1902 Encyclopedia > Cricket (game)

Cricket




CRICKET is the national game of Englishmen. The prevalent love of the pastime may perhaps be cited as an instance of the development of the national character, requiring, as it does, such a combination of intellectual and physical qualities—broad and open shoulders, stout arms and quick legs, with patience, calculation, and prompt-ness of execution.

In the infancy of the game, stumps did not exist. A circular hole in the turf supplied their place, and it is surmised that the batsman was put out either by being caught, or, when running, by the outside returning the ball into the cavity ere the striker placed the base of his bat therein. This led to unseemly tussles between the batsman and fielders, often to the detriment of the latter’s hands. It is surmised from the old records of the Hambledon Club that the first description of wicket com-prised one stump only, 18 inches high, which was displaced with the ball, in lieu of "holing" the same, in order to put the runner out, but absolute proof on this point is wanting. The date of a second stump being added is buried in obscurity. It is only known that they were placed 2 feet apart, with a connecting cross-bar on the top, the height being 1 foot ; and a large hole for putting the ball into was excavated between the stumps. The dimen-sions of 22 inches by 6 inches were adopted in 1702, and thus, as far as is known, matters remained till, in 1775, at a Hambledon Club match, the ball was observed to pass thrice between the two stumps without dislodging the cross-bar. To obviate this a third stump was added in the middle, and the modern bails were substituted for the cross-bar. The next alteration was to 24 inches by 7 inches in 1798, and in 1817 another inch was added to the heigbt; at which dimensions, viz., 27 inches by 8 inches, the wicket remains in 1877. It is possible that there were other intermediate alterations from time to time; but as each year's laws have not been pre-served, this is uncertain. From the earliest days, how-ever, the wickets have always been placed one chain or 22 yards apart.

Cricket bats were at first made with a sweeping curve at the base, which made them available for hitting only. They were broader and far more cumbersome than the lithe spring-handled implements of the present day,—the shape now in use appearing to have become prevalent about 1825, when round arm bowling came permanently into vogue. A sketch of the various shapes in use from early times downwards will be found in the frontispiece of Mr Frederick Gale’s Echoes from the old Cricket Fields. No evidence exists as to the size and weight of the first balls used. At the end of the 18th century they were much of the same dimensions as now, but both materials and workmanship have vastly improved even since the first "treble sewn" was manufactured.

Cricket is divided into single and double wicket, and it is a moot point which of the two was the parent game. Judgiiw however, from the earliest evidence extant, it seems probable that single wicket was the first instituted, as it is less complicated and requires fewer playefs. In their pavilion at the Kennington Oval the Surrey County Cricket Club possesses the earliest known picture of the game in anything like its present form. The date is 1743, and the stumps are aptly described by Mr Frederick Gale as "a skeleton hurdle of about 2 feet wide and 1 foot high." The bat is of the old-fashioned curved shape, and the score was kept by notching each individual run on a stick. With the exception that all play was evidently forward of the wicket (the same is the case now in single wicket matches with less than five a side), the leading features of the game are identical with those of the present day. Single wicket, however, was never much practised after a knowledge of the game became thoroughly diffused, except by great players for a large stake or a championship. It is with the double wicket game that we are more immediately concerned, that being the now universally accepted form.

The most radical change that has ever taken place in the development of the game is the introduction of round or straight arm bowling in lieu of the underhand. That the new style was first discovered (about 1785) by Tom Walker, a professional of the old Hambledon Club, is now generally admitted; but the dogged conservatism of the day pronounced it to be unfair, and successfully repressed the innovation. About 1805 the style was revived by Mr John Willes, a great Kentish amateur. It was not, however, until 1825, when Mr G. T. Knight of Alton strenuously took up the cudgels on behalf of the so-called "throwing bowling," that it became a permanent institution, and then only after many bickerings and much controversy. The new style created a great revolution in cricket, as it afforded the bowlers much greater coininand over their delivery both in strength and in direction. From time to time various other new points have arisen requiring special legislation, and changes have taken place in the mode of conducting the game.

