1902 Encyclopedia > Important Contributors

Important Contributors to the Britannica, 9th and 10th Editions

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(A) AUTHORS

AFFLECK, J. O., M.D., F.R.C.S., Senior Assistant Physician, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Lecturer on the Practice of Medical Surgery. Articles: APOPLEXY; CHOLERA; FEVER; SUNSTROKE.

ALLEN, Grant; author of This Mortal Coil, The Woman Who Did, etc.; The Colour of Flowers, Flowers and their Pedigrees, and other popular works on botany; also of historical guide-books. Article: MIMICRY.

ANDRIEU, Jules, sometime member of the Commune de Paris; author of L'Amour en Chansons, and Chiromancie. Articles: ALCHEMY; ARTHUR (2nd section).

ARCHER, Thomas Andrew, author of The Crusade of Richard I.: Extracts from the Itinerarium Ricardi, Bohádin, etc.. Article: ST. URSULA.

ARNOLD, Thomas, M.A. Oxford; Inspector of Schools in Tasmania, 1850; Professor in the Univ. of Dublin; author of A Short History of English Literature; has edited many Anglo-Saxon texts. Article: ENGLISH LITERATURE.

BAILEY, J. Eglinton, author of John Dee and the Steganographia of Trithemius and Life of Thomas Fuller. Article: CRYPTOGRAPHY.

BALFOUR, George William, LL.D., M.D.; formerly senior physician, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; translated Casper's Handbook of Forensic Medicine; author of An Introduction to the Study of Medicine and Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Heart. Article: DRUNKENNESS.

BALFOUR, John Hutton, M.D., F.L.S., F.R.S.; late Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh; Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden, 1845-79; author of Introduction to the Study of Palaeoontological Botany. Article: ALGAE.

BALL, John, barrister; Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1865; was first President of the Alpine Club; part author of A Tour in Morocco and the Great Atlas; contributor to the proceedings of several learned societies. Article: ALPS.

BARNABEI, Prof. F., Litt.D., Director of Museum of Antiquities at Rome; author of archaeological papers in Italian reviews and in the Athenaeum. Article: HERCULANEUM.

BATEMAN, John Frederick Latrobe, C.E., F.R.S., President of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 1878-79; planned the water supply of Manchester, of Glasgow, and many other towns; author of History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks, and On the Supply of Water to London. Article: AQUEDUCT.

BAYNES, Thomas Spencer, LL.D.; assistant editor of the Daily News, 1857-64; formerly Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and Metaphysics in St Andrews Univ.; part translator of Port Royal Logic; joint editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica, ninth edition. Article: SHAKESPEARE.

BERTRAM, James G., author of The Harvest of the Sea and The Unappreciated Fisher Folk. Article: AQUARIUM.

BIGELOW, John; part-editor of Evening Post; editor of The Plebeian and the Democratic Review; U.S. Minister to France, 1865-67; inspected the Panama Canal for the New York Chamber of Commerce; author of a Life of Frémont, Les Etats-Unis d'Amérique en 1863. Articles: B. FRANKLIN; T. JEFFERSON.

BIRCH, Samuel, D.C.L., LL.D., Keeper of the Egyptian and Oriental Antiquities, British Museum, up to 1885; Rede Lecturer at Cambridge, 1876; author of History of Ancient Pottery, The Papyrus of Nashkem, Cypriote Inscriptions, and other works on archaelogy. Article: APIS.

BLACK, Rev. John Sutherland, M.A.; assistant editor of ninth edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica; translated Ritschi's Critical History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation. Article: E. GIBBON.

BLACKIE, John Stuart, LL.B., Professor of Humanity in Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1841-52; Professor of Greek at Edinburgh, 1852-82; author of a version of Aeschylus and of the Iliad; author of Language and Literature in the Scottish Highlands, Life of Robert Burns, and philological papers in Horae Hellenicae. Article: AESCHYLUS.

BOYLE, Very Rev. George David, M.A.; Dean of Salisbury, 1880-1901; author of Recollections of the Dean of Salisbury, Richard Baxter, and My Aids to the Divine Life. Article: COLERIDGE.

BRABROOK, Edward William, C.B., F.S.A., F.S.A.; V.P., Royal Archaeological Institute from 1900; Cheif Registrar of Building Societies ffrom 1891; President of the Anthropological Institute, 1895-97; President of the Folk-Lore Society, 1901; author of Provident Societies and Industrial Welfare and History of Royal Society of Literature. Article: FRIENDLY SOCIETIES.

BRANDIS, Sir Dietrich, K.C.I.E., Ph.D., F.R.S.; Inspector-General of Forests to Indian Government, 1864-83; author of Catalogue of Specimens Timber from the Government Forests of India. Article: TEAK.

BRICKWOOD, Edwin Dampier, author of Boat-racing, or The Arts of Rowing and Training, by "Argonaut". Article: YACHTING.

BRODRIBB, Rev. William Jackson, M.A., late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; Rector of Wootton-Rivers, Wiltshire from 1860; part author of Constantinople: a Sketch of its History to 1453. Article: TACITUS; XENOPHON.

BROWN, Alexander Crum, M.A., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D.., F.R.S.; Professor of Chemistry, Edinburgh University, from 1869; President of Chemical Society of London, 1892-93; author of The Development of the Idea of Chemical Composition. Article: LIEBIG.

BROWNE, Montagu; author of Practical Taxidermy and Collecting Butterflies and Moths. Article: TAXIDERMY.

BROWNING, Oscar, M.A.; Fellow and Tutor of King's College, Cambridge; University Lecturer in History; Examiner for University of London, 1899; author of Modern England, History of England, Life of George Eliot, and many historical monographs. Articles: J. CAESAR; DANTE; EDUCATION; GOETHE.

BUTLER, F. H., Associate of the Royal School of Mines. Articles: CHEMISTRY (History); DALTON; GARNET; HONEY.

CARPENTER, William Benjamin, C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.; Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution; Professor of Medical Jurisprudence at University College, 1849; Examiner and Registrar of University of London, 1856; editor of the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review and a Popular Cyclopaedia of Science; author of Principles of General and Comparative Physiology and The Microscope and its Revelations. Article: LEEUWENHOEK.

CARRUTHERS,
Robert, LL.D.; edited the Inverness Courier, 1828-78; part-editor of Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature; Lecturer at the Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh; author of History of Huntingdon and Life of Pope. Article: ELIZABETH I.

CHESNEY, Brevet-Colonel Charles Cornwallis, R.E.; Professor of Military History at Sandhurst from 1858; member of the Royal Commission on Military Education, 1868; author of Campaigns in Virginia and Maryland, Waterloo Lectures, and Essays in Modern Military Biography. Article: BATTLE.

CHEYNE, Rev. Thomas Kelly, D.Litt., D.D.; sometime Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford; Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Scripture, Oxford; Canon of Rochester, 1885; one of the Old Testament revisers; Bampton Lecturer, 1889; author of Notes and Criticisms on the Hebrew Text of Isaiah; joint editor of Encyclopaedia Biblica. Article: CIRCUMCISIONHITTITES.

CHRYSTAL, George
, M.A., LL.D.; Hon. Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; Professor of Mathematics, Edinburgh University, form 1879; author of Treatise on Algebra and Introduction to Algebra. Article: MATHEMATICS.

CLARK, Francis W., LL.D., Barrister, Sheriff of Lanarkshire, 1877-86; author of A Treatise on the Law of Partnership and Joint-Stock Companies. Article: APPRENTICE, APPRENTICESHIP.

CLARKE, John Algernon; edited Chambers of Agriculture Journal; author of Fen Sketches, and of many reports and articles on agricultural questions. Article: WHITE MAGIC.

CLEGHORN, Hugh Francis Charles (1820–95), M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E.; attached to General Hospital, Madras; Professor of Botany, Madras, from 1852; organized Forest Dept.; Commissioner for the Conservancy of Forests; formerly President of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society; author of The Forests and Gardens of South India. Article: ARBORICULTURE.

CLERKE, Miss Agnes M.; made astronomical observations at the Cape of Good Hope, 1888; gained the Actonian Prize for her works on astronomy, 1893; author of A Popular History of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Century and Problems in Astrophysics. Articles: GALILEO; A. VON HUMBOLDT; KEPLER; LAVOISIER; ZODIAC.

