens some indication of the manner in which the existing pictures of various schools are distributed among the chief galleries of Europe.
National Gallery, London
The National Gallery, London, contains for its size a very large number of highly important pictures of the Italian schools, many of them signed and dated; in fact, as a representative collection, embracing as it does well-chosen specimens of every school and in Including many paintings of very rare masters, it is hardly surpassed by any gallery in the world. Though weak in paintings of Giotto and his school, it possesses many early Sienese pictures of great interest and exceptional importance (see fig. 1), and a collection unrivalled out of Italy of the works of the best Florentine painters of the 15th century, as Paolo Uccello, Lippo Lippi, Pollauiolo Signorelli, Botticelli, Lorenzo di Credi, and others (see fig. 6). Of the very few existing easel pictures by Pisanello the National Gallery contains one 9signed), St George and St Anthony. The portrait by Andrea del Sarto is one of his finest works,- full of life and expression and rich in tone. In addition to a large painting on canvas of the school of Michelangelo-Leda and the Swan-the national gallery possesses two unfinished pictures, a Madonna and Angels and an Entombment of Christ, both of which, in spite of many adverse criticism, appear to be genuine works of Michelangelo, the former in his early, latter in his later manner - a very remarkable possession for one gallery, seeing that the only other genuine easel painting by him is the circular panel of the Madonna in the tribune of the Uffizi (Florence). No four pictures could better represent Raphaels highly varied manners than the miniature Knights Dream, the Ansidei Madonna, the St Catherine, and the Garvagh Madonna, which in the dates of their execution cover nearly the whole of his short working life. In the Venetian school the National Gallery is almost unrivalled; it contains a large number of fine examples of Crivelli (see fig. 14), - Venice not possessing one; two rare panels by Marziale, both signed and dated (1500 and 1507); the finest specimens of Giovanni Bellini (see fig. 15) and his school which exist out of Venice; one of Titians noblest works,- the Ariadne and Bacchus, finished in 1523 for the duke of Ferrara, together with two other fine pictures of earlier date; and the masterpiece of Sebastiano del Piombo, his Raising of Lazarus, partly designed by Michelangelo. The smaller schools of Ferrara and Cremona are well represented by examples of nearly all their chief painters. Of the Umbrian school the gallery possesses two or rather three important, though much injured, panels, by Piero delal Francesca (see fig 10), a fine picture by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, as well as one of Peruginos best works, the triptych from the Certosa near Pavia (see fig. 12), and other paintings by him. Correggio is represented by three fine pictures, classical and religious, specimens of unusual excellence (see fig. 21). Of the Bolognese school there are three works by Francia, one signed (see fig. 19), and specimens of the painters of the later school,- Annibale Caracci, Guido (see fig. 20), and others. Paul Veroneses Dream of St Helena and the group of portraits of the Pisan family, arranged as the scene of the family of Darius before Alexander, are among his finest works. The three pictures by Lotto are excellent examples of his supreme talents in portraiture; and no collection outside Brescia and Bergamo is so rich in the noble portrait pictures of Moretto and his pupil Moroni. Leonardo da Vinci (the rarest of the great masters) is represented by a very beautiful picture which appears to have been partly finished by a pupil; with slight alterations it is the same in design as the Vierge aux Rochers in the Louvre (see fig. 23). Leonardos use of almost monochromatic coloring differs strongly from the style of his pupils and imitators Luini, Andrea da Solario (see fig. 24), and Beltraffio, all of whom are represented by excellent and characteristic examples. Of the earlier Milanese school the gallery contains two magnificent examples by Ambrogio Borgognone, - the marriage of St Catherine especially being a work of the highest importance and beauty (see fig. 22). The gallery possesses rare examples of the early German masters (see fig. 25, by William of Cologne),though it is weak in the works of the later Germans, as Albert Durer, who is represented only by one portrait, which is signed (see fig. 26), and Hans Holbein the younger, who is totally absent except for the noble portrait lent by