Much labour and careful attention are required in laying out a good cricket ground and maintaining the same in proper order. As a general rule the shorter and more level the turf can be got the better. Double wicket requires two sides of eleven players each, the choice of first innings being decided by lot. Two strikers go in, one at each wicket, and the object of the fielders is to dislodge them according to the rules of the game. The other strikers go in by rotation as arranged by their captain. When a ball is hit the striker may, if possible, score a run by reaching the opposite popping crease ere the wicket is put down, each time he successfully traverses the distance between the two popping creases counting as one run. When sufficient time is available each side has two innings, and that scoring the largest number of runs is the winner. Otherwise both sides may agree to decide the issue on the result of one innings a piece, and it is sometimes arranged to allow six balls in each over, instead of four. At the end of each over, the whole of the outside change their positions ; another bowler delivers an over from the opposite wicket, and so on alternately. A general idea of the position of the players may be formed from the accompanying diagram, but variations take place according to the description of bowling in use.

A captain is chosen on each side, who has the entire management of his eleven. In conjunction with the opposing captain he makes the necessary arrangements for the match. He should be a thorough judge of all points of the game, and able to place the field to the best advantage according to the description of the bowling and peculiarities of the striker. Constant practice is necessary to become a good bowler, and obtain such a thorough command of the ball as to vary the pace and pitch as well as to impart twist. The two chief varieties of balls are "lengths" and "not lengths," according as their pitch deceives the striker’s eye as much as possible or not. A batsman’s first rule is to play with a straight bat, as he thereby gains most protection for his stumps ; and be should make the most of his stature. Batting is divided into "forward" and "back play," according as the batsman stretches forward to meet the ball, or keeps the body perpendicular or slightly inclined backwards, The fielders should ever be on the alert, their business being to stop or catch the ball, and return it to one of the wickets with all possible baste. For further details of each player’s duties and full instructions how to play the game correctly, we must refer our readers to the Rev. James Pycroft’s excellent work, The Cricket Field. Single wicket is sufficiently explained by the laws, the only material difference being that the batsman has to reach the bowling stump and return to the popping creasea distance of 44 yards in place of 22 yards—for every run he scores. The laws of the game as now constituted by the Marylebone Cricket Club are as follows:—

1. The ball must weigh not less than 5 1/2 nor more than 5 3/4 ounces. It must measure not less than 9 nor more than 9 1/4 inches in circumference. At the beginning of each innings, either party may call for a new ball.

2. The bat must not exceed 4 1/4 inches in the widest part ; it must not be more than 38 inches in length.

3. The stumps must be 3 in number, 27 inches out of the ground ; the bails 8 inches in length ; the stumps of equal and of sufficient thickness to prevent the ball from passing through.

4. The bowling crease must be in a line with the stumps, and. 6 feet 8 inches in length, the stumps in the centre,—with a return crease at each end towards the bowler at right angles.

5. The popping crease must be 4 feet from the wicket, and parallel to it, unlimited in length, but not shorter than the bowling crease.

6 . The wickets must be pitched opposite to each other by the umpires, at the distance of 22 yards.

7. It shall not be lawful for either party during the match, without the consent of the other, to alter the ground by rolling, watering, covering, mowing, or beating, except at the commencement of each innings, when the ground shall be swept and rolled unless the next side going in object to it. This rule is not meant to prevent the striker from beating the ground with his bat near to the spot where he stands during the innings, nor to prevent the bowler from filling up holes with saw-dust, &c., when the ground shall be wet.

8. After rain the wickets may be changed with the consent of both parties.

9. The bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground behind the bowling-crease, and within the return crease, and shall bowl one over before he change wickets, which he shall be permitted to do twice in the same innings, and no bowler shall bowl more than two overs in succession.

10. The ball must be bowled. If thrown or jerked the umpire hall call "no ball."

11. The bowler may require the striker at the wicket from which he is bowling to stand on that side of it which he may direct.

12. If the bowler shall toss the ball over the striker’s head, or bowl it so wide that, in the opinion of the ampire, it shall not be fairly within the reach of the batsman, he shall adjudge one run to the party receiving the innings, either with or without an appeal, whieh shall be put down to the score of wide balls; such ball shall not be reckoned as one of the four balls; but if the batsman shall by any means bring himself within reach of the ball, the run shall not be adjudged.

13. If the bowler shall deliver a "no ball," or a "wide ball," the striker shall be allowed as many runs as he can get, and he shall not be put out except by running out. In the event of no run being obtained by any other means, then one run shall be added to score of "no balls" or "wide balls" as the case may be. All runs obtained for "wide balls" to be scored to "wide balls." The names of the bowlers who bowl "wide balls," or "no balls," in future to be placed on the score, to show the parties by whom either score is made. If the ball shall first touch any part of the striker’s dress or person (except his hands), the umpire shall call "leg bye."