COLLINS, Rev. William Lucas, M.A; Hon. Canon of Peterborough, 1870-87; edited Ancient Classics for English Readers. Article: CLEOPATRA.

COLVIN, Prof. Sidney, M.A.; Keeper of Prints and Drawings, British Museum from 1884; Slade Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge, 1873-85; edited the Edinburgh edition of R. L. Stevenson's works, Letters of R. L. Stevenson, and History of Painting, from the German of Woltmann and Woermann. Articles: BOTTICELLI; DURER; FINE ARTS; LEONARDO; MICHELANGELO.

CONNELLAN, P. L., Rome. Article: ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

COX, Rev. Sir George William, Baronet, M.A.; Bishop of Bloemfontein from 1886; author of The Tale of the Great Persian War, The Crusades, A History of Greece, and many other historical works. Articles: ALEXANDER THE GREAT; CRUSADES; RENAISSANCE.

CREIGHTON, Charles, M.A., M.D. Aberdeen; author of A History of Epidemics in Britain, Jenner and Vaccination, etc. Articles: MONSTER; VACCINATION.

CRUIKSHANK, Alexander, LL.D., Aberdeen. Article: ABERDEEN.

DAVIDSON, Rev. Andrew B., Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in New College, Edinburgh from 1863; one of the Old Testament Revisers; editor of A Commentary on the Book of Job, and An Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Article: APOCRYPHA (Old Testament section).

DAVIDSON, Rev. Samuel, D.S., Professor of Biblical Criticism at the Royal College, Belfast, 1835; Professor of Biblical Literature at the Manchester Congregational College, 1842-62; one of the Old Testament Revisers; author of The Canons of the Bible and Critical and Exegetical Introductions to the Old and New Testaments. Articles: ABRAHAM; ADAM; ANTICHRIST; APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE.

DAVIES, Rev. George Palmer; formerly Secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, Berlin. Article: BERLIN.

DAVIS, James Edward
; Barrister; Legal Adviser to the Commissioners of the Metropolitan Police, 1874-87; author of Practice and Evidence in the County Courts and The Criminal Law Consolidation Statutes. Article: POOR LAWS.

DE CHAUMONT, Francis Stephen Bennett François, M.D., F.R.S.; served in the Crimean War; Professor of Hygiene at the Army Medical School, Netley Hospital from 1863; author of Different Families of the Human Race and Hygiene in Civil and Military Life. Articles: HYGIENE; HOSPITAL.

DILKE, Lady (Emilia F. S. Pattison), author of The Renaissance of Art in France, Claude Lorraine: Sa Vie et ses Oeuvres, French Architects and Sculptors of the Eighteenth Century, etc. Article: INGRES.

DOBSON, Surgeon-Major George Edward, M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., F.R.S.; late of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; author of Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera, etc. and A Monograph of the Insectivora, Systematic and Anatomical. Article: VAMPIRE.

DOBSON, Henry Austin; Principal Clerk, H. M. Board of Trade, 1901; author of Proverbs in Porcelain, At the Sign of the Lyre, Thomas Berwick and his Pupils, Lives of Fielding, Steele, etc.; Four Frenchwomen; Eighteenth Century Vignettes, A Paladin of Philanthropy, etc. . Article: HOGARTH.

DONALDSON, James, LL.D., Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of St. Andrews; Rector of High School, Aberdeen, 1866; Professor of Humanity at Aberdeen University, 1881-86; author of Early Christian Literature and Doctrine; Modern Greek Grammar; and Expiatory and Substitutionary Sacrifices of the Greeks; editor of The Apostolical Fathers. Articles: ACTS OF THE APOSTLES; APOSTOLIC FATHERS.

DORAN,
John, Ph.D., author of History of Court Fools, Memories of our Great Towns, Their Majesties' Servants: Annals of the English Stage, etc. Article: DWARF.

DOUGALL, James Dalziel; author of Treatise on Salmon and Trout Angling, The Rifle Simplified, and Shooting: its Appliances, Practice, and Purpose. Article: SHOOTING.

DOUGLAS, Robert Kennaway
, Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum; Professor of Chinese, King's College, London; China Consular Service, 1858; Assistant in charge of Chinese Library, British Museum, 1865; author of The Language and Literature of China; Confucianism and Taoism; China; A Chinese Manual; and The Life of Li Hung-Chang. Articles: BEIJING (PEKING); GENGHIS KHAN; NANJING (NANKING); SHANGHAI; TONKIN (TONGKING).

DRUMMOND,
Frederick (or: Francis M. D. Drummond), Brighton. Article: TRADE UNIONS.

DRUMMOND, Rev. Henry
, M.A., formerly Lecturer on Natural Sciences in the Free Church, Glasgow, 1875; author of Natural Law in the Spiritual Word; Tropical Africa; and The Ascent of Man. Article: ZAMBESI RIVER.

DYER, Sir William Turner Thistleton, K.C.M.G., C.I.E, B.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.; Director, Royal Gardens, Kew; Fellow, University of London, 1887-90; V.P.R.S. 1896-97; joint-author of Flora of Middlesex; edited English edition of Sachs' Text-book of Botany, Flora Capensis, etc. Article: DISTRIBUTION (joint author).


Amelia Edwards picture

Amelia Edwards



EDWARDS, Miss Amelia Blandford, Egyptologist and novelist; founded a chair of Egyptology at Oxford; author of Debenham's Vow; A Thousand Miles up the Nile; and Pharoahs, Fellahs, and Explorers. Article: MUMMY.

ELLIOTT, Daniel Giraud, Fellow the Royal Soc. of Edinburgh; Curator of Zoology, Field Columbian Museum; led expedition into the interior of East Africa, 1896; and into the Olympic Mountains, 1898; author of the Synopsis and Classification of the Trochilidae; and other works on zoology. Article: JAGUAR.

ELTON,
Charles Isaac Elton,Q.C.; sometime Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; M.P. for West Somerset, 1884-85, 1886-92; author of Norway: the Road and the Fell, Commons and Waste Lands, and Origins of English History. Article: MUNICIPALITY.

ETHE, C. Hermann
, Ph.D., M.A., Professor of German and Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth, from 1875; catalogued Arabic MSS. in the Bodleian Library, Persian MSS. in India Office Library; Examiner for Oxford University. Articles: NIZAMI; RUMI; SA'DI.

EWING, James Alfred, M.A., B.Sc., F.R.S.; M.Instit.C.E.; Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics, Cambridge; Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, 1878-83; author of Treatise on Earthquake Measurement, Magnetic Induction in Iron and other Metals, The Steam Engine and other Heat Engines, etc. Article: PNEUMATIC DESPATCH.

FERGUSON, George
, LL.D.; late Professor of Humanity, University of Aberdeen; author of editions of Cicero and Ovid. Article: AGRARIAN LAWS.

FERGUSON, John
, LL.D.; Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow University from 1874; author of papers on the history of chemistry. Article: GAY-LUSSAC; PARACELSUS; SCHEELE.

FISHER, Rev. George Park, D.D., LL.D.; Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Yale; author of The Reformation, History of the Christian Church, The Colonial Era, etc. Article: BILLIARDS.

FLEMING, George, C.B., LL.D., F.R.C.V.S.; Principal Vet. Surg. of Army, 1883-90; served in the Crimea, China, Egypt, and Syria; author of Travels on Horseback in Manchu Tartary, and Animal Plagues: their History, Nature, and Prevention. Article: MULE.

FLOWER, Sir William Henry, K.C.B., D.Sc, D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.; Director of British Museum, Natural History Department; President of the Zoological Society; President of the BritIsh Association, 1889; author of Introduction to the Osteology of Mammalia and The Horse: a Study in Natural History. Articles: KANGAROO; LION; OTTER; TIGER; WALRUS; WOLF; WOMBAT.

FORBES, Rev. George Hay (1821-1875), Episcopal minister of Burntisland, Fife, Scotland; endowed Pitsligo Press in that town; author of The Goodness of God and Doctrinal Errors of the English Prayer Book. Article: ALTAR.