the duke of Norfolk. The collection is, however, unusually rich in fine examples of early Flemish art, - of the Van Eycks and their school (see fig. 28). The portrait of Jean Arnolfini and his wife 9signed and dated) is one of Jan van Eycks noblest works on a small scale,- only surpassed, perhaps, by the Madonna and Worshipper in the Louvre. The Entombment of Christ by Van der Weyden the elder (see fig. 29), the three or more examples of Memling, the Exhumation of St Hubert by Dierick Bouts, the reading Magdalene by Van der Weyden the younger (see fig. 30), and the Saints and Donor by Gheerardt David are all unrivalled examples of these great painters. The delicate little panel of the Madonna by Margaret van Eyck is a work of much interest. The later Flemish and Dutch schools are equally well represented, especially by a number of noble portraits by Rembrandt (see fig 33), Rubens, and Vandyck; a portrait of an old woman, the "Chapeau de Poil," and the portrait of Van der Geest (wrongly called Gevartius) are among the finest works of these three masters (see fig. 31 and 32). Hobbema, Ruysdael, De Hooge, Wouweman, and others of their school are very richly represented (see figs. 34 and 35). Of the Spanish school the national Gallery contains an excellent portrait head of Philip IV. (see fig. 33) by Velazquez, a full length of the same king, not wholly by his hand, and also two pictures of sacred subjects and a curious boar-hunting scene of much interest, but of inferior beauty. The examples of Murillo, like most out of Seville, are but third-rate specimens of his power. The Kneeling Friar as an example of Zurbarans work is unrivalled either in Spain or out of it 9see fig. 36). Among the pictures of the French school a number of fine landscapes by Claude Lorrain and a very masterly Bacchanalian Scene by Nicolas Poussin are the most notable (see figs. 38 and 39). The English school is hardly represented in a manner worthy of the chief national collection, but it is supplemented by a large number of fine paintings in the South Kensington Museum. The chief treasures in this branch possessed by the National Gallery are Hogarths series of "Marriage a la Mode," some noble portraits by Reynolds and Gainsborough, and an unrivalled collection of Turners works of all periods (see figs. 40, 41 and 43).
The royal gallery at Hampton Court (London), among a large number of inferior paintings, contains some of great value, especially the baptism of Christ, an early work of Francia, a most magnificent portrait of Andrea Odoni by Lor. Lotto, both signed, and a portrait of Andria Odoni by Lor. Lotto, both signed, and a portrait of a youth attributed to Raphael. The chief treasure of the palace is the grand series of decorative paintings (nine in number) executed in tempera on canvas by Andrea Mantegna in 1485-92 for the duke of Mantua, but much injured by repainting. The equally celebrated cartoons designed by Raphael for tapestry to decorate the Sistine Chapel are now moved to the South Kensington Musuem. The gallery also possesses several fine examples of Tintoretto, many good Flemish and Dutch pictures, some small but fine examples of Holbein and his school, and a number of historically interesting works by English painters of the 17th century. The portrait of a Jewish Rabbi by Rembrandt is one of his finest works,- a perfect masterpiece of portraiture.
Other English Art Galleries
The Dulwich gallery is especially rich in works of the Dutch school, and contains some noble portraits by Gainsborough and Reynolds, as well as an interesting early work by Raphael,- the predella with seven small subjects painted in 1504 as part of the large altarpiece for the monastery of St Anthony in Perugia; the main part of this large retable, which is property of the heirs of the duke of Ripalda, has been for many years deposited but not exhibited in the national gallery. The national portrait gallery at Kensington contains many paintings of different schools which are valuable both as works of art and from their interest as portraits. The Royal Academy has placed in the attics of Burlington House its valuable collection of diploma pictures, and in an adjoining room a few treasures of earlier art, among them a large cartoon of the Madonna and St Anne by Leonardo da Vinci,- similar in subject to, but different in design from, an unfinished picture by him in the Louvre, and a copy of his Cenacolo at Milan by his pupil Marco dOggiono, of priceless value now that the original is an utter wreck. In the same room is a very beautiful but unfinished piece of sculpture by Michelangelo, a circular relief of the Madonna.