14. At the beginning of each innings the umpire shall call "play;" from that time to the end of each innings no trial ball shall be allowed to any bowler.

15. The striker is out if either of the bails be bowled off, or if a stump be bowled out of the ground ;

16. Or if the ball from the stroke of the bat or hand, but not the wrist, be held before it touch the ground, although it be hugged to the body of the catcher ;

17. Or if in striking, or at any other time while the ball shall be in play, both his feet shall be over the popping crease, and his wicket put down, except his bat be grounded within it ;

18. Or if in striking at the ball he hit down his wicket;

19. Or if, under pretence of running or otherwise, either of the strikers prevent a ball from being cauglit, the striker of the ball is out ;

20. Or if the ball be struck and he wilfully strike it again

21. Or if in running the wicket be struck down by a throw, or by the hand or arm (with the ball in hand), before his bat (in band) or some part of his person be grounded over the popping crease; but if both bails be off, a stump must be struck out of the ground ;

22. Or if any part of the striker’s dress knock down the wicket;

23. Or if the striker touch or take up the ball while in play, unless at the request of the opposite party ;

24. Or if with any part of his person he stop the ball, which in the opinion of the umpire at the bowler’s wicket, shall have been pitched in a straight line from it to the striker’s wicket and would have hit it.

25. If the players have crossed each other, he that runs for the wicket which is put down is out.

26. A ball being caught, no run shall be reckoned.

27. The striker being run out, the run which he and his partner were attempting shall not be reckoned.

28. If a lost ball be called, the striker shall be allowed six runs, but if more than six shall have been run before lost ball shall have been called, then the striker shall have all that have been run.

29. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the wicket--keeper’s or bowler’s hand, it shall be considered dead ; but when the bowler is about to deliver a ball, if the striker at his wicket go outside the popping crease before such actual delivery, the said bowler may put him out, unless (with reference to the 21st law) his bat in hand, or some part of his person, be within the popping creme.

30. The striker shall not retire from his wicket and return to it to complete his innings after another has been in, without the con-sent of the opposite party.

31. No substitute shall in any case be allowed to stand out or run between the wickets for another person without the consent of the opposite party ; and in case any person shall be allowed to run for another, the striker shall be out if either be or his substitute be off the ground in manner mentioned in laws 17 and 21, while the ball is in play.

32. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the consent of the opposite party shall also be obtained as to the person to act as substitute, and the place in the field which he shall take.

33. If any fieldsman stop the ball with his hat, the ball shall be considered dead, and the opposite party shall add five to their score. If any be run they shall have five in all.

34. The ball having been hit, the striker may guard his wicket with his bat, or with any part of his body except his hands, that the 23rd law may not be disobeyed.

35. The wicket-keeper shall not take the ball for stumping until it have passed the wicket; he shall not move until the ball be out of the bowler’s hand ; he shall not by any noise incommode the striker ; and if any part of his person be over or before the wicket, although the ball hit it, the striker shall not be out.

36. The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play and all disputes shall be determined by them, each at his own wicket ; but in case of a catch which the umpire at tile wicket bowled from cannot see sufficiently to decide upon, he may apply to the other umpire, whose opinion shall be conclusive.

37. The umpires in all matches shall pitch fair wickets ; and the parties shall toss up for choice of innings. The umpires shall change wickets after each party has had one innings.

38. They shall allow two minutes for each striker to come in and tell minutes between each innings. When the umpire shall call "play" the party refusing to play shall lose the match.

39. They are not to order a striker out unless applied to by the adversaries.

40. But if one of the bowler’s feet be not on the ground behind the bowling crease and within the return crease when be shall deliver the ball, the impire at his wicket, unasked, must call "no ball."

41. If either of the strikers run a short run the umpire shall call "one short."

42. No umpire shall be allowed to bet.

43. No umpire is to be changed during the match, unless with the consent of both parties, except in case of violation of 42d law; then either party may dismiss the transgressor.

44. After the delivery of four balls the umpire must call "over," but not until the ball shall be finally settled in the wicket-keeper’s or bowler's hand ; the ball shall then be considered dead ; never-theless, if any idea be entertained that either of the strikers is out, a question may be put previously to, but not after, the delivery of the next ball.

45. The umpire must take especial care to call "no ball" instantly upon delivery, "wide ball" as soon as it shall pass the striker.