FORBES, Dr. Henry O., LL.D., F.R.G.S., Director of Museums, Liverpool; author of A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago; etc. Articles: DA GAMA; OPORTO.

FRANCIS, Francis, sportsman; joint editor of the Field; established the Thames Rights Defense Association; introduced trout into New Zealand rivers; author of A Book on Angling; By Lake and River; and The Practical Management of Fisheries. Article: ANGLING.

FRASER,
Rev. John, formerly Professor in the University of Chicago. Article: MORMONS.




James George Frazer



FRAZER, James George, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D.; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; Barrister; author of Totemism; The Golden Bough; and Pausanias, and other Greek Sketches. Articles: PERICLES; TABOO; TOTEMISM.

FYFFE, Charles Alan, M.A.; Barrister-at-Law; war correspondent to Daily News in Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71; author of History of Greece, A History of Modern Europe, and The Land Question. Article: DUKE OF WELLINGTON.

GANNETT, Henry, Chief Geographer, U.S. Geological Survey; Chief Geographer, 10th, 11th, and 12th U.S. Censuses. Gannett was also the author of Altitudes; Statistical Atlas of the U.S.; etc. Article: LOUISIANA.

GARNETT, Richard, LL.D., C.B., Assistant in the British Museum, 1851; Superintendant of Reading Room, 1875; Keeper of Printed Books, 1890-1899; edited the British Museum Catalogue from 1881 to 1890; author of Idylls and Epigrams from Greek Anthology; Relics of Shelley; Twilight of the Gods; Life of Milton; Age of Dryden; William Blake; A History of Italian Literature; and Life of Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Articles: ALEXANDER VI; ANTHOLOGY; W. IRVING.

GARRAN, The Hon. Andrew, M.A. (London), LL.D.; Member of the Legislative Council, N.S.W., 1887-92, and 1895; editor of South Australian Register, 1853-56; Sydney Morning Herald, 1856-85; President of the Council of Arbitration, 1892-94; and of the Royal Commission on Strikes, 1891. Article: SYDNEY.

GASQUET, J. Raymond, M.D.; author of various articles in the Journal of Medical Science, etc. Article: JENNER.

GEIKIE, Sir Archibald, D.C.L., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S; Director, Geological Survey of Scotland, 1867; first Murchison Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Edinburgh, 1871-82; Foreign Secretary, Royal Society, 1890-94; President, Geological Society1891-92; President, British Association, 1892; Director-General, Geological Survey of United Kingdom, and Director, Museum of Practical Geology, 1882-1901; author of The Scenery of Scotland, viewed in connection with its Physical Geology; New Geological Map of Scotland; The Ancient Volcanoes of Britain; etc. Article: MT. VESUVIUS.

GIBSON, John; author of Science Gleanings in Many Fields, Chips from the Earth's Crust, and Great Waterfalls, Cateracts, and Geysers. Articles: DOG; ELEPHANT.

GINSBURG, Rev. Christian David, LL.D.; one of the Old Testament Revisers; author of Commentaries on the Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Critical Text on the Hebrew Bible, The Kabbalah: its Doctrine, Development, and Literature; contributed articles to Kitto's Encyclopaedia of Biblical Literature and Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and Antiquities. Article: KABBALAH.

GLAISHER, James, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., author of Travels in the Air. Article: AERONAUTICS.

GLOVER, James Grey
, M.D., L.R.C.S; Direct Representative of the Profession in the General Medical Council; Member of Council of the Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund; contributor to the Lancet and the Practitioner. Article: HOMEOPATHY.

GOEJE, M. J. de, Ph.D.; Professor of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Leyden; edited with glossary and trans. Jakubi, Beladhort, and other Arabic texts; author of several articles in Mémoires d'Histoire et de Géographie Orientales; continued Catalogue of Oriental MSS. begun by Dozy. Article: THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS.

GOUGH, Archibald Edward, M.A., Principal of the Calcutta Madrassa; edited Records of Ancient Sanskrit Literature in India; translated the Sarva-Darsana-Sangraha; author of The Philosophy of the Upanishads in Ancient Indian Metaphysics. Article: VEDANTA.

GRIFFITHS, Major Arthur George Frederick; H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-96; formerly editor of Army and Navy Gazette; editor of the Fortnightly Review, 1884, the World, 1895; author of Memorials of Millbank, Secrets of the Prison House, and Histories of Police and Crime. Article: PRISON DISCIPLINE.

GROSART, Rev. Alexander Balloch, LL.D., D.D.; Fellow of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries; pastor of St. George's Presbyterian Church, Blackburn; edited the Fuller Worthies Library, The Chertsey Worthies Library, The Huth Library; author of Songs of the Day and Night. Article: LANCELOT ANDREWES.

GUENTHER, Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.; formerly Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum; author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia salientia, and Fishes of the British Museum, Reptiles of British India, Fishes of Zanzibar, Reports on the "Challenger" Fishes, etc. Article: SHARK.

HALES, John Wesley, M.A.; Hon. Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge; Professor of English Literature, King's College, London; author of Shakespeare Essays and Notes, Folia Litteraria, and Longer English Poems; joint editor of Percy's Ballads and Romances. Article: ROBIN HOOD.

HAMERTON, Philip Gilbert; Art Critic on the Saturday Review; author of The Intellectual Life, French and English, The Graphic Arts, Contemporary French Painters, The Etcher's Handbook, Life of J. M. W. Turner, etc. Article: DRAWING.

HEPWORTH, Walter, Commissioner of the Council of Education, Science and Art Department, South Kensington. Article: FAIRIES; FLAG; FOUNTAIN.

HOLDICH, Col. Sir Thomas Hungerford, R.E. (retired), K.C.I.E., C.B.; Abyssinia, 1867; Afghan War, 1878-80; also served on political duty on Afghan Boundary Commission, 1884-86; Supt. Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-98; as H.M. Commissioner for Perso-Beluch Boundary in 1896; author of The Indian Borderland, various papers on military surverying, etc. Article: KANDAHAR.

HOLMES, Edward Morell; Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society; author The Young Collector: British Fungi, Lichens, and Mosses. Article: OPIUM.

HOVEY, Rev. Horace Carter; author of Celebrated American Caverns: Mammoth, Wyandot, and Luray. Article: MAMMOTH CAVE.

HOYLE, William Evans, M.A.; late of the "Challenger" Expedition; author of Report on the Cephaloda collected by H.M.S. "Challenger," 1873-76. Article: SEA SERPENT.

HUEFFER, Francis, Ph.D., formerly musical critic of The Times; author of The Troubadours: a History of Provençal Life and Literature in the Middle Ages and Richard Wagner and the Music of the Future; editor of Great Musicians. Articles: J. S. BACH; BEETHOVEN; CHOPIN; HANDEL.

HUNTER, Sir William Wilson, M.A., LL.D., C.E.I., K.C.S.I., Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India, 1871; edited the Imperial Gazeteer of India; author of A Brief Account of the Indian Peoples; A Statistical Account of Bengal and Assam; and Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie. Articles: BOMBAY (MUMBAI); CALCUTTA; DHAKA (DACCA); DELHI; MYSORE.


Thomas Henry Huxley picture

Thomas Henry Huxley


HUXLEY, Rt. Hon. Thomas Henry, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Royal Society, 1883-85; Professor of Natural History in the Royal School of Mines, London, 1854; author of Theory of the Vertebrate Skull, The Physical Basis of Life, Introduction to the Classification of Animals, Lay Sermons, Elementary Physiology, etc. Articles: ACTINOZOA; ANIMAL KINGDOM; BIOLOGY; EVOLUTION (Evolution in Biology).

HYMANS, Henri-Simon, Belgian art critic; Keeper of the Department of Engravings, Charts and Plans in the Royal Library at Brussels, 1887; Prof. of Aesthetics athe Antwerp Academy, 1869; author of Rubens, sa Vie et son Oeuvre. Article: RUBENS.

INGRAM, John Kells, LL.D., Litt.D.; formerly senior Fellow and Vice-Provost, Trinity College, Dublin; Prof. of English Literature, 1852; Regius Prof. of Greek, 1866; Librarian, 1879; author of On the Present Position and Prospects of Political Economy and Human Nature and Morals according to A. Compte. Article: SLAVERY.