Other British Art Galleries
England is especially rich in collection of drawing by the old masters. The chief are those in the British Museum, in the Taylor Buildings at Oxford, and in the possession of the Queen and of Mr Malcolm of Poltalloch. Among the collection in Windsor Castle are eighty-seven portraits in red chalk by Holbein, all of wonderful beauty. The celebrated "Liber Veritatis," a collection of original drawings by Claude Lorrain, is in the possession of the duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth. In Buckingham Palace is a fine collection of paintings of the Flemish and Dutch schools. An almost incredibly large number of fine paintings of all school are scattered throughout the private galleries of Britain; an account of the chief of these is given by Dr Waagen, Treasures of Art in Britain, London, 1854. but many of the collections described by Dr Waagen have since been moved or dispersed; the Peel and Wynn Ellis pictures have been purchased by the National Gallery, which has also acquired important pictures from the sales of the Eastlake, Barker, Novar, Hamilton, and Blenheim collections. The largest private galleries which still exist in England are those of the duke of Westminster (Grosvenor House), the duke of Sutherland (Stafford House), the earl of Ellesmere (Bridgewater House), and the marquis of Exeter (Burghley House). The public gallery at Liverpool contains some very important Italian pictures, as does also the growing collection in Dublin. The Edinburgh national Gallery possesses a few specimens of early masters, among them part of the great altarpiece by the unknown "Master of Liesborn," a picture of St Hubert by the "Master of Lyversberg," some fine Dutch pictures, and Gains boroguhs masterpieces, the portrait of the Hon. Mrs Graham, to gether with many examples of the excellent portraits by David Allan and Sir Henry Raeburn. In the palace of Holyrood is preserved a very beautiful altarpiece, with portraits of James III. and his queen and other figures. It is supposed to have been painted about 1480 by Van der Goes of the school of the Van Eycks. England is especially rich in the finest examples of Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain; the paintings by the latter in Grosvenor House, the National Gallery, and elsewhere in the country are unrivalled by those of any foreign gallery.
The Louvre, Paris
The Louvre is rich in works of nearly all schools, and especially in fine examples of Signorelli, Mantegna, Raphael, Titian, Paul Veronese, Correggio, and the later Bolognese painters. Its chief glory is the possession of some of the very rare works of Da Vinci, - La Vierge aux Rochers, the Virgin and St Anne, and the wonderful portraits of Mona Lisa and La belle Ferronniere. It chiefly weak in examples of the earlier Venetian painters, not possessing a single genuine work by Giovanni Bellini. It contains some very beautiful frescos by Botticelli and by Luini, and the finest work of Murillo which exists out of Seville, - the Virgin in Glory. The later Flemish and Dutch schools are well represented: the small painting of the Virgin with a kneeling Worshipper by Jan van Eyck is one of the loveliest pictures in the world; but the Louvre is otherwise deficient in paintings of his school. The portraits by Holbein, Rubens, and Vandyck are of great importance. In the French school the Louvre is of course unrivalled: the paintings of Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain are the best among them; but the general average of merit is very low. The Louvre also possesses a magnificent collection of drawings by the old masters.
German Art Galleries
The Berlin gallery, now rapidly being added to, contains a large number of very important Italian pictures; among them is Signorellis finest easel picture (see fig. 8), - a classical scene with Pan and other nude figures playing on pipes, a masterpiece of powerful drawing. The gallery is more especially rich in works of the German, Flemish, and Dutch schools, including six panels from the large altarpiece of the Adoration of the Lamb at Ghent by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The Dresden gallery is mainly rich in paintings of the Flemish and Dutch schools, but also contains some fine Italian pictures. Raphaels Madonna di San Sisto is the chief glory of the collection, together with many fine examples of Giorgione, Palma Vecchio, Titian, Paul Veronese, and Correggio, and a number of works of the later Bolognese school. The gallery is especially remarkable for its genuine examples of that very rare master Girogione. The Pinakothek at Munich some good Italian pictures, among them four by Raphael and a number of fine Titians. It contains a large collection of German, Dutch, and Flemish paint ings, with a number of fine portraits by Albert Dures and Vandyck. It is especially rich in works of Lucas Cranach the elder, of Memling, of Roger van der Weyden, of Wohlgemuth, and of Rembrandt. The Cassel gallery is mainly rich in Flemish and Dutch paintings. The small Wallraf-Richartz Museum at Cologne contains a few paintings of great interest to the student of early German art.
Austrian Art Galleries
The Belvedere Gallery at Vienna is exceptionally rich in works of the Venetian school, especially of Palma Vecchio, Titian and Paul Veronese. Holbein, Rubens, Vandyck, and other masters of the Flemish and Dutch schools are richly represented. Vienna also contains some large private galleries, chiefly rich in Flemish and Dutch pictures, and a magnificent collection of drawings by old masters. The Budapest gallery (Eszterhazxy collection) contains many fine Ventian and some Florentine pictures, with a large number of Flemish and Dutch works.
Russian Art Galleries
The Gallery of the Hermitage at St Petersburg is one of the largest and most important in Europe; though weak in pictures of the early Italian schools, it contains fine examples of Luini, Raphael, Titian, Paul Veronese, and the Bolognese school, and is extraordinarily rich in paintings by Murillo, Rembrandt, Rubens. Vandyck, and the later Flemish and Dutch schools generally.
