(B) Apes Classified by Family, Sub-Family and Genera (cont.)
Subdivisions of the Ape Group: Synoptic View
The characters of the subdivisions of the ape group may be synoptically expressed as follows:--
Family I. SIMIADAE.
P.M. 2/2 M. 3/3; a bony meatus auditiorius externus; pollex opposable, if present; tail never prehensile; internasal septum narrow; often cheek pouches; often callosities pectoral limbs sometimes greatly exceeding the pelvic limbs in length; pelvic limbs never much longer than the pectoral limbs; Old World habitat.
Sub-Family I. Simiinae.
Pectoral limbs much longer than pelvic limbs; no tail; no cheek pouches; caecum with a vermiform appendix; sternum broad; sometimes no os intermedium in the carpus; stomach simple.
1. Simia. -- Head vertically produced; arms reaching to ankle; ribs, twelve pairs; an os intermedium; hallux very small; no ischiatic callosities; hair red; habitat Asiatic.
2. Troglodytes. -- Head not vertically produced; arms not reaching more than half down the shin; ribs, thirteen pairs; no os intermedium, hallux well developed; no ischiatic callosities; hair black, dun, or grey, habitat African.
3. Hylobates. -- Head not vertically produced; arm reaching to the ground; an os intermedium, hallux well developed; small ischiatic callosities; habitat Asiatic.
Sub-Family II. Semnopithecinae.
Pelvic limbs longer than pectoral limbs; tail very long; no cheek pouches; no vermiform appendix; sternum narrow; an os intermedium; ischiatic callosities; stomach complicated by sacculations; third lower molar always with five tubercles.
4. Semnopithecus. -- Thumb small; habitat Asiatic
5. Colobus. -- Thumb generally absent; habitat African.
Sub-Family III. Cynopithecinae.
Pelvic and pectoral limbs sub-equal in length; tail long, or short, or absent; cheek pouches; no vermiform appendix; sternum narrow; an os intermedium; ischiatic callosities present, often very large; stomach simple; third lower molar sometimes with four tubercles.
6. Cercopithecus. -- Muzzle more or less short; callosities moderate; last lower molar generally with four tubercles; tail long; habitat African.
7. Macacus. -- Muzzle more or less elongated; callosities rather large; last lower molar with five tubercles; tail long, short, or absent; nostrils not terminal; habitat Asiatic, North African, or European.
8. Cynocephalus. -- Muzzle very long; callosities very large; last lower molar with five tubercles; tail more or less short; muzzle swollen by enlargement of maxillary bone; nostrils almost always terminal; habitat African.
Family II. CEBIDAE.
P.M. 3/8 ; no bony meatus auditius externus; pollex never opposable; tail often prehensile; internasal septum broad; no cheek pouches; no ischiatic callosities; no vermiform appendix; always an os intermedium; pectoral limbs never more than slightly exceeding in length the pelvic limbs; pelvic limbs sometimes much longer than the pectoral limbs; New World habitat.
Sub-Family I. Cebinae.
M. 3/8; incisors vertical; tail long and prehensile; hyoid bone moderate; thumb present or absent.
9. Ateles. -- Form slender; limbs very long; fur not woolly; internasal septum as broad as usual in Cebidoe; thumb absent; tail distally naked beneath; nails not much laterally compressed and pointed
10. Eriodes. -- Form slender, limbs very long; fur woolly; internasal septum narrower than usual in Cebidae; thumb rudimentary; tail distally naked beneath; nails exceedingly compressed laterally, and pointed.
11. Lagothrix. -- Form rather robust; limbs moderate; fur woolly; internasal septum as broad as usual; thumb well developed; tail distally naked beneath.
12. Cebus. - Form rather robust; limbs moderate; fur not woolly; internasal septum as broad as usual; thumb well developed; tail not naked beneath distally.
Sub-Family II. Mycetinae.
M. 3/3; incisor vertical; tail long and prehensile; naked beneath distantly; hyoid bone enormous; form of body massive; thumb well developed; internasal septum as broad as usual.
Sub-Family III. Pitheciinae.
M. 3/3; incisors inclined outwards distally; tail long or short, never prehensile; hyoid bone moderate; thumb well developed; internasal septum as broad as usual.
14. Pithecia. -- Tail long.
15. Brachyyrus. -- Tail short.
Sub-Family IV. Nyctipithecinae.
M. 3/3; incisor vertical; tail long, not prehensile; hyoid bone moderate; thumb well developed.
16. Nyctipithecus. -- Head rounded; eyes enormous; nostrils rather approximated.
17. Chrysothix. -- Head exceedingly elongated; eyes large, closely approximated; canines well developed; hair of tail rather short.
18. Callithrix. -- Head small, depressed and not elongated; nostrils widely separate; canines small; hair of tail elongated.
Sub-Family V. Hapalinae.
M. 2/2; incisors vertical; tail long not prehensile; hyoid bone moderate; thumb elongated, not at all opposable; hallux very small; a long curved and pointed claw to all the digits, except the hallux.
19. Hapale. -- Lower incisors and canines of equal length.
20. Midas. Lower canines much longer than the lower incisors.
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