46. The players who go in second shall follow their innings if they have obtained eighty runs less than their antagonists, except in all matches limited to one day’s play, when the number shall be hinited to sixty instead of eighty.

47. When one of the strikers shall have been put out, the use of the bat shall not be allowed to any person until the next striker shall come in.



Note.—The committee of the Maryltbone Club think it desirable that previ-ously to the commencement of a match, one of each side should be declared the manager of it; and that the new laws with respect to substitutes may be carried out in a spirit of fairness and mutual concession, it is their wish that such sub-stitutes be allowed in all reasonable cases, and that the umpire should inquire if it is done with consent of the manager of the opposite side.

Complaints having been made that it is the practice of some players when at the wicket to make holes In the ground for a footing, the committee are of opinion that umpires should be empowered to prevent it.



Single Wicket.

1. When there shall be less than five players on a side, bounds shall be placed twenty-two yards each in a line from the off and leg stump.

2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a run, which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling stump or crease in a line with it with his bat, or some part of his person, or go beyond them, returning to the popping crease as a double wicket, according to the 21st law.

3. When the striker shall bit the ball one of his feet must be on the ground and behind the popping crease, otherwise the umpire shall call "no hit."

4. When there shall be less than five players on a side neither byes nor overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out behind the wicket, nor stumped out.

5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the play between the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling stump and the bounds; the striker may run till the ball be so returned.

6. After the striker shall have made one run, if he start again he must touch the bowling stump, and turn before the ball cross the play to entitle him to another.

7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the same number for ball stopped with hat, with reference to the 28th and 33d laws of double wicket.

8. When there shall be more than four players on a side there shall be no bounds. All hits, byes, and overthrows shall then be allowed.

9. The bowler is subject to the same laws as at double wicket.

10. No more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.



Bets.

1. No bet upon any match is payable unless played out or given up.

2. If the runs of one player be betted against those of another, the bet depends on the first innings un less otherwise specified.

3. If the bet be made on both innings, and one party beat the other in one innings, the runs of the first innings shall determine it.

4. If the other party go in a second time, then the bet must be determined by the number on the score.



County Cricket.

The following laws of county qualification were established at a meeting held in the Surrey County Pavilion, Kennington Oval, on June 9, 1873:—

1. That no cricketer, whether amateur or professional, shall play for more than one county during the same season.

2. Every cricketer born in one county and residing in another shall be free to choose at the commencement of each season for which of those counties he will play, and shall, during that season, play for that county only.

3. A cricketer shall be qualified to play for any county in which he is residing and has resided for the previous two years ; or a cricketer may elect to play for the county in which his family home is, so ong as it remains open to him as an occasional residence.

4. That, should any question arise as to the residental quali-fication, the same should be left to the decision of the committee of the Marylebone Club.