JACKSON, Henry, Litt.D., LL.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1864; Praelector in Ancient Philosophy from 1875; Member of Council of the Senate, 1882-86, 1888-96, 1900-02; author of Texts to Illustrate the History of Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle, and of papers in philosophical journals. Article: ZENO OF ELEA.

JACKSON, J. R., formerly Curator of the Museum, Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Article: GINGER.

JEBB, Sir Richard Claverhouse, M.P., Litt.D., D.C.L., LL.D.; Regius Professor of Greek, Cambridge; Fellow and Lecturer of Trinity College, 1863; Professor of Greek, University of Glasgow, 1875-89; Lecturer in John Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1892; Fellow of London University, 1897; Member of London University Commission, 1898; Bampton Lecturer, 1899; author of Sophocles, Electra in Catena Classicorum, Ajax, Characters of Theothrastus, Bentley, Sophocles, with Critical Notes, Commentary, and Translation, Humanism in Education, etc. Articles: ARISTOPHANES; DEMOSTHENES; EURIPIDES; THUCYDIDES.

JOHNSON, Charles Pierpont; Professor of Botany, Guy's Hospital, 1830-73; collaborated with J. A. Sowerby in The Ferns of Great Britain. Article: OLIVE.

JOHNSTON, Alexander; Professor of Jurisprudence and Political Economy at Princeton College, New Jersey; author of A History of American Politics, The Genesis of a New England State, The United States: Its History and Constitution. Article: G. WASHINGTON.

JOHNSTON, Alexander Keith, F.R.G.S.; Assistant Curator, Royal Geographical Society, 1872-73; conducted expedition to Lake Nyassa, 1878; author of 'Africa' in Stanford's Compendium, and other geographical works. Article: AFRICA.

JONES, Henry ("Cavendish"), M.R.C.S.; author of The Laws and Principles of Whist by "Cavendish"; and of guides to croquet, bézique, eucre, and other games. Articles: BADMINTON; CARDS, PLAYING; DRAUGHTS; EUCHRE; POKER.

KAY, David, F.R.G.S., author of Austria-Hungary in the Foreign Countries and British Colonies Series. Articles: ABYSSINIA; ALGERIA.

KEANE, Augustus Henry, F.R.G.S., Emeritus Professor of Hindustani, University College, London; late Vice President, Anthropological Institute; author of Stanford's Asia, Africa, Ethnology; Man, Past and Present; etc. Articles: MALAY PENSINSULA; MEXICO (Republic of Mexico); MEXICO (City of Mexico); SUDAN; YORUBA.

KELLAND, Philip, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.E.; Professor of Mathematics in the University of Edinburgh; author of Algebra: A Complete and Easy Introduction to Analytical Science and Introduction to Quarternions. Article: ALGEBRA.

KENT, (William) Charles (Mark), Barrister of the Middle Temple; edited the London Sun for 25 years, the Weekly Register 1874-81; author of Dark Ages, by an Oscotian; The Humour and Pathos of Charles Dickens; Charles Dickens as a Reader; etc. Article: HENRY ALFORD.

KIRKUP, Thomas, M.A.; author of An Inquiry into Socialism. Article: CATHERINE (II) THE GREAT; HENRY VIII.

KITCHIN, The Very Rev. George William, D.D.; Dean of Durham and Warden of the University from 1894; Censor and Tutor of Christ College, Oxford, 1861; Lecturer in History, 1882; Dean of Winchester, 1883; author of an edition of the Novum Organum of Bacon, a translation of Brachet's Historical Grammar of the French Language, History of France, etc.
Article: INQUISITION.


Prince Kropotkin image

Prince Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin


KROPOTKIN, Prince Peter Alexeivitch, recipient of Gold Medal of Russian Geographical Society, 1864; crossed North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, 1864; author of General Sketch of the Orography of East Siberia; In Russian and French Prisons; Recent Science in the Nineteenth Century; and Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Articles: MOSCOW; NOVAYA ZEMLYA; ODESSA.

LAKE, John J.,
of Birmingham, England. Article: BUTTON.

LANG, Andrew, M.A., LL.D., Hon. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford; author of Oxford, Helen of Troy, Custom and Myth, Myth, Ritual and Religion, Pickle the Spy, The Book of Dreams and Ghosts, The Making of Religion, The Companions of Pickle, A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation, Prince Charles Edward, Magic and Religion, The Mystery of Mary Stewart, etc.; part author of translations of the Odyssey and the Iliad. Articles: APPARITIONS; FAMILY; MOLIERE.

LANKESTER, Edwin Ray, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.; Director of the Natural History Department of the British Museum; Fullerian Professor of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy in the Royal Institution of London, 1898-1900; Fellow and Lecturer, Exeter College, 1872; Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University College, London, 1874-90; Regius Professor Natural History, Edinburgh, 1882; Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford, 1891-98, etc.; editor since 1869 of Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science; author of A Monograph of Cephalaspidian Fishes, Comparative Longevity, Degeneration, The Advancement of Science, Zoological Articles, etc. Article: MUSSEL.

LEGGE, James,
LL.D; missionary in Malacca and Hong Kong; Professor of Chinese at Oxford, 1875; author of The Notions of the Chinese concerning God and Spirits, and an edition of the Chinese classics. Article: LAOZI (LAO-TZU).

LETHEBY, Dr. Henry, M.B., Ph.D., formerly Medical Officer of Health and Analyst of Foods for London; Chief Examiner of Gas for London under the Board of Trade; author of Food: Its Varieties, Chemical Composition, etc. Article: ADULTERATION.

LEVEY, George Collins, C.M.G.; London correspondent of the Melbourne Age; editor and proprietor of Melbourne Herald, 1863-68; editor of Melbourne Age, 1869-81; Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions to London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia, Melbourne, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1880-81; member of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Victoria; author of Handbook to Australasia and Australian Encyclopaedia. Article: EXHIBITIONS.

LINDSAY, Rev. Thomas M., D.D., Principal and formerly Professor of Divinity and Church History, United Free Church, Glasgow; translated Ueberweg's System of Logic; author of The Reformation, and of commentaries on Acts of the Apostles and St Luke's Gospel. Articles: APOLOGETICS; AQUINAS; CHRISTIANITY; HERESY (joint author); LUTHER.

LITTLEDALE, Rev. Richard Frederick, LL.D., D.C.L., author of Religious Communities of Women in the Early Church and The Catholic Ritual in the Church of England. Articles: JESUITS; ST. FRANCIS XAVIER.

LONGMORE, Sir Thomas (1816-95), Surgeon General, C.B., F.R.C.S.E., served in Crimea; Professor of Army Surgery, Netley (from 1863); Hon. Surgeon to Queen Victoria (from 1868); author of Treatise on Gunshot Wounds; Treatise on Ambulances; and Sanitary Condition of the British and French Armies in the Crimea. Article: AMBULANCE.

LYONS, Rev. Ponsonby A.; one of the editors of the Master of the Rolls Series; editor of Two "Compoti" of the Lancashire and Cheshire Manors of H. de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, and of Cartularum Monasterii Rameseia. Article: ENCYCLOPEDIA.


Lord Macaulay picture

Thomas Babington Macaulay
(Lord Macaulay)



MACAULAY, Lord Thomas Babington (1800-59), Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; entered Parliament 1830; Member of the Supreme Council of India, 1834-38; Paymaster-General, 1846; author of History of England, Essays, and Lays of Ancient Rome. Articles: ATTERBURY; BUNYAN; JOHNSON; GOLDSMITH; W. PITT THE YOUNGER.

MACDONALD, A., London. Article: HONG KONG.

MACDONALD, James, M.A., LL.D.; Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1895-97; Rhind Lecturer on Archaeology, 1897; author of Tituli Hunteriani: an Account of the Roman Stones in the Hunterian Museum. Article: HADRIAN'S WALL.

MACDONNELL, Arthur Anthony, M.A., Ph.D., Boden Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University; Keeper of the Indian Institute; Fellow of Balliol College; author of Sanskrit Grammar, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, and Vedic Mythology. Article: KALIDASA.

