1902 Encyclopedia > Indian Archipelago

Indian Archipelago

INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. The East Indian Archi-pelago or Malay Archipelago, the largest island cluster in the world, lies to the south-east of Asia and to the north and north-west of Australia, and bears the impress in many of its most important characteristics, both natural and his-torical, of this twofold relation.1
As the archipelago does not form a political unity, different writers assign it very different limits, according as and they are influenced by one set of considerations or another. New Guinea to the east and the Philippines to the north are sometimes included and sometimes excluded; Sumatra is sometimes regarded as the most western member of the group, and sometimes that position is given to the Nicobar or the Andaman Islands. From the following survey of the extent of the archipelago the Malay Peninsula and New Guinea are excluded, but the Andaman Islands are admitted as having at least an ethnographical claim. The Balintong Strait, about the 20th parallel of N. lat., may be taken as the northern limit; and but for a small portion of the islands Timor and Sumba (Sandalwood Island), with their insignificant adjacencies, the southern limit might be stated as the 10th of S. lat. The Andaman Islands take us as far west as 93° E. long., the Aru Islands as far east as 135°. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and Jilolo, four of the most important islands. To adopt Mr Wallace's graphic sentences (noting that he embraces New Guinea and the Solomon Islands), the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests. Sumatra is about equal in extent to Great Britain ; Java, Luzon, and Celebes are each about the size of Ireland. Eighteen more islands are on the average as large as Jamaica; and more than a hundred are as large as the Isle of Wight."
The statistics of the area and population of the several islands can only be given approximately. The following table is based on statements contained in the sixth num-ber of Behm and Wagner's Die Bevölkerung der Erde (Gotha, 1880) :—

Area. Population.
I. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
II. Sunda and Molucca Islands2
(4) Lesser Sunda group... 35.15*2 ,,
(5) South-Western group. 2,021 „
(6) Tenimber, Aru, and
III. Philippine Islands
Total Sq. miles.
3,192 655,720
lll7096 20,000 27,343,000

773,008 34,813,000
The total area is thus rather less than that of British India, and the population rather more than that of Great Britain and Ireland.
The islands of the archipelago nearly all present bold General
and picturesque profiles against the horizon, and at the appear-
, once.
1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago the reader is referred to the separate articles BORNEO, JAVA, SUMATRA, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, &C.
2 Various subdivisions have been suggested of the great Sunda and Molucca groups, which may be described as the Indian Archipelago par excellence. Mr Wallace arranges them thus:—The Inolo-Malay Islands—Borneo, Java, and Sumatra ; the Timor group—Timor, Flores, Sunibawa, and Iiombok ; Celebes, with the Sulu Islands and Buton ; the Molucean group—Burn, Ceram, Batchian, Jilolo, and Morty, with the smaller islands of Ternate, Tidore, Makian, Kaioa, Amboyna, Banda, Goram, and Matabello. The Ke and the Aru Islands he treats along with New Guinea.

same time the character of the scenery varies from island to island and even from district to district. The mountains arrange themselves for the most part in lines running either from north-west to south-east or from west to east. In Sumatra and in the islands between Sumatra and Borneo the former direction is very distinctly marked, and the latter is equally noticeable in Java and the other southern islands. The mountains of Borneo rise rather in short ridges and clusters from the plain, like islands from the sea; the arrangement represented on even what are considered authoritative maps being, like much else in the cartography of the archipelago, the product of imagination. Nothing in the general physiognomy of the islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the volcanoes, active or extinct.1 Running south-east through Sumatra, east through Java and the southern islands to Timor, curving north through the Moluccas, and again north from the end of Celebes through the whole line of the Philippines, they form as it were the rim of a great atoll (to use Dr Schneider's phraseology), rudely resembling a horseshoe narrowed towards the point. The loftiest mountain in the archipelago would appear to be the famous Kina Balu in Borneo ; the loftiest of the volcanic peaks are Indrapura in Sumatra (12,255 feet), Semeru in Java (12,238), Gunong Agong in Bali (11,726), and Tamboro in Sumbawa (9324 feet).