History.—The name cricket is cognate to the Saxon cric or cryc, a crooked stick. This germ of the modern bat is seen in the earliest representation of the pastime about the middle of the 13th century. In a MS. in the King’s Library, 14 Bv, entitled Chronique d’Angleterre depuis Ethelberd jusqu’á Hen. III., there is found a grotesque delineation of two male figures playing a game with a of and ball. This is undoubtedly the first known drawing of what was destined to develop into the scientific cricket of modern times. The left hand figure is that of the batsman, who holds his weapon perpendicularly in the right hand with the handle downwards. The right hand figure shows the catcher, whose duty is at once apparent by the extension of his hands. In another portion of the same MS., however, there is a inale figure pointing a bat, with the base curved like a leopard’s head, towards a female figure in the attitude of catching but the ball is absent. On p. 126 of King Edward I’s wardrobe account for the year 1300, there occurs the following entry, viz., "Domino Johanni de Leek capellano Domini Edwardi fil’ Regis, pro den , per ipsum liberat’ eidem Domino suo ad ludenduln ad creag’, et alios ludos per vices, per marius proprias apud Westin’, 10 die Marcii, 100s. Et per manus Hugonis camerarii sui apud Newenton mense Marcii, 20s—summa, £6." Here is found the earliest allusion to the game as designated by a term analogous to the modern word "cricket," as well as indisputable proof that even in these early times the game was followed by the first personages in the realm, who of course spoke French. In a Bodleian Library MS., No 264, dated 18th April 1344, and entitled Romance of the Good King Alexander, fielders for the first time appear in addition to the batsman and bowler. All the players are monks with their cowls up and down alternately, the former having been erroneously taken for female figures by Strutt in his Sports and Pastimes. On the extreme left of the picture, the bowler, with his cowl up, poises the ball in the right hand with the arm nearly horizontal. The batsman comes next with his cowl dowm, a little way only to the right, stand-ing sideways to the bowler with a long roughly-hewn and slightly-curved bat, held vertically, handle downwards in the left hand. On the extreme right come four figures—with cowls alternately down and up, and all having their hands raised in an attitude to catch the ball should it be missed by the batsman, or be tipped in their direction. Judging, however, from the positions of bowler and batter, the out players are not placed so as to field a direct but a side hit. But the want of perspective in the composition renders any estimate of their object uncertain. It is evident, however, that the bat was always held in the left hand at this date, since on the opposite page of the same MS. a solitary monk is figured with his cowl down, and so holding a somewhat elongated oval-shaped imple-ment. The close roll of 39 Edw. III. (1365), Men. 23, disparages certain games on account of their interfering with the practice of archery, where the game of cricket is probably included among the pastimes denounced as "ludos inhonestos, et minus utiles ant valentes." In this instance, cricket was clearly considered fit for the lower orders only. Judging from the drawings, it can only be ,conjectured that the game consisted of bowling, batting, and fielding, though it is known that there was an inside and an outside, for sometime during the 15th century the game was called "Hond-yn or Hondoute," or "Hand in and Hand out." Under this title it was interdicted by 17 Edw. IV. c. 3 (1477-78), as one of those illegal games which still continued to be so detrimental to the practice of archery. By this statute, any one allowing the game to play on his premises was liable to three years’ imprisonment and £20 fine, any player to two years’ imprisonment and £10 fine, and the implements to be burnt. The inference that hand in and hand out was analogous to cricket is made from a passage in the Hon. Daines Barrington’s Observations on the more Ancient Statutes from Magna Charta to 21 James I. cap. 27." Writing in 1766, he comments thus on the above statute, viz : "This is, perhaps, the most severe law ever made against gaming, and some of these forbidden sports seem to have been manly exercises, particularly the handyn and handoute. which I should suppose to be a kind of cricket, as the term hands is still retained in that game."

The word "cricket" first occurs about the year 1550. In Russell’s History of Guildford (p. 203), it appears there was a piece of waste land in the parish of Holy Trinity in that city, which was enclosed by one John Parish, an innholder, some five years before Queen Elizabeth came to the throne. In 35 Elizabeth (1593), evidence was taken before a jury and a verdict returned, ordering the garden to be laid waste again and disinclosed. Amongst other witnesses John Derrick, gent and one of H.M.’s coroners for Surrey, aetat. Fifty-nine, deposed he had known the ground for fifty years or more, and "when he was a scholler in the free school of Guildford, be and several of his fellowes did runne and play there at crickett and other plaies." In the original edition of Stow’s Survey of London (1598), the word does not occur, though be says, "The ball is used by noblemen and gentlemen in tennis courts, and by people of the meaner sort in the open fields and streets." It might justly be surmised that such a national game as cricket would soon be introduced at public schools. Accordingly, the first trace of it is found at Winchester College in 1650, since Lisle Bowles, writing of the good Bishop Ken, who was admitted to Winchester, 13th January 1650-51, says, "On the fifth or sixth day our junior . . . . is found for the first time attempting to wield a cricket bat." In 1688 we find a "ram and bat" charged in an Etonian’s school bill. Two other noteworthy references to the game are found during the last quarter of the 17th century. The first is in a somewhat ribald poem (1658), entitled The Mysteries of Love Eloquence, or the Arts of Wooing and Complimenting, by Edward Philips, John Milton’s nephew, who, in a dialogue between a country bumpkin and his mistress going to a fair, makes the latter say, "Would my eyes had been beat out of my bead with a cricket ball." The second occurs in the diary of the Rev. Henry Teonge, a naval chaplain to H. M. ship "Assistance," and states that during a visit to Antioch on 6th May 1676, several of the ship’s company, accompanied by the consul, rode out of the city early, and amongst other pastimes indulged in "krickett." During the first half of the 18th century the game became popular, and is repeatedly noticed by writers of the time, such as Swift, D’Urfey, Pope, Soame Jenyns, and Strype in his edition of Stow’s Survey of London.