MCINTOSH, William Carmichael, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural History at the University of St. Andrews; Director of the University Museum; author of Monograph of British Annelids and The Resources of the Sea. Article: ANNELIDA.

MCKENDRICK, John Gray,
M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor of Physiology, Glasgow University; Fullerton Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institute of Great Britain; President of Physiological Section of British Association; author of Animal Physiology, A Text-Book of Physiology, Life in Motion, or Muscle Nerve, Physiology, Life of Helmholtz, etc. Article: ANIMAL MAGNETISM.

MCLAGAN, General Robert, R.E., formerly Secretary of the Punjab Government, Lahore. Article: KASHMIR.

MCLACHLAN, Robert, F.R.S.; editor of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine; author of a Monographic Revision and Synopsis of the Trichoptera of the European Fauna. Articles: DRAGONFLY; MOSQUITO.

MCLENNAN, John Ferguson, M.A., Advocate; Parliamentary Draughtsman for Scotland, 1871; author of Primitive Marriage and Studies in Ancient History. Article: LYCANTHROPY.

MAGNUS, Sir Philip, Superintendent of Technological Examinations and Secretary of Examinations Department, City and Guilds of London Institute; organising Director and Secretary of City and Guilds of London Institute, 1880-88; Vice-president of the College of Preceptors; author of Lessons in Elementary Mechanics, Hydrostatics and Pneumatics, and Industrial Education. Article: TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

MARKHAM, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B., F.R.S.; President of the Royal Geographical Society, of the International Geographical Congress, 1894-99, of the Hakluyt Society, and of the Geographical, Elizabethan, and Royal Society Clubs; served in the Arctic Expedition, 1850-51; Geographer to the Abyssinian Expedition; Assistant Secretary in the India Office, 1867-77; author of Life of the Great Lord Fairfax, The Fighting Veres, History of Peru, History of Persia, History of the Abyssinian Expedition, etc. Article: GEOGRAPHY (Historical Geography).

MARSHALL, Julian,
author of The Annals of Tennis. Article: TENNIS.

MASSON, David, LL.D., Litt.D.; Historiographer Royal for Scotland from 1893; Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University, 1865-95; Professor of English Literature in University College, London, 1853-1865; edited Macmillan's Magazine, 1858-65; author of Life of Milton, De Quincey in Men of Letters Series, and Drummond of Hawthorneden. Article: MILTON.

MASSON, David Orme, M.A., D.Sc.; Professor of Chemistry, Melbourne Univ., from 1886; acted as assistant to Prof. Ramsay, Bristol, 1880; author of papers on chemistry in the transactions of various learned societies. Articles: PYROTECHNY; SMOKE ABATEMENT.

MASTERS, Maxwell T.
, M.D., F.R.S.; editor of Gardener's Chronicle; formerly Lecturer on Botany, St George's Hospital, London; author of Plant Life, Botany for Beginners, and numerous monographs in botanical works. Article: PEACH.

MAXWELL, James Clerk, D.C.L., F.R.S.; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1885; Professor of Natural Philosophy, King's College, London, 1860-65; Professor of Experimental Physics, University of Cambridge, 1871-79; author of papers On Faraday's Lines of Force, On the Dynamical Theory of Gases, and On a Dynamical Theory of the Electro-magnetical Field. Article: ATOM; ATTRACTION; ETHER; FARADAY; PHYSICAL SCIENCES.

MERIVALE, The Very Rev. Charles, D.D., D.C.L.; late Dean of Ely; formerly Tutor and Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; author of History of the Romans under the Empire, Conversion of the Northern Nations, and General History of Rome. Articles: AUGUSTUS; CICERO.

MIDDLETON, John Henry, M.A., Litt.D., D.C.L.; Slade Professor of Fine Art in the Univ. of Cambridge, 1866; later, Art Director of the South Kensington Museum; author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times and Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. Article: MURAL DECORATION (joint author) • PAINTING (SCHOOLS OF PAINTING)ROME (Topography and Archaeology)

MINTO, William, M.A.; edited the Examiner, 1874; formerly on the staff of the Daily News and the Pall Mall Gazette; Professor of Logic and English in the University of Aberdeen, 1880; author of Manual of English Prose Literature, Defoe in English Man of Letters Series, and Literature in the Georgian Era. Articles: BYRON; CHAUCER; DICKENS; POE; WORDSWORTH.

MIVART, St. George Jackson, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., formerly Lecturer on Zoology at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, and Professor of the Philosophy of Biology at the University of Louvain; author of Genesis of Species; Man and Apes; and Lessons in Elementary Anatomy. Article: APE.

MOORE, Thomas, F.L.S.; formerly Curator of the Apothecaries' Company's Garden at Chelsea, 1848-87; edited the Gardeners' Magazine of Botany; author of Handbook of British Ferns; Index Filicum; and Illustrations of Orchidaceous Plants. Article: CACTUS.

MOREL-FATIO, Alfred, Professor of Southern European Languages and Literature at the Collège de France; Director of Dept. of Philology of the Romance Language Languages, Ecole des Hautes Etudes; Secretary of the Ecole Nationale des Chartes. Article: QUEVEDO; LOPE DE VEGA.

MORFILL, William Richard, M.A.; Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic languages, Oxford; Curator of the Taylor Institution, Oxford; author of Russia, Slavonic Literature, etc. Article: PUSHKIN.

MORISON, James Augustus Cotter, M.A.; formerly on the staff of the Saturday Review; author of Life of St Bernard, Mme. de Maintenon, une Etude, Gibbon and Macaulay in the "Men of Letters" Series. Article: HISTORY.

William Morris image

William Morris


MORRIS, William; founded the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, and Co., to promote artistic house decoration, 1861; established the Kelmscott Press, 1890; author of The Earthly Paradise, The Life and Death of Jason, a version of the Odyssey, and News from Nowhere. Article: MURAL DECORATION (joint author).

MORRIS, William O'Connor, author of The French Revolution and the French Empire, Great Commanders of Modern Times, and The Land System of Ireland. Articles: MAN IN THE IRON MASK; NELSON.

MORLEY, Rt. Hon. John, M.P., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.; Chief Secretary for Ireland, 1886 and 1892-95; Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, 1891; author of Edmund Burke, Diderot and the Encyclopaedists, Life of Richard Cobden, Oliver Cromwell, etc. Articles: E. BURKE; DIDEROT.

MORLEY, Thomas, Fellow of the Institute of Naval Architects. Article: ANCHOR.

John Muir image

John Muir


MUIR, John, A.M., LL.D., U.S. explorer and naturalist; discoverer of the Muir glacier, Alaska; author of Our Natural Parks and The Mountains of California. Article: YOSEMITE.

MURRAY, Alexander Stuart, LL.D., F.S.A.; Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, from 1886; author of History of Greek Sculpture, Handbook of Greek Archaeology, Designs from Greek Vases, and Terra-Cotta Sarcophagi. Articles: ACHILLES; AMAZONS; ANTIOCH; AQUEDUCT.

NEWTON, Alfred, M.A., F.R.S.; Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University of Cambridge; late Chairman of Brit. Assoc. Migration of Birds Committee; President of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; author of Ornithology of Iceland and A Dictionary of Birds; edited The Ibis, 1865-70 and The Zoological Record, 1870-72. Articles: CUCKOO; DODO; EAGLE; JAY; OSTRICH; OWL; PARROT; PEACOCK; QUAIL; SWAN; TEAL.

NICHOL, John
, LL.D.; Professor of Logic and English Literature in Glasgow University, 1862-89; author of The Death of Themistocles and other Poems, Byron and Carlyle in English Men of Letters Series; Robert Burns: A Summary of his Career and Genius; and American Literature, reprinted from Encyclopaedia Britannica, nnth ed. . Article: AMERICAN LITERATURE.

NICHOLSON, Joseph Shield, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc.; Professor of Political Economy, University of Edinburgh, 1880; author of Effects of Machinery on Wages, Principles of Political Economy, The Silver Question, Strikes and Social Problems, and Bankers' Money. Article: WAGES.

NICOL, James, F.G.S., F.R.S.E.; Assistant-Secretary to the Geological Society of London, 1847; Professor of Nat. Hist. in the Univ. of Aberdeen, 1853-78; author of The Geology and Scenery of the North of Scotland. Article: DIAMOND.