An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra, and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them and the Asiatic mainland, all rest on a great submerged bank, nowhere more than 100 fathoms below the surface of the sea, which may be considered a continuation of the continent; while to the east the depth of the sea has been found at various places to be from 1000 to 2500 fathoms. As the value of this fact has been particularly emphasized by Mr Wallace, the limit of the shallow water, which passes through between Bali and Lombok, and strikes north to the east of Borneo, has rightly received the name of Wallace's line. The Philippines, on the other hand, "are almost surrounded by deep sea, but are connected with Borneo by means of two narrow submarine banks." 2 Geology. The geology of the archipelago has not been investigated even with the completeness attained in regard to the zoology and botany; but there is a very considerable collection of material in the publications of the mining engineers of the Dutch Government (Jaarboek Mijnwezen Ned. O. hid.); and for the Philippines a valuable "Memoria geologico-minera " has been printed in the Boletino of the Commission of the Geological Map of Spain (Madrid, 1876). The results obtained by the Dutch engineers have been summarized by Dr Schneider, " Geologische Uebersicht iiber den holland.-ostind. Archipel," in Jahrbuch d. K.K. Geolog. Reichsanstalt, Vienna, 1876, Bd. xxvi. There is a wide and varied representation of the azoic formations—gneiss, mica-schist, hornblende, &c., in Timor (which it may be remarked is geologically one of the best known of the islands), Ceram, Billiton, Banka, &c. Silurian rocks are found in Banka (where they contain the famous tin-mines), Billiton, and the Linga and Riouw archipelago; car-boniferous limestone occurs in the north of Timor: the coal of Batcbian is apparently similar to that of the English Carboniferous measures ; and the Coal-measures of Borneo are thought by Van Dyk to be also Palaeozoic. The Sumatran coal is of unascertained age. Permian rocks are present in Timor, Celebes, Pulo-Laut, and Sumatra. Of Secondary formations we find both Triassic and Jurassic
1 A valuable list of these will be found in Junghuhn's Java, a work which contains many details in regard to various parts of the archi-pelago.
2 Wallace, Island Life, 1880,
rocks, the latter represented by Oolites in Timor, by a coralline limestone in Celebes. Cretaceous rocks occur in both these islands and in Celebes. Throughout the whole archipelago the Tertiary formations have a wide develop-ment both in their Eocene and their Miocene divisions. The latter is represented by foraminiferous limestone, and the former by nummulitic limestone. Lignite is freely distributed throughout the Tertiary strata of Java, Sumatra, and Nias. Among the rocks of economic importance may be mentioned granite of numerous kinds, syenite, serpentine, porphyry, marble (at least in southern Java), sandstones, and marls. Coal is worked successfully in Sumatra, Borneo,' and Labuau. Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Batchian, and Timor, and topazes in Batcbian; antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra, Banka, Flores, and the Philippines; and copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo, and Sumatra. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms, and in some places might be successfully worked. Gold is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Batchian, Timor, and Borneo. Manganese could be readily worked in Timor, where it lies in the carboniferous limestone. Platinum is found in Landak and other parts of Borneo, and mercury in small quantities in Java.
The meteorology of the archipelago has hitherto been Meteoro-studied only in a very vague manner. For Batavia, in- losy-deed, there exists a mass of observations ; and the observa-tory there is extending the region of its investigations. At the close of 1879 it had one hundred and twenty-five rainfall stations. A magnetic survey of the islands has been made by E, Van Rijckevorsel, whose report is pub-lished by the Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam. The most striking general fact is that, wherever that part of the south-east monsoon which has passed over Australia strikes, the climate is comparatively dry, and the vegeta-tion is less luxuriant and luscious. The east end of Java, e.g., has a less rainfall than the west; the distribution of the rain on the north coast is quite different from that on the south, and a similar difference is observed between the east and the west of Celebes. According to Dr Bergsma's Bain/all of the Bast Indian Archipelago, First Year, 1879 (which, like other publications of the Batavian meteorological office, is printed in English), at thirty-three stations out of fifty-nine the annual rainfall exceeded 100 inches, and at five stations 200 inches. The highest regis-tration was 282 inches, at Padang Pandjang (Sumatra). The north-west monsoon, beginning in October and lasting till March, brings the principal rain season in the archi-pelago. The midday heat of the sun, it need hardly be said, makes itself powerfully felt. Exposure to its direct rays in Timor, for example, "at any time between 9 A.M. and 3 P.M.," says Mr Wallace (Tropical Nature), " would blister the skin in a few minutes almost as effectually as the application of scalding water," and Mr Moseley men-tions that on wading into the sea at the Aru Islands he found the heat of the water actually greater than was at all pleasant. But at the same time the general climate cannot be said to be oppressive or unhealthy.