In 1748 it was decided that cricket was not an illegal game under the well-known statute 9 Anne cap. 19, the Court of King’s Bench holding "that it was a very manly game, not bad in itself, but only in the ill use made of it by betting more than ten pounds on it ; but that was bad and against the law." In these early times even, the pastime was followed by all classes, and Frederick, prince of Wales, died in 1751 from internal injuries caused by a blow from a cricket ball whilst playing at Cliefden House. Nevertheless, this commingling of aristocrats and ple beians on the cricket sward was viewed with apprehension, and repeatedly discounterianced by writers of the day. Games were played for large stakes. Ground proprietors and tavern keepers farmed and advertised matches, the results whereof were not always above suspicion. The old artillery ground at Finsbury appears to have been the earliest scene of action of this class of matches. But the true birthplace of the game in its developed state was no cockney inclosure, but the broad open downs of the southern counties of England, and more especially in the great hop-growing districts. The large hop fairs, notably that of Weyhill, were the rendezvous for all comers from the southern counties, and it is probable that the great county matches were arranged on these occasions. The first record preserved of a match is between Kent and All England, which, judging from an advertisement in the General Advertiser of the day, was played on August 4, 1746, at the Artillery Ground, the score being kept in the modern fashion.

The old Hambledon Club was the first founded in England, and lasted from 1760 to 1791. Its laying fields were Broad Half Penny and Windmill Downs. When at its zenith the club frequently contended with success against All England. Their great players were more or less retained by noblemen and wealthy patrons of the game, and this club remained invincible for some forty years. Thought a cricket club existed at Hambledon down to 1825, the original society was broken up in 1791, owing to the distance from the metropolis. A dispersion of its famous players through neighbouring counties took place, and was naturally accom-panied with a diffusion of the precepts of the game, which gradually extended northward and westward, till, at the end of the 18th century, cricket had become established as the national game of England. The famous Maryleboue Cricket Club now justly ranks as the leading club of the world, frames the laws governing the game, and arbitrates on all disputes connected therewith. This society sprang out of the old Artillery Ground Club, which played at Finsbury till about 1750, when they moved to White Conduit Fields, and became the White Conduit Cricket Club. In 1787 they were remodelled under their present title, and moved to Old Lords’ Ground, on the site of Dorset square, thence in 1824 to Middle Lords’ Ground at South Bank on the site of the Regent’s Canal, and finally in 1827 to the present Lords’ Ground, which in 1864 became their freehold property. The Surrey County Club, with the Kennington Oval as their headjuarters, was formed in 1845. In the same year the famous I Zingari Club, confined exclusively to amateurs—first saw light, and commemed its Bohemian wanderings throughout Great Britain, and often into foreign countries. In l846 an "All England Eleven," under the captaincy ofClarke, "The Nottingham Bowler," commenced playing matches against odds in various parts of the country. Since then several professional elevens annually play what may be termed exhibition matches, in all parts of Great Britain. Such contests are often detrimental to the professionals engaged in them, but on the other hand they have done much to diffuse a zeal for cricket, and at the present time there is not a county, large city, university, or public school, wn or village, in England, which does not possess its cricket club, without mentioning the British colonies, and wherever Englishmen assemble abroad in sufficient numbers.

The chief works on cricket are—H. Bentley’s Scores from 1786 to 1822, published in 1823; John Nyren’s Young Cricketer’s Tutor, 1833; N. Wanostrocht’s Felix on the Bat, various editions, 1845-1855; Cricket Notes, by W. Bolland (Hon. S. Ponsonby), 1851; F. Lillywhite’s English Cricketers’ Trip to Canada and the United States, 1860; F. Lillywhite’s Cricket Scores and Biographies, 1746 to 1840, 1862; Rev. J. Pycroft’s Cricket Tutor, 1862; Rev. J. Pyeroft’s Cricket Field, various editions, 1862-1873; Rev. J. Pycroft’s Cricketana, 1865; Jerks in from Short Leg, y Quid (R. A. Fitzgerald), 1866; G. H. Selkirk’s Guide to the Cricket Ground, 1867; C. Box’s Theory and Practice of Cricket, 1868; F. Gale’s Echoes from Old Cricket Fields, 1871; Cricketers in Council, by Thomsonby (H. P. Thomas), 1871; R. A. Fitzgerald’s Wickets in the West, 1873; Marylebone Cricket Club Scores and Biographies, 1876, a continuation of Lillywhite’s Scores and Biographies: and C. Box’s English Game of Cricket, 1877. (H.F.W.)








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