NICOLAY, Colonel John George; acted as Secretary to President Lincoln; Marshall of U.S. Supreme Court, 1872-87; part-author of Life of Abraham Lincoln; author of The Outbreak of Rebellion. Article: A. LINCOLN.

NICOLSON, Alexander, M.A., LL.D.; Advocate; late Sheriff of Kirkendbright; author of Gaelic Proverbs and Familiar Phrases and Memoirs of Adam Black. Article: O. CROMWELL.

NORMAN, Captain Charles Boswell, late of the Bengal Staff Corps; special correspondent of The Times in Asia Minor during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877; author of Tonkin, or France in the Far East and Colonial France. Article: FEZ.

NORTHCOTE, Rev. James Spencer, D.D.; author of The Faith of the Ancient English Church concerning the Holy Eucharist and The Fourfold Difficulty of Anglicanism. Article: CLUB (Part 1).

OTTE, Elise C., joint translator of Humboldt's Cosmos and Views of Nature; author of Scandinavian History, and of Danish and Swedish grammars. Article: AESIR.

PALGRAVE, William Gifford, B.A., missionary in Syria for the Society of Jesus; penetrated central Arabia on a secret mission from Napoleon III; British Minister to Uruguay, 1884; author of Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia and Essays on Eastern Questions. Article: ARABIA.

PALMER, Edward Henry, M.A., late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic at Cambridge, 1871-81; murdered in Egypt, 1882, while serving on Government secret service; author of Arabic Grammar and Persian Dictionary. Articles: FIRDAUSI; HAFIZ; IBN KHALDUN; LEGERDEMAIN.

PATON, James, F.L.S.; Superintendent of Museums and Art Galleries of Corporation of Glasgow from 1876; Assistant in Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, 1861-76; President of Museums Association of the United Kingdom, 1896; editor and part-author of Scottish National Memorials, fol. 1890. Articles: COFFEE; FLOUR, MANUFACTURE OF; NEEDLE; SEWING MACHINES; SHOEMAKING; TEA.

PAYNE, Joseph Frank, M.D., F.R.C.P.; Consulting Physician to St Thomas's Hospital; Member of the General Medical Council; Member of the Senate of the University of London; Harveian Librarian, Royal College of Physicians; author of Manual of General Pathology and Observations on Rare Diseases of the Skin. Article: PLAGUE.

PELHAM, Henry Francis, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.; President of Trinity College, Oxford, from 1897; Camden Professor of Ancient History, University of Oxford, from 1889; Tutor of Exeter College, 1869-90; University Reader Ancient History, 1887; Curator of Bodleian Library, 1892; author of Outlines of Roman History, The Imperial Domains and the Colonate, The Roman Frontier System. Articles: LIVYNEROROME (Ancient History)

PETRIE, William Matthew Flinders, D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D., Ph.D.; Edwards Professor of Egyptology, University Coll., London; excavated Naukrates, Am annd Defenneh in Egypt, 1880-1901; author of Stonehenge, Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, Season in Egypt, Racial Portraits, Historical Scarabs, Ten Years' Digging, Historical Egypt, Tel el Amarna, Syria and Egypt, Royal Tombs of tthe Earliest Dynasties, etc. Article: PYRAMID.

PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, Rev. Octavius (1835-1917), M.A., F.R.S., Rector of Bloxworth, Dorset, from 1868; author of Specific Descriptions of Trap-Door Spiders and The Spiders of Dorset. Article: ARACHNIDA.

PICTON, James Allanson, M.A., M.P.; Independent Minister of Hackney, 1868-76; Member of School Board for London, 1869-78; author of New Theories and the Old Faith, The Mystery of Matter, Oliver Cromwell: the Man and his Mission, and Life of Sir James A. Picton. Article: PRIESTLEY.

PIESSE, Charles Henry, F.C.S.; Public Analyst, Fulham District, London; author of Chemistry in the Brewing-Room and Olfactics and the Physical Senses. Article: PERFUMERY.

PIKE, Luke Owen, M.A., Barrister; formerly of the Record Office, London; author of A History of Crime in England and Yearbooks in the Reign of King Edward the Third. Article: CRIME.

POLLOCK, Walter Herries, M.A., Barrister; formerly editor of the Saturday Review; author of The Modern French Theatre, Verse Old and New, Mémoires Inédits du Marquis de --- , Jane Austen: her Contemporaries and Herself. Articles: MUSSET; THACKERAY.

PYE-SMITH, Philip H., M.D.: F.R.S.; Physician, Guy's Hospital, London; author of An Introduction to the Study of Diseases o the Skin, etc. Article: W. HARVEY.

RAMSAY, William M., D.C.L., LL.D.; Professor of Humanity, Aberdeen, from 1886; author of The Church in the Roman Empire, etc. Article: MYSTERIES.

RAWLINSON, Rev. Canon George, M.A., Professor of Ancient History; Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, 1840; Tutor, 1842; Sub-Rector, 1845; author of History of Herodotus: a New Translation, with Notes and Appendices, The Origin of Nations, The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, and The Sixth and Seventh Great Monarchies. Article: HERODOTUS.

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Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson


RAWLINSON, Maj.-General Sir Henry Creswicke, (1810-95), Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S.; reorganised the Persian Army, 1833-39; served in the Afghan War, 1842; added valuable sculptures to the British Museum; author of A Commentary on the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Babylonia and Assyria and England and Russia in the East. Articles: BAGHDAD; HERAT.

REEVE, Henry, C.B., Registrar to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, 1853-87; foreign editor of the Times, 1840-55; editor of the Edinburgh Review, 1855-95; author of Petrarch and Royal and Republican France; translated Guizot's Washington; edited J Whitelock's Journal of the Swedish Embassy in 1653-54. Article: AMBASSADOR.

REID, Sir George, LL.D.; President, Royal Scottish Academy. Article: J. M. W. TURNER.

RHYS DAVIDS, T. W., LL.D., Ph.D.; Secretary and Librarian, Royal Asiatic Society; Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London; author of Buddhism, Buddhist Birth Stories, Buddhist Suttas from the Pali, Hibbert Lectures, 1881, etc. Article: BUDDHISM.

RIDGWAY, William, M.A., formerly Professor of Greek, Queen's College, Cork; author of The Origin of Metallic Currency and Weight Standards. Article: UMBRIA.

ROBERTSON, Edmund, K.C., M.A., LL.D., Barrister; late Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; Reader on Law to the Council of Legal Education; M.P. for Dundee from 1885; Civil Lord of the Admiralty, 1892-95; author of American Home Rule. Articles: DIVORCE; FACTORY ACTS; GOVERNMENT; HERESY (joint author); LAW; MURDER, MANSLAUGHTER.

ROBERTSON, George Croom, M.A., Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic at University College, London, 1867-92; first editor of Mind; his articles have been republished under the title of Philosophical Remains. Articles: ABELARD; ANALOGY.

ROCKSTRO, William Smythe, pianist and musical composer; author of A General History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the Present Period and other works on the history of music. Articles: F. MENDELSSOHN; MOZART; PALESTRINA.

ROGERS, Rev. Henry; Professor of English Language and Literature, University College, 1836-39; author of The Eclipse of Faith, The Life and Character of John Howe, etc. Article: E. GIBBON.

ROGERS, James Edwin Thorold, M.A.; Tooke Professor of Statistics and Economic Science at King's College, London; Drummond Professor of Political Economy in the University of Doxford, 1862-67 and 1888-90; author of History of Agriculture and Prices, The Economic Interpretation of History, and other works on political economy. Article: FREE TRADE.

ROSS, John Merry, LL.D., editor of the Globe Encyclopaedia; author of Scottish History and Literature to the Period of the Reformation. Article: ACCENT.

ROSSETTI, William Michael, Professional to Board of Inland Revenue for Estate Duty on Pictures and Drawings; author of Fine Art, chiefly contemporary, Lives of Famous Poets, Life of Keats, Dante G. Rossetti as Designer and Writer, Memoir of Dante G. Rossetti; editor of The Germ, 1850, of Shelley's Poems, of Wm. Blake's Poems, of Poems by Dante and Christina Rossetti, of Praeraphaelite Diaries and Letters, etc. Articles: MURILLO; P. B. SHELLEY.