Most of the islands of the archipelago belong to that Vegeta-great forest-belt which, in the words of Mr Wallace,tion-" girdles the earth at the equator, clothing hill, plain, and mountain with an evergreen mantle." In islands and districts where human civilization has been at work for centuries, the natural covering has in large measure given place to artificial tilth ; and in Timor and several of the south-eastern islands the characteristics of New Guinea—luxuriant herbage and open park-like wood-lands—are more or less strikingly predominant. The

field for botanical research in the archipelago is still vast and alluring. Among the very giants of the forest the unregistered species must be numerous ; and, if we descend to the minor forms, it is a very poor collection that does not yield something absolutely new to science. The ferns, the pitcher plants, and the orchids are especially numerous, and have attracted particular attention. "The volcano of Pangerango in Java is said to have, for example, yielded three hundred species of ferns and Mr Burbidge, in a short excursion in Borneo in 1879, found upwards of fifty species that had not been previously obtained in the island.
For detailed information in regard to the flora, the reader may consult C. G. le Reinvvardt, Vcber den Character der Vegetation auf den Inseln des Ind. Archipels, Berlin, 1828 ; Bélanger, Botanique du, Voyage aux Indes Orientales, 1825-1829, Paris, 1832; the various works of C. L. BlumefJlMsewm botanicuinLugd.-Bat., Leyden, 1849-51; Collection des orchidées, Amster., 1858, &c); W. H. de Vriese, Nouvelles Recherches sur la flore des possessions Neerland. aux Indes Or., Amst., 1845; Hasskarl, Oatalogusplantarum in horto botanico Bogoriensi cultarum, Berl., 1844; F. Dozy and J. H. Molkenboer, Bryologia Javanica seu descriptio muscorum frondosorum Arch. Ind., Leyden, 1844-58; H. Zollinger, System. Vcrzeichniss der im Ind. Arch. 1842-1848 gesammelten .... Pflanzen, Zurich, 1854; Mkjuel, Flora van Nederlandseh lndië, Amst., 1855, Annales Musei Botanici Lagduno-Batavi, 1869, and frustrations de la flore de VAr-chipel Indien, 1871 (continued by Suringar).
If we turn to the economical aspect of the vegetation, whether natural or cultivated, we cannot fail to be impressed by its varied resources. The list of fruits is a very exten-sive one ; though unfortunately it is only with a very few of them that the untravelled European can have any practical acquaintance. Besides the orange, the mango, the mangosteen, the pomato or shaddock, the guava, the papaw, and the jack fruit, we have the rambutan, the tarippe or trap, the jintawan, the tampu, the bilimbing, the mamhangan, the langsat, the rambi, and the jambosa. The name at least of the durian is now well known (see DUKIAN), and nearly as strange is the bawangutan (Scor-doprasum borneense), of which the fruit, the leaves, and the branches have all a strong odour and flavour of onions. Of what more distinctively deserve the name of food-plants the variety is equally notable. Not only are rice and maize (usually called djagong in the archipelago), sugar and coffee, among the widely cultivated crops, but the cocoa-nut, the bread fruit, the banana and plantain (usually called pisang in the archipelago), the sugar-palm (Arenga sacchariferd), the tea-plant, the sago-palm, thecocoa-tree (which curiously yields the favourite beverage of the Sulu archipelago), the ground-nut, the Caladium esadentum, the yam, the cassava, and others besides, are of practical importance. The cultivation of sugar and coffee owes its development mainly to the Dutch ; and to thein also is due the introduction of tea. They have greatly encouraged the cultivation of the cocoa-nut among the natives, and it now flourishes, especially in the coast districts, in almost every island in their territory. The oil is very largely employed in native cookery. The sago-palm is most abundant in the island of Ceram, but is also found growing wild in Borneo, Celebes, Timor, and other islands of the Moluccas, in the Linga archipelago, and in parts of Sumatra. The product is mainly prepared for export. Pepper, nutmegs, and cloves were long the objects of the most important branch of Dutch commerce ; and camphor, dammar, benzoin, and other products of a similar kind have a place among the exports. India-rubber and gutta percha are no longer ob-tained to the same extent as formerly. Zoology, To the naturalist the Indian archipelago is a region of the highest interest ; and from an early period it has attracted the attention of explorers of the first rank. And yet the list of its living forms is far from being completely ascertained. The best known district is western Java, and Timor, the Moluccas, and the Papuan Islands have for the most part been well explored. Only parts of Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes have been worked, and most of the other islands have yet to be dealt with. Zoologically the archipelago belongs to two distinct regions—the eastern or Papuan, and the western or Malay or Indian. This latter region, according to August von Pelzeln (" Ueber die Malayische Sàugethiere-Fauna " in Festschrift zur Feier des Fünfundzwanzigjahrigen Bestehens der K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellschaft in Wien, Vienna, 1876), comprises southern China, Tibet, the Himalaya, and Further India, as well as the islands of the archipelago up to Wallace's line. He finds six genera of the Quadrumana, fourteen of the Chiro-ptera, five of the Insectívora, fourteen of the Garnivora, six of the Rodentia, of the Edentata one only (Manis), five of Ruminants, and three of Pachyderms. Sumatra indicates a connexion with the Malacca peninsula by jYemorhœdus, the elephant, Gymnura, and the tapir. Pithecus, Tarsius, and Ptilocercus seem peculiar to the Sunda Islands. The Philippines have Semnopithecus, Macacus, Cynopithecus, Galeopithecus, Pteropus, Tapihozous, Vespertilis, Viverra, Paradoxurus, Pleromys, Mus, Busa, and Cervtdus.

