1902 Encyclopedia > Aqueduct > Vienna (Austria) Waterworks
Vienna (Austria) Waterworks
A still more recent work, consisting mainly of aqueduct construction, is the enterprise for supplying the city of Vienna with water. The water is obtained from the springs of Kaiserbrum and Stixentein, both situated at the foot of the Styrian Alps, which separate Austria from Styria. The Kaiserbrunn spring is situated 1146 English feet above the Danube at Vienna, and the Stixenstein spring 996 feet. The water is conducted by aqueduct to a receiving reservoir at Rosenhugel, 277 feet above the Danube, and distant 2 miles from Vienna. The length of the aqueduct from Kaiserbrunn to be receiving reservoir on the Rosenhugel is 56 1/2 English miles. A branch of 3.9 English miles conducts the Stixenstein spring to this aqueduct. The gradients of the aqueduct vary much in the upper or early parts; but towards the end they become more regular. The gradients have been thus varied for the purpose of keeping the canal as much as possible along the level of the ground, so as to avoid high embankments. In order to keep the water cool in summer, and to secure it from freezing in winter, the water is always 6 feet below the surface; and in place where embankment were unavoidable, the aqueduct has been covered to the same extent. The size of the aqueduct varies from 4 feet 6 inches in heights, by 2 feet 6 inches in width, to 6 feet 6 inches in height, by 4 feet in width. In order to facilitate the discharge, and to reduce friction, the inside of the aqueduct has been plastered with a coating 2 inches thick of Portland cement and sand, in the proportion of one of cement to two of sand. This coating was laid on in three layers, the last being a very thin layer of pure cement, which, when hardened, was rubbed with iron plates tilll it became perfectly smooth and polished. The work was commenced in the winter of 1869-70, and completed in the month of September 1873. The aqueduct is constructed for the purpose of supplying about 3,2000,000 cubic feet per day, or 20,000,000 gallons. There are several important aqueduct bridges along the line of works. Of these the principal is the aqueduct of Baden, which consists of forty-three large arches, with spans varying from 5 klafters to 8 flafters, and the greatest height 15 klafters 5 feet 5 inches, or 96.6 English feet, from the foundation of the pier to the top of the queduct. The arches are of brockwork, as well as the vaulting of the canal. The piers, together with the backing of arches and the sides of the canal, are faced with ashlar, and filled up with rubble masonry. The canal is covered on the top with earth, which is then covered with 9 inches of paving in rubble masonry.
Fig. 20 -- Baden Bridge, Vienna Waterworks (7 out of 43 arches)
Fig. 21 -- Mödling Bridge, Vienna Waterworks
The Mödling aqueduct is, although one of the shortest, perhaps the finest on the whole line of the works. It is situated in a very narrow gorge, with high rocks rising on the side. The canal or aqueduct passed through a tunnel on one side, and after crossing the aqueduct enters immediately into another tunnel on the other. This aqueduct bridge consists of spans of 9 klafters, or 55-98 English feet, in width, and is built entirely of bricks, with the exception that the piers are pointed with ashlar. The abutments, the foundations of which are excavated in the rock, are built of rubble masonry, faced with ashlar. The other chief aqueducts are: -- the one at Liesing with forty-six arches, very similar to that of Baden, and that of Mauer with thirteen arches, built of bricks, and making a fine curve across the valley.
The receiving reservoir on the Rosenhugel, where the aqueduct ends, is divided into two parts, capable together of holding 80,000 cubic feet English. From this reservoir the water is taken to two other distributing reservoirs, from which the city is supplied. The cost of the work, together with the network of pipes in Vienna, has been about 25,000,000 florins or £2,000,000 sterling. The chief engineers of the work was Herr Carl Junker of Vienna, and the contractor Mr. Antonio Gabrielli of London. The works were completed and opened in the autumn of 1873.
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