Art Galleries in Belgium and Holland (Netherlands)
The many galleries of Belgium and Holland are mostly rich in the works of local schools. Antwerp possesses the masterpieces of Rubens and many fine examples of his pupil Vandyck. The church of St Bavon at Ghent contains the masterpieces of the Van Eycks, the main part of a large altarpiece in many panels with the Adoration of the Lamb as the central subject; this is only rivaled in point of size and beauty by the fountain of Salvation painted by Jan van Eyck about 1432, and now in the museum of the Santissima Trinidad at Madrid. Among the many fine Flemish and Dutch pictures in the museum at the Hague is a half-length of an unknown lady by Holbein, which is one of the most beautiful portraits in the world (see fig. 27).
Spanish Art Galleries
The gallery of Madrid is in some respects unrivalled both from its widely representative character-at least as regards the later schools- and from the number of exceptional masterpieces which it contains; it possesses, however, very few specimens of Italian art earlier than 1500. In the works of the later Italian masters it is very rich, possessing four important works by Raphael,-the Madonna called La Perla (once at Hampton Court in the collection of Charles I.), the Virgin of the Fish, the Virgin of the Rose, and Christ on His way to Calvary (Lo Spasimo). No other gallery contains so many fine specimens of Titians paintings; it includes a scene of Bacchus at Naxos, with a nude sleeping figure of Ariadne in the foreground, the companion to the magnificent Ariadne in the english National gallery, but surpassing it in beauty and perfection of preservation. The third picture of the trio painted for the duke of Ferrara is also at Madrid; it is known as the Sacrifice to Fecundity, and consists of a large group of nude infants sporting or sleeping, a perfect miracle for its wealth of color and unrivalled flesh painting. In addition to these wonderful pictures there are some splendid portraits by Titian, and many of his later works, showing a sad decadence in his old age. The gallery also contains many important works of Paul Veronese and others of the Venetian school, and a very fine collection of Flemish and Dutch pictures, including a number of noble portraits by Antonio Moro, Rubens, and Vandyck, together with some of Claude Lorrains best landscapes. In the Spanish schools the Madrid gallery is unrivalled; it contains a number of poor but interesting paintings by Juan de Juanes, the collection of the works of Ribera (Spagnoletto), and the chief masterpiece of Valezquez. It is in Madrid alone that the greatness of Velazquez can be fully realized, just as the marvelous talents of Murillo are apparent only in Seville. Among the many woinderful paintings by Velazquez in this gallery the chief are the Crucifiction, the Tapestry Weavers (las Hilanderas), the Surrender of Breda (las Lanzas), the Drinking Peasants (Los Borrachos), the portrait group known as Las Meninas, and many magnificent portraits. The gallery also contains a number of Zurbarans works, and many by Murillo, none of which are among his finest paintings. The best picture by Murillo at Madrid is the scene of St Elizabeth of Hungary tending the Lepers, preserved in the Academia de San Fernando. Seville alone contains the real masterpieces of Murillo, a very unequal painter, who produced a large number of third-rate works, such as are to seen in many of the chief galleries of Europe, but who at his best deserves to rank with the greatest painters of the world. It is impossible to describe the wonderful rich tone, the intense pathos, and the touching religious feeling of such pictures as the Crucified Christ embracing St Francis, or the apparition of the Infant Savior to St Anthony of Padua, in the Seville gallery, and the larger composition of the latter scene in the cathedral. Othere very noble works by Murillo exist in the monastic church of La Caridad. The Seville gallery also contains several of Zurbarans chief pictures, and some by other painters of the Spanish school. The other chief gallery of Spain, that a Valencia, contains a number of weak but historically interesting pictures of early Spanish artists,- feeble imitations of the style of Francia and other Italian painters. It possesses also many pictures by Ribalta and other later and unimportant masters of the Valencian school.