In his various works Mr Wallace has made the English reader familiar with the most striking features of zoological distribution in the archipelago; and in his Island Life, especially, the ornitho-logy receives particular attention. For details in regard to the mam. mais and birds, see Horsfield, Zoological Researches in Java and the Neighbouring Islands, 1834 ; Van Temminck, Monographies de Mam-mologie, 1827-1829 and 1835-1841; Verhanclelingen over denatuur-lijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsclie overzeesche bezittingen, contain ing papers by S. Midler and H. Schlegel ; zoological appendix to Belcher's Voyage of H. M. Ship " Samar any," Lond., 1850 ; H. Schlegel, Muséum d'hist. naturelle des Pays-Bas.: Revue méth. et crû. des Collections, Leyden, 1863-76; Id., Mém. sur tes quadrumanes et les chéiroptères de Varchipel indien, Amst., 1864; Id., De Vogels van Nederlandseh lndië beschreven en afgebceld, Leyden, 1876; Yon Rosenberg, " Overziehtstabellen voor de Ornithologie van den Indischen Archipel" in Acta Scient. Ind. iïeerland., part v.; T. Salvadori, "Catalogo sistemático degli uecelli di Borneo," in Annali di Genova. To the herpetology of the archipelago valu-able contributions have been made by P. Bleeker, A. C. J. Edeling, and A. B. Meyer. Like so much else of value, their papers are mainly to be found in the Nat. Tijds. van Ned. Ind. For the fishes the great modern authority is Bleeker, wdiose principal work, however, was left unfinished (Atlas ichthyologique des Indes orien-tales Néerlandaises), and whose smaller contributions are scattered through more than a dozen periodicals.
The ethnology of the Indian archipelago does not lackEthno-its difficult problems ; but some outstanding features are easily described. There are at least two main native races, the brown long-haired Malay and the darker-skinned frizzly-haired Papuan. And to these more recent explora-tions make it almost certain that a third and probably more thoroughly aboriginal race—the Negrito—must b( added, though even specialists who have had opportunities of direct observation are not unanimous in regard to this noteworthy element. The Malays are subdivided into an immense number of tribes and peoples in the most various stages of civilization, and broadly differenced from each other by physical and linguistic characteristics. Of chief note are the Malays proper, the Javanese, the Bugis, the Tagalas, and Bisayas, the people of the Moluccas, the Dayaks (mainly in Borneo), the Battaks of Sumatra, the Sulu islanders (closely similar to the tribes of northern Borneo). The Papuan race is chiefly to be found in the eastern section of the archipelago. Besides these three races, whose first connexion with the archipelago dates from before the dawn of history, we have a variety of intrusive elements, traceable by more or less strictly historical

documents. A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahometans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples ; and the Chinese form, in an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts. Chinese have been estab-lished in the archipelago from a very early date : the first Dutch invaders found them settled at Jacatra ; and many of them, as, for instance, the colony of Ternate, have taken so kindly to their new home that they have acquired Malay to the disuse of their native tongue. Chinese tombs are among the objects that strike the traveller's attention at Amboyna and other ancient settlements.
For the ethnology of the archipelago, see Meinicke, " Ueber die Volkerstamme des Ind. Archipelagus," in Annalen der Erdkunde, 1837; Spencer St John, "The Population of the Ind. Arch.," in Jour-nal of the Ind. Archipelago, 1849; G. W. Earl, The Native Races of thelnd. Arch.: Papuans, Lond., 1853; Logan, " On the Ethnology of the Ind. Arch.," in Jour, of Ind. Arch., 1847, 1850, 1851, 1853, 1854; and the rich collections in the Tijdschrift v. Ind. T. L. en V. Kunde. An excellent summary of the subject by A. H. Keane will be found as an appendix to Wallace's Australasia (Stan-ford's Compendium of Geography and Travel), Lond., 1879. See also the same writer's papers in Nature, 1881.