ROST, Reinhold, C.I.E., LL.D., Ph.D.; Oriental Lecturer at St. Augustine's Missionary College, Canterbury, 1851-96; Secretary to the Royal Asiatic Society, 1863-69; Librarian at the India Office, 1869-93; author of Treatise on the Indian Sources of the Ancient Burmese Laws and Revision of Specimens of Sanskrit MSS. published by the Palaeographic Society. Article: SIAM (Language and Literature); THUGS.

ROWSELL, Francis W., C.B., C.M.G., Superintendent of Naval Contracts, H. M. Admiralty, 1870-79; British Commissioner for the Domains in Egypt, 1879-95; author of Recollections of a Relieving Officer. Articles: ADMIRAL; ADMIRALTY.

RUDLER, Frederick W., F.G.S., Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology from 1879; of the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, 1861-76; assistant director of Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures; joint author of Stanford's Europe. Articles: JADE; RUBY.

SAINTSBURY, George Edward Bateman, M.A.; Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature, Edinburgh University, from 1895; author of A Short History of French Literature, The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory, A Short History of English Literature, etc. Articles: CORNEILLE; DEFOE; MAROT; MONTAIGNE; RACINE; ROUSSEAU; VOLTAIRE.

SAYCE, Rev. Archibald Henry, M.A., LL.D., D.D., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; Professor of Assyriology, Oxford; one of the Old Testament Revisors, 1874-84; Deputy Professor of Comparative Philology, Oxford, 1876-90; Hibbert Lectures, 1887; Gifford Lectures, 1900-01; author of Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes; Translations in Records of the Past, 1st series; Lectures on the Assyrian Language and Syllabary; The Lost Monuments of the Hittites; The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus; etc. Articles: BABYLON; BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA; W. VON HUMBOLDT.

SCHUSTER, Arthur, Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Physics, Owens College, Victoria University, Manchester; chief of the Eclipse Expedition to Siam, 1875; author of various papers in Philosophical Transactions, etc. Article: VOLTA.

SEELEY, Sir John Robert, K.C.M.G, LL.D.; sometime Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge; Professor of Latin at University College, London, 1863; Professor of Modern History at Cambridge, 1869; author of Ecce Homo, Life and Times of Stein, Expansion of England, and Growth of British Policy. Article: NAPOLEON I.

SELLAR,
William Young, M.A.; late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford; Professor of Greek at St Andrews University, 1857-63; Professor of Humanity at Edinburgh, 1863-90; author of The Roman Poets of the Republic, The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age, and Horace and the Elegaic Poets. Articles: CATULLUS; LATIN LITERATURE (ROMAN LITERATURE); LUCRETIUS; PETRONIUS.

SETH, Andrew (Andrew Seth Pringle Pattison), M.A., LL.D.; Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh from 1891; Professor of Logic, Rhetoric and Metaphysics at St Andrews, 1887; author of The Development from Kant to Hegel, and other works on philosophy. Articles: MYSTICISM; PHILOSOPHY.

SHARP, William, general editor of the Canterbury Poets; author of Wives in Exile, Silence Farm, critical biographies of Rossetti, Shelley, Heine and Browning; compiled the anthologies Sonnets of the Century, Lyra Celtica, etc. Article: THOREAU.

SHARPE, James, formerly editor of the Archer's Quarterly. Articles: ARCHERY.

SIDGWICK, Eleanor Mildred (Mrs. Henry Sidgwick); Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, from 1892. Article: SPIRITUALISM.

SIME, James, M.A.; formerly on the staff of the Graphic, Nature, and other journals; author of a History of Germany, and several works on German literature. Articles: FREDERICK (II) THE GREAT; LESSING.

SMITH, William Charles, K.C., M.A., LL.D.; Advocate; Sheriff of Ross, Cromarty, and Sutherland, to 1900; author of Local Government in Scotland and The Secretary for Scotland, edited the Juridical Review, 1889-1900. Articles: CREMATION.

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William Robertson Smith


SMITH, William Robertson, joint editor of the Ninth Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Professor of Oriental Languages and Old Testament Exegesis, Free Church College, Aberdeen, 1870-81; one of the Old Testament Revisers, 1875; Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic at Cambridge, 1883; University Librarian, 1886; author of Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia and Lectures on the Religion of the Semites. Articles: ANGEL; BIBLE; NINEVEH.

SMITH, Worthington G.; author of Mushrooms and Toadstools: Edible and Poisonous and Diseases of Field and Garden Crops. Article: MUSHROOM.

SOCIN, Albrecht, Ph.D.; Professor of Semitic Theology, Leipzig University, from 1890; formerly of Tübingen University; compiled Baedeker's Handbooks of Palestine and Syria; author of an Arabic grammar. Article: MESOPOTAMIA; PHOENICIA.

SOMERS, Robert; edited the Scottish Herald, 1844; assistant-editor of The Witness, 1845-47; author of Letters from the Highlands, The Southern States since the War, 1871, and Trade Unions. Article: COMMERCE; EMIGRATION.

SPALDING, William, M.A., Advocate, Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, University of Edinburgh, 1840-45; Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and Metaphysics at St. Andrews, 1845-60; author of many papers on the Elizabethan drama, of Italy and the Italian Islands and History of English Literature. Article: ADDISON.

STEPHENS, Henry Morse, Professor of History and Director of University Extension, University of California; author of History of the French Revolution, Modern European History, Select Documents of English Constitutional History, and other historical works. Article: ROBESPIERRE.

STEVENSON, Robert Louis, author of Virginbus Puerisque, Familiar Stories of Men and Books, Footnote to History, Treasure Island, The Master of Ballantrae, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and other novels; and The Child's Garden of Verses. Article: BERANGER.

STEVENSON, Thomas, M.D.; Lecturer in Medical Jurisprudence, Guy's Hospital; Scientific Analyst, Home Office; author of A Treatise on Alcohol; editor of Tayor's Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence. Article: POISONS.

STEWART, George, Jr., D.C.L., Litt.D.; editor of the Quebec Morning Chronicle from 1879; author of Story of the Great Fire in St. John's, New Brunswick; Evenings in the Library; and Canada under the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin. QUEBEC.

STORR, Francis, M.A., editor of the Journal of Education; Master of Marlborough College, 1864-75; Merchant Taylors' School, 1875-1901; author of Tables of Irregular Greek Verbs, a translation of Heine's prose works, etc. Articles: ACADEMY; DUEL.

STUART-GLENNIE, John Stuart, M.A.; Barrister; author of King Arthur, or the Drama of the Revolution, Arthurian Localities, Pilgrim Memories, etc. Article: ARTHUR (1st section).

SULLY, James, M.A., LL.D., Grote Professor of Philosophy of Mind and Logic, University College, London, from 1892; author of Sensation and Intuition, Outlines of Psychology, etc. Articles: AESTHETICS; DREAM; EVOLUTION (Philosophy of Evolution)

SWINBURNE, Algernon Charles, author of The Queen Mother, and Rosamond; Atalanta in Calydon; Chastelard; Poems and Ballads; William Blake; Songs before Sunrise; Bothwell; Songs of Two Nations; George Chapman; A Study of Shakespeare; Mary Stewart; Tristram of Lyonesse, and other Poems; Miscellanies; A Study of Victor Hugo; Locrine; Study of Ben Jonson; Studies in Prose and Poetry; Rosamund, Queen of the Lombards; etc. Article: KEATS.

SYMONDS, John Addington, M.A.; sometime Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford; author of Introduction to the Study of Dante, Studies of the Greek Poets, The Renaissance in Italy, and of biographies of Sidney, Ben Jonson, Shelley, and Michelangelo. Article: RENAISSANCE.

TAYLOR, Henry Martyn, M.A., F.R.S.; Fellow and former Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge; Mayor of Cambridge, 1900-01. Article: NEWTON.

TEDDER, Henry Richard, F.S.A.; Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club; librarian to Lord Acton, 1873-74; one of the organisers and joint-sec. of 1st International Conference of Librarians, 1877; President of the Library Assoc., 1897-98; treas. and sec. Metropolitan Free Libraries Committee, 1878-80; joint-editor of the first three voluumes of Transactions of Library Association, and of Reports of 1st and 2nd International Library Conference. Article: SHAKESPEARE - BIBLIOGRAPHY; SOCIETIES.