Italian Art Galleries - (a) Rome
The Vatican Gallery, though not large, contains a very large proportion of important pictures, such as a portrait group in fresco by Melozzo da Forli, the unfinished monochromatic painting of St Jerome by Da Vinci, the finest of Raphaels early works,- the Coronation of the Virgin, the Madonna di Foligno, and the Transfiguration. The Coronation of the Virgin by Pinturicchio is one of his best panel pictures, and a portrait of a Doge by Titian a master piece of portraiture the Last Communion of St. Jerome by Domenichino is his finest work. The chapel of San Lorenzo, painted by Fra Angelico (see Fiesole), the Appartamenti Borgia by Pinturicchio, the stanze by Raphael, and the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo are described in the articles on these painters. The Capitol contains but few works of much merit; the chief are a very beautiful series of forescos of Apollo and the Muses in separate panels, life size, by some painter of the school pf Perugino, probably Lo Spagna; they are remarkable for grace of drawing and extreme delicacy of color. The Rape of Europa by Paul Veronese, is a fine replica of that in the doges palace at Venice. The gallery also contains some of the chief works of Guercino and Guido and a very noble portrait by Velazuez. The Borghese Gallery is perhaps the most important private collection in the world. It is rich in Florentine pictures of the 15th century, and possesses the celebrated Entombment by Raphael. A small panel of St Stephen by Francia (signed) is of unusual beauty and interest.,- very highly finished and magnificent in color; it seems to show the influence of Jan van Eyck; it is one of Francias earliest works, and is very far superior to those of his later style. The great glory of the gallery is the (so-called) sacred and Profane Love by Titian (see fig. 16), one of the most beautiful pictures in the world both for design and color, and a marvel for it rich warm rendering of flesh; it appears to be a portrait of the same lady repeated twice- nude and draped. It belongs to a somewhat earlier period than the bacchanal trio in Madrid and London. This gallery contains also one of Vandycks finest portraits, that of Catherine de Medici, and other excellent portraits of the Venetian school. The Danae by Correggio is an interesting example, very weak in draewing, but remarkable for the fine pearly tones of the flesh. The Corsini Gallery, now the property of the municipality of Rome, contain some good panels by Fra Angelico, but is mainly strong only in the later Bolognese paintings. It also possesses a rich collection of early Italian engravings. The Doria gallery is large, but contains only a small proportion of valuable pictures. Some paintings by Niccolo Rondinelli are of much interest; they show him to have been an able pupil and close imitator of Giovanni Bellini, to whom many paintings in various galleries are attributed which are really the work of pupils. A beautiful Madonna in the Doria Palace by Rondinelli has a cartellino inscribed with Bellinis name. The chief treasures of this collecktion are the portraits of two Venetians attributed to Raphael, and that of Pope Innocent X. by Velaquez, - the latter a marvel of dashing and almost too skilful execution. There is also a fine portrait of Andrea Doria by Sebastiano del Piombo, well modeled, but rather wanting in color. The Sciarra-Colonna Palace contains a few good pictures, among them a very fine portrait of a violin player by Raphael, and a graceful painting of Modesty and Vanity by Luini, attributed to da Vinci, as is often the case with Luinis pictures. The Colonna, Barberini, and other private galleries of Rome contain but little that is noteworthy. The church of SD. Maria sopra Minerva contains some splendid frescos by Lippo Lippi; some of Pinturicchios chief frescos are in the churches of S. Maria del Popolo and S Maria in Ara Coeli; and the monastery of S. Onofrio possesses a very lovely fresco of the Madonna and a kneeling Donor, attributed to Da Vinci,- probably a pupils work.
Italian Art Galleries - (b) Florence
The Florentine Accademia delle Belle Arti contains a most valuable collection of early Florentine and other 15th century pictures, including the finest panel picture by gentile da Fabriano, - the Adoration of the Magi, - a rare example of Verrocchio, partly painted by his pupil Da Vinci, some magnificent examples of Botticelli, good specimens of Fra Angelico, Ghirlandaio, Signorelli, Lippo Lippi, Fra bartolomeo, and a group of saints by Andrea del Sarto, one of his best works. The magnificent galleries in the uffizi and Pitti Palaces contain an unrivalled collection of the great Florentine painters of all dates. In the Uffizi are several fine paintings by Raphael, the Madonna del Cardellino, a portrait of Julius II, and an exquisitely finished head of an unknown lady. Among the many fine examples by Titian is his portrait of a nude lady reclining (Danae),- a most wonderful work. In the same room (La Tribuna) is the circular panel of the Madonna and St Joseph, an early work by Michelangelo, showing the influence of Signorelli. Many of Botticellis finest works are in this gallery, and the Uffizi also possesses an almost unrivalled collection of drawings by Italian painters of all dates. The Pitti Palace contains some of the chief works of Raphael,- the early Madonna del Gran Duca, and portraits of Angelo Doni and his wife, the portraits of cardinal Bibiena and leo X. (in his later manner), the Madonna della Seggiola, and the miniature Vision of Ezekiel. The portrait of a nun, attributed to Da Vinci, but probably the work of a pupil, is a work of extraordinary finish and refinement. The Magdalen and the ladys portrait (La Bella) by Titian are among his best works. Both these collections contain some good Flemish and Dutch pictures. In the church of Santa Croce are the chief works of Giotto, in S Maria Novella the best pictures of Orcagna and Ghirlandaio, and in the monastery of S. marco the principal frescos of Fra Angelico. Some of the chief frescos Spinello Aretino, much repainted, exist in the sacristy of S. Miniato, and the most important frescos of Andrea del Sarto are in the church of S. Annunziata.