Lan- There is a vast field for philological explorations in the Stages, archipelago. Of the very great number of distinct lan-guages known to exist, few have been studied scientifically. The most widely distributed is the Malay, which has not only been diffused by the Malays themselves throughout the coast regions of the various islands, but, owing partly to the readiness with which it can be learned, has become the common medium between the Europeans and the natives. The most cultivated of the native tongues is the Javanese, and it is spoken by a greater number of people than any of the others. To it Sundanese stands in the relation that Low German holds to High German, and the Madurese in the relation of a strongly individualized dialect. Among the other languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically analysed are the Balinese, closely connected with the Javanese, the Battak (with its dialect the Toba), the Dayak, and the Macassarese (see the writings of E. van Eck, H. N. van der Tu.uk, A. Harde-land, and B. F. Matthes). Alfurese, a vague term mean-ing in the mouths of the natives little else than pagan, is more particularly applied by the Dutch philologists to the native speech of certain tribes in Celebes. The com-mercial activity of the Buginese causes their language to be pretty widely spoken,—little, however, by Europeans.
A general sketch of the languages of the archipelago will be found in Dc Gids, 1864, from the pen of Professor Veth. See also Robert Cust, Sketch of the Modern Languages of the East Indies, 1878. A bibliography of this department will be found in Boele van Neusbroek, De beoefening der oostersehe talen in Nederland en zijne overzeesche bezittingen 1800-74 (Leyden, 1875).
Popula- The statistics of the population are, with the exception tion. of those for a few limited areas, such as Java, of the most unsatisfactory character The estimate of Behm and Wagner in 1880 has been already stated,—31,813,000. This gives the comparatively sparse proportion of 45 to the square mile. The distribution, too, is extremely unequal. In Java we have as much as 364 to the square mile, and in the Philippines about 65, so that for the remaining islands the average is only about 15, It would appear that when left in their natural savage or semi-savage con-dition the natives increase very slowly in numbers, and in some cases hardly maintain their ground. Political Politically the Indian archipelago is subject to a sixfold divisions, division:—the independent native states and tribal terri-tories, the Spanish possessions, the Portuguese possessions, the Dutch possessions, the English possessions, and the state of Sarawak. The Dutch are by far the most influen-tial power in the archipelago. The Spanish authority is confined to the Philippines and the Sulu archipelago,—the latter rendered tributary to them by the native sultan in August 1878 in return for an annual subsidy of 2400 dollars. The English, if the island of Singapore be con-sidered as belonging rather to the Malacca Peninsula, possess only the island of Labuan (19,350 acres), acquired in 1847,—though the establishment of the British Bornean Company in the north of the island may prove the begin-ning of a new acquisition. To the Portuguese are subject part of Timor and the island of Kambing, in all 6192 square miles. The Dutch on the other hand claim, besides an area of 149,820 square miles in western New Guinea, a total territory in the archipelago of 566,383 square miles, or forty-four times as much as the governing country. Of the really independent native states the largest is that be-longing to the sultan of Brunei (Borneo); it is estimated to have an area of about 88,000 square miles
The Dutch divide their territory into two great divisions—(1) The Java and Madura, and (2) the Outer Possessions. The former, Dutch which comprises also Bali and Lombok, is administratively divided territory into twenty-three residencies, which are subdivided into depart-ments or assistant residencies. The Outer Possessions are organized in a similar manner, but several portions of them—the West Coast of Sumatra, Celebes and its dependencies, and Achin or Atjh—con-stitute governments with residencies under them. Of the other residencies the principal are those of the East and South-East coasts of Sumatra, Biouw and its dependencies, the island of Banka, Western Borneo, Southern and Eastern Borneo, Menado in the north of Celebes, Timor, Amboyna, and Ternate, the last being nominally the most extensive of all, from including an unusually large proportion of native territory.
The accusation frequently made against the Dutch that they fur-nished little information about their East Indian possessions has long ceased to have any foundation in fact. The Government pub-lish at Batavia a large annual Regerings Almanakvoor Nederlandsch Indie (that of 1880 contains upwards of 1200 pages) ; and every year there is presented to the Dutch parliament a voluminous Koloniaal Verslag, containing elaborate details on all departments of the administration. The Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie of Dr W. R. Baron van Hoevell, continued by a society of statesmen and scholars (Zaltbommel), the Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie of the Royal Institute at the Hague, the IndiscJie Gids (Amsterdam), and the Indische Mercuur (Haarlem), a monthly organ of trade, show the interest taken in Holland in the East Indian possessions. Of the numerous periodi-cals published at Batavia it is enough to mention the Statistiek van den Handel, the Verslag van's lands plantentuin te Buitenzorg, the Tijdschrift van het Kon. Instituut voor Ingenienrs; the Verhand-lingen of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, and the same society's Tijdschrift voor Ind. Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde; the Ind. Militair Tijdschrift, the Natuurkundig Tijdsch., the Geneeskundig Tijdsch., and Tijdsch. voor Nijverheid en Landbouw. Another Tijdschrift of the Ind. Agricult. Soc. is published at Samarang.