TELFER, Commander J. Buchan, R.N., F.R.G.S.; author of The Crimea and the Transcaucasus, The Strange Career of the Chevalier D'Eon de Beaumont; translated Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger from the German. Article: CRIMEA.

THOMAS, M. R. Oldfield, F.Z.S., F.R.S., Senior Assistant British Museum (Natural History) from 1886; author of Catalogues of Marsupialia in the British Museum and British Museum Guides to Mammalia. Article: MOUSE.

THOMPSON, Sir Edward Maunde, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D.; Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum; Keeper of the MSS. and Egerton Librarian, 1878; Sandars Reader in Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-96; editor of Chronicon Angliae; edited Letters of Humphrey Prideaux, Diary of Richard Cocks in Japan, 1615-1622, etc.; joint editor of publications of Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles. Articles: PAPER (History); PAPYRUS.

TIELE, C. P. [Cornelis Petrus], Theol.D., Litt.D., Hon. M.R.A.S.; Professor of the Science of Religion in the University of Leyden from 1877; author of Outlines of History of Religion, History of the Religion of Ancient Times, and Comparative History of Egyptian and Mesopotamian Divine Worship. Article: RELIGIONS.

TROTTER, Coutts, F.R.S.E.; Edinburgh. Articles: FIJI ISLANDS; NEW GUINEA; SIAM.

TUKE, Sir John Batty, M.D., D.Sc., M.P., Medical Superintendent, Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh; Member of General Medical Council in Registration and Education; Medical Superintendent of Fife and Kinross Asylum, 1865-73; author of Morrison Lectures, Insanity and Over-exertion of the Brain. Articles: APHASIA; HIPPOCRATES; HYSTERIA.

TULLOCH, Very Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., Principal of St Mary's College, University of St. Andrews; author of Leaders of the Reformation, English Puritanism and its Leaders, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the Seventeenth Century, and Pascal; editor of Fraser's Magazine. Articles: ST. ATHANASIUS; ST. AUGUSTINE; ST. BENEDICT; ST. BERNARD.

TYLOR, Edward Burnett, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Professor of Anthropology, Oxford University; Keeper of the University Museum since 1883; author of Anahuac, Mexico and the Mexicans; Researches into the Early History of Mankind; Primitive Culture; Anthropology; and The Natural History of Religion. Articles: ANTHROPOLOGY; CANNIBALISM; DEMONOLOGY; MAGIC; MEXICO (Ancient Mexico); ORDEAL.

VENABLES, Rev. Canon Edmund, M.A., Precentor of Lincoln; author of Life of John Bunyan and Episcopal Palaces of England. Articles: ABBEY; ABBOT.

VILLARI, Pasquale,
Professor of Modern History, Reale Instituto di Studi Superiori, Florence; President of the Tuscan Section of the Società di Storia Patria; formerly Minister of Public Instruction in Italy; author of L'Insegnamento della Storia, Niccolo Machiavelli e i suoi Tempi, etc. Article: ROME (Mediaeval and Recent History).

VINES, Sydney Howard, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.; President of the Linnaean Society of London; Sherwood Professor of Botany, Oxford; Fellow of Magdalen College; Fellow and Lecturer of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1876; Reader in Botany, Cambridge, 1883; author of Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, A Student's Text-book of Botany, papers in various scientific journals, etc. Article: VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

WALFORD, Cornelius; Barrister of the Middle Temple; author of Famines of the World, Past and Present, Fairs, Past and Present, and Guilds: their Origin, Constitution, Object, and later History. Article: FAMINES.

Alfred Russel Wallace picture

Alfred Russel Wallace


WALLACE, Alfred Russel, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.; President of the Land Nationalisation Society; author of The Theory of Natural Selection, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism, The Geographical Distribution of Animals, The Malay Archipelago, Land Nationalisation, etc. Articles: ACCLIMATISATION; DISTRIBUTION (joint author).

WALLACE, William, M.A., LL.D.; Merton College, Oxford University, 1867; Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy, Oxford University, from 1882; author of The Logic of Hegel; Epicureanism; Kant; and Life of Arthur Schopenhauer. Articles: ANAXAGORAS; ANAXIMANDER; ANAXIMENES OF MILETUS; ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY; DESCARTES.

WARD, James, M.A., LL.D., D/Sc.; Fellow of Trin. Coll., and Professor of Mental Philosophy, Cambridge; Gifford Lecturer, University of Aberdeen,1895-97; author of Naturalism and Agnosticism. Article: PSYCHOLOGY.

WATTS, Henry Edward, editor of The Melbourne Argus; author of Life of Cervantes, History of Spain; translated Don Quixote. Article: CERVANTES.

WEBSTER, Hugh A., formerly Librarian, Edinburgh University; editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine; sub-editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Articles: BORNEO; KOREA (COREA); NILE; RIO DE JANEIRO.

WEBSTER, James Claude, Barrister of the Middle Temple, London. Articles: CLUB (Part 2); PIRACY.

WELLHAUSEN, Julius, D.D.; Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Göttingen; formerly Professor at Greifswald, Halle, Marburg; author of Der Text der Buucher Samuelis, Die Pharisäer und die Sadducäer, Die kleinen Propheten, Israelitische und Jüdische Geschichte, Das Arabische Reich und sein Sturz, and other works of Biblical criticism and ancient history. Article: MOSES.

WHEELER, R. Mortimer, Glasgow. Article: PUNCHINELLO.

WHITE, John F., M.A., LL.D., joint author of the Life and Art of George Paul Chalmers, R.S.A., and many articles on ancient and modern art. Articles: REMBRANDT; VELASQUEZ.

WHITNEY, Josiah Dwight; Professor of Geology, Harvard University, from 1865; author of The Metallic Wealth of the United States, Geological Survey of California, and other works on the geology of the United States. Article: CALIFORNIA.

WILLIAMS, James, D.C.L.; Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford; Hon. LL.D., Yale; author of The Schoolmaster and the Law, Wills and Succession, The Institutes of Justinian, illustrated by English Law, and other works on legal questions; also of A Lawyer's Leisure, Ethandune, Simple Stories of London, in verse. Articles: NEGLIGENCE; RIOT; ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH (English Law Relating To Roman Catholics); SUNDAY; WITCHCRAFT; WOMEN, LAW RELATING TO.

WILLIAMS, Richard, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales. Article: EISTEDDFOD.

WILLIAMSON, William Crawford, LL.D., F.R.S.; formerly Professor of Botany, Owens College, Manchester; lectured on Science for the Gilchrist trustees; made extensive and valuable investigations in geology, zoology, and botany, particularly in paleobotany. Article: AGASSIZ.

WILSON, Andrew, M.B., Ph.D., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Lecturer in Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, Edinburgh Medical School; formerly Examiner, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow; author of Studies in Life and Sense; Chapters in Evolution; Leaves from a Naturalist's Note-Book; Elements of Zoology; Brain and Nerve; etc. Article: ANT.

WILSON, Henry Bringhurst, formerly of the British Library. Article: INDEX.

WILSON, Robert, formerly Lecturer on Animal Physiology to the School of Art, Edinbugh; editor of The Human Race. Article: COOLIE.

WOOD, Thomas McKinnon, L.C.C., LL.D.; Chairman of Parliamentiary Committee, 1895-98; Chairman of London County Council, 1898-99. Article: CHARLES I.

YULE, Col. Sir Henry, R.E., K.C.S.I., C.B., Secretary of Public Works Department, India, 1857-62; edited The Book of Marco Polo for the Hakluyt Society; author The Book of the African Squadron Vindicated, Fortifications, and The Mission to the Court of Ava, 1855. Articles: ACEH (ACHIN); AFGHANISTAN; ANDAMAN ISLANDS; CAMBODIA; IBN BATTUTA ; MARCO POLO.

(B) EDITORIAL STAFF

BAYNES, Thomas Spencer - Editor (1875-87)

SMITH, William Robertson - Joint Editor (1880-87); Editor (1887-89)


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