Italian Art Galleries - (c) Smaller Art Galleries
The small galleries at Perugia and Siena are of great interest for their collections of rare works by painters of the local schools small collection at Pisa also possesses some curiois early panels by local painters; in the church of S. Caterina is a magnificent altar piece by Fran. Traini, Orcagnas chief pupil. At Prato are the finest frescos of Lippo Lippi. The gallery at Bologna contains some of Francias chief works, the St Cecilia of Rapahel, and a number of examples of the Caracci and othes of the later Bolognese school. Parma is specially rich in the works of Correggio Parmigiano; unhappily the great frescos by the former in the cathedral have almost wholly perished. The small collection at Ferrara possesses interesting examples of paintings of the local school. Brescia and Bergamo are very in fine works of Moretto and Moroni, and also possess a number of fine Venetian paintings of various dates. Padua has but a small and unimportant gallery, but the town is rich in frescos by Giotto, Altichiero, and Jacopo Avanzi, and most noble frescos by Andrea Mantegna. Mantua also contains some grand frescos by Mantegna in the Castello di Corti, and a large quantity of showy and cleverly executed wall and ceiling paintings by Giulio Romano in the Palazzo del Te. The Verona gallery contains some few good examples of the local school. The church of S. Zenone possesses a magnificent altarpiece by Mantegna; and in S. Anastasia is the wreck of a fine fresco of St. George and the Dragon by Pisanello. The Vicenza collection contains little of value except some good examples of Bart. Montagna. The Turin gallery posseses a few good pictures, especially some fine panels by Botticelli and splendid portraits by Vandyck. Many of Vandycks finest works exist in the various palaces of Genoa. The large gallery at Naples contains an unusual proportion of bad pictures; there are, however, some fine works of Titian and some interesting examples of the early Flemish school which have been in Naples ever since the 15th century. The only painting of much importance in the gallery at Palermo is a very beautiful triptych of the school of Van Eyck.
Italian Art Galleries - (d) Venice
Venice is extraordinarily rich in the works of its own school, with the exception of those of Crivelli, who is completely absent. The works in Venice of the Bellini family, of Carpaccio and others of Gian. Bellinis pupils, of Titian, Tintoretto, and Paul Veronese, are among the chief glories of the world. The Grimani breviary, in the doges library, contains a very beautiful series of miniature pictures of the school of Memling.
Italian Art Galleries - (e) Milan
The Brera Gallery at Milan contains a large number of master pieces, especially of the Lombard and Venetian schools, among them the chief work of gentile Bellini, St Mark at Alexandria, some unrivalled portraits by Lorenzo Lotto, and very important examples of Morettos religious paintings. One of its greatest treasures is the altarpiece painted for the duke of Montefeltro by Piero della Francesca, and wrongly attributed to his pupil Fra Carnovale. The celebrated Sposalizio is the most of Raphael, executed wholly under the influence of Perugino. The gallery is especially rich in works of the pupils and imitators of Leonrdo and other Milanese painters. The Biblioteca Ambrogiana contains some priceless drawings by Leonardo da Vinci and a large number of his autograph MSS., selection from which have been published by Dr Richter, London 1883. Another important MS. of Da Vinci from the same library, the Codize Atlantico, is now (1886) in course of publication in Rome in its entirety.
This very scanty sketch of the contents of the chief galleries of Europe with give some notion of the places where the works of special schools and masters can best be studied. In some cases there is but little choice; the greatness of Giotto can only be fully realized ion Florence and Padua, of Carpaccio and Tintoretto in Venice, of Signorelli at Orvieto and Monte Oliverto, of Fra Angelico in Florence, of Correggio in Parma, of Velazquez in Madrid, and of Murillo in Seville.
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