The population subject to the Dutch is partially indicated in the following table:—

1877 Males in 1877. 1878
Java and Madura.
Other Eastern foreigners ... Older Possessions.
Other Eastern foreigners ... 28,672 198,233 9,379 3,961 18,567,075 15,586 103,269 5,115 2,077 8,987,999 29,998 200,303 8,839 4,115 18,824,574

18,807,320 9,114,046 19,067,829

7,688 126,710 4,634 7,405 3,988 96,448 2,299 5.681 8,028 119,534 4,708 9,150
How rapidly the Chinese element is increasing is shown by the fact that in the five years 1874-78 permission to reside within Dutch territory was granted to 13,302 Chinese ; whilj similar per-

mission was obtained by only 749 " Europeans" (including Arme-nians and Persians) and 1421 Arabs. Slavery was abolished in the strictly Dutch portions of the Indies on the 1st of January 1860, and under Dutch influence it is being abandoned by the native states. Govern- The functions of the governor-general of the Dutch possessions nient. may briefly be described as those of a viceroy. He has command over the land and sea forces, and supreme supervision of all parts of the general administration. His also is the right of declaring war and peace, and of concluding treaties with the native princes and peoples. No sentence of death can be executed in time of peace without his authority, and he enjoys the right of mercy and amnesty within certain definite limits.
The governor-general is assisted by a council (Baad van Nedcr-landsch Indie), consisting of a vice-president and four members (all named by the king), assisted by a secretary. In relation to the executive the council is an advising body ; but in the exercise of the legislative functions, and in certain definite cases, if the governor-general disagrees with his council, he must appeal to the king for direction. The council has its seat at Batavia, and meets every Friday.

The governor-general has besides a cabinet called the ' general secretariat," the head of which is the general secretary (assisted by two Government secretaries), who acts as referee and adviser of the administration. Besides his strictly secretarial duties he com-piles the Staatsblad van Nederlandscli Indie and the llegerings Almanak voor Nederlandseh Indie (published since 1816). A general chamber of accounts for the Dutch East Indies, consisting of a president and six members, has its seat in Batavia.
The administrative departments have undergone considerable changes from time to time. At present there are five directors—(1) of inland administration, (2) of education, religion, and industry, (3) of public civil works, (4) of finances, and (5) of justice, the last added in 1869. To the department of justice belong, not only the supervision of the courts and law business, but that of the weeskamers and boedel-kamers or chambers of wardship and legacies, the granting of right of residence, the control of the press, and the right of public meeting. The supreme court has its seat at Batavia, and there is an elaborate and intricate system of subordinate courts of justice, European and native. It is only the chief officials that are Europeans, iu accordance with the dominant policy in the whole constitution of the departments of inland administration and justice, that the relations of native with native should be left as much as possible in the hands of native courts. In all about two hundred native princes are tributary to the Dutch authorities.
Finance. To the department of finance belong (1) the taxes and resources of the colony, farmed or unfarmed, so far as they do not depend on some other department; (2) the control of public auctions ; (3) the mint; and (4) various duties connected with the colonial budget and the colonial treasury. The custom of farming a large part of the revenue has long been in vogue, and despite the theoretical objections to the system, it has one great advantage, it pays. The sale of opium is one of the principal Government '' farms." The cultivation of the poppy is absolutely forbidden in the archipelago, and the demand is satisfied by imports from British India and the Levant. From the Government supply so obtained the contractor is obliged to take a certain definite quantity at a high fixed price ; beyond this he may purchase at ordinary cost price what he finds requisite. The total gain from this monopoly was £1,259,212 in 1879, though the local authorities are instructed to do all in their power to prevent the spread of opium-eating. The whole of what are called "the lesser resources " of the Government, consisting of a curious miscellany of taxes, do not yield a third of the opium revenue. Of the branches of the revenue not farmed, the chief are the customs or import and export duties. The average those yielded for the five years 1874-78 was £720,378. Two important taxes, known as the personal tax and the income tax, both levied on Europeans, were introduced in 1879.
The most striking feature in the administration of the Dutch East Indies is undoubtedly this that, instead of being a drain on the resources of Holland, the colony pays annually a most im-portant contribution into the national exchequer. When these pos-sessions were taken over by the mother country they w-ere burdened with a large debt, and the financial state of the colony remained very unsatisfactory for many years ; but on the introduction of the culture system in 1830 the aspect of affairs was speedily changed, and in the fourteen years from 1865 to 1878 there was a clear gain of about £18,000,000 from the colonial administration.
Army On December 31, 1878, the strength of the military forces in the
and East Indies was 38,106 men, of whom nearly one half were Europeans.
navy This, however, does not include the militia corps, which were estab-lished in certain places. At the same date the East Indian navy comprised 27 ships and 154 cannon. The strength of the military marine was 2934 Europeans and 969 natives, while the vessels were manned by 2630 Europeans and 1012 natives.
There is an elaborate department of education, public worship, and industry ; but it is astonishing how little has hitherto been accomplished in the European instruction and Christianizing of the natives.
The educational organization consists of two departments—a Educa-European and a native ; but it is only within recent years that tion. the latter has begun to attract the active interest of the Govern-ment. For secondary European education the great institution is the Gymnasium Willem III. at Batavia. In 1878 there were 68 Government primary schools for Europeans in Java and Madura, • and 28 in the Outer Possessions, with a total attendance of 7223 children. With the exception of certain medical colleges, all the institutions in the native department are for primary instruction. At the end of 1878 these schools numbered 376 ; 214 of them were in the Outer Possessions. In Java and Madura there is a grand total of 28,000 native children receiving vernacular education, and if the Outer Possessions are included the number must be more than doubled. There are nine training schools for native teachers, most of them established since 1870 ; and in 1879 four schools were opened for sons of the native princes and aristocracy.
The Protestant churches of the Dutch Indies compose a church .Religion, union, administered very much according to Presbyterian usage. The number of preachers and assistant preachers is limited by Government, the former to 35 and the latter to 21, by a royal decree of 1863. The Roman Catholics are under a vicar-apostolic, who is also bishop of Batavia, and 20 of their ecclesiastics are paid by the state. Christianity has not as yet made much progress among the natives, the returns for 1878 showing only 174,462 native Christians, of whom 225 were Chinese. In Java and Madura the Christians do not number so much as 1 in 2300 of the popula-tion. Mahometanism is the religion of a large proportion of the natives, and is at present making more advances in relation to the heathen population than Christianity. The Dutch Government grants passes for about a shilling each to those wdio wish to make the pilgrimage to Mecca ; and the numbers who set out in 1877, 1878, and 1879 respectively were 6893, 5632, and 5438, besides about 1500 from the native states.
The administration of the department of public works shows Public that the Dutch have not belied their European reputation for civil works, engineering and industrial activity in their Indian colony. The roads and bridges, canals and irrigation works, which they have executed in their central island win the admiration of foreign visitants. Java is the only island wdiich has even the beginning of a railway system, but considerable progress has been made there; and the postal and telegraph services are being rapidly developed.
The total imports of private trade (including specie) amounted Imports, in 1876 to 116,392,762 florins (1 florin-Is. 8d.), and in 1877 to 126,066,462 ; and at the same time 5,118,938 florins and 27,637,954 florins respectively were imported in name of the Government. Of the 109,177,424 florins of general imports (exclud-ing specie) in 1876, 47,694,270 florins were from Holland, 33,042,854 from other countries outside of the archipelago, and no less than 27,632,294 from Singapore alone ; and of the Government imports 2,207,611 florins were from Holland and 2,033,910 from Singapore. In 1877 cotton manufactures figure among the general imports for 43,566,127 florins, and yarns for 3,325,323 ; rice for 7,798,348 ; petroleum, 5,430,103; cigars, 2,892,369 ; tea, 2,405,511 ; coals, 2,268,520; and iron and iron goods 2,362,525. The opium is the most extensive of the Government imports.
The general exports (specie excluded) were 154,229,384 florins for Exports 1876and 161,863,449forl877; those of the Government, 51,168,108 and 57,116,672. In 1876 the more important articles showed as follows:—coffee (private trade) 34,347,870 florins, (Government) 54,208,868 florins; sugar, 62,583,164 florins; tobacco for the European market, 27,794,755 florins ; gambir, 2,036,592 ; gutta percha, 1,651,292 ; benzoin, 682,581; dammar, 1,025,737 ; india-rubber, 83,171 ; gum copal, 128,075; indigo forthe European market, 3,686,942 ; nutmegs, 2,815,787 ; cocoa-nut oil, 1,220,682 ; pepper, 1,883,349 ; rice, 2,292,907 florins.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to visit the Indian History, archipelago. Prior to their appearance off Sumatra in 1509 under Diogo Lopez la Sequiera, a Hindu civilization, having its chief seat in Java, had flourished and waned, and Mahometanism had succeeded to a considerable share of its inheritance. In 1521, when the Portuguese name had become familiar in the islands, the Spaniards under Magellan made their appearance from the east. Hostilities ensued, which continued till the treaty of 1529, by which the boundary between Spaniards and Portuguese was fixed at 17° E. of the Moluccas,—a line which afterwards proved matter of dispute. The two powers were undisturbed except by an un-important French expedition till 1596, when the Dutch reached what was destined to be the scene of their greatest colonial achieve-ments. In that year Cornelis Houtman appeared before Bantam, the chief town of a powerful kingdom in Java, and his expedition was but the precursor of many others from Holland. The com-mercial success of these enterprises led in 1602 to the establishment of the Dutch East Indian Company, which obtained by Government

charter the monopoly of the Dutch trade of the countries between the Straits of Magellan and the Cape of Good Hope, with the right of concluding treaties, appointing governors, &c. The first fleet sent out by the new Company under Van der Hagen was instru-mental in capturing the Portuguese fort of Aniboyna, and the peace of Treves in 1609 set the Dutch free from interference on the part of the Spaniards. In the same year the states-general appointed a governor-general of the East Indies, giving the Company the right of appointing his successor, subject to their approval.
2 The following is a list of the Dutch governors from that date :—Godert A. G. P. Baron van der Capellan (19th August 1816 to 1st January 1826); Hendrik Mercus de Kock (lieut.-gov.-gen., 1826 to 16th January 1830); Count Johannes van den Ilosch (1830 to 2d July 1833) ; Jean Chretien Baud (1833 to 29th February 1836); Dominique Jacques de Eierens (1836 to 1810, died 30th May); Carel S. W Count van Ilogendorp (1st June 1840 to 6th January 1841); Pieter Merkus (1841 to loth February 1843, gov.-gen. till 1844, died 2d August); Joan Cornells Eeijust (5th August 1844 to 30th September 1845); Jan Jacob Hoehussen (1845 to 12th May 18ol); George Isaac Bruce (died before his departure); Albertus Jacob
The instructions given to Pieter Both, the first governor, struck the key-note of that policy which has brought so much obloquy on the Dutch name, and prevented the better features of their colonial administration from being appreciated. He was to '' give all endeavour in order that the commerce of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda should belong to the Company, and that no other nation in the world should have the least part." When he came into power there were already Dutch forts at Jilolo, Ternate, and Batchian, and the people of Banda had granted the Dutch the monopoly of nutmegs. It was to the fourth governor (J. P. Coen, 1619-23 and 1627-29) that the Company were most indebted for their territorial aggrandizement. He was the founder of Batavia (1620), and the first to introduce a regular system of accounts in the affairs of the Company. During his rule a treaty was concluded between the English and Dutch companies, but unfortunately the goodwill which might have resulted from it was not of long dura-tion. Specx (1629-32) gave a start to the trade with Japan, which afterwards grew to vast and various issues. The governor-ship of Van Diemen (1636-15) was signalized by a series of suc-cesses over the Portuguese, and the introduction of the first code of laws. The Dutch power in the archipelago extended rapidly during the latter part of the century. Peaee was made with the Portuguese (1661), and various native kingdoms acquired. In the beginning of the 18th century the expense of the necessary military operations and general administration, with other causes, brought the colony into financial difficulties, and in the latter part of the century it was greatly damaged by the rapidly grow-ing predominance of the English in India and Ceylon. The loss of their possessions in India, however, caused the Dutch to give more attention to the archipelago, and they continued to increase their territory. At the same time the state of the finances grew worse and worse, leading to the complete abolition of the Company's authority in 1800, when their possessions and liabilities were both appropriated by the nation. During the term of office of H. W. Daendels (1808-11), the English, who some years before had threatened Batavia and captured Ternate, made themselves masters of the Moluccas, and his successor Janssens was obliged in 1811 to surrender the colony and its capital to Lord Minto. The British occupation lasted for five years, and during most of this time the post of governor-general was held by Sir Stamford Baffles, who acted perhaps too much on the supposition that the English occu-pation would be permanent, and was undoubtedly biased by strong prejudice against the Dutch, but at the same time did not forget Lord Minto's advice " to do as much good as he could." To the Dutch themselves this temporary government by the English did ultimate service. The example set by Raffles, when he showed so keen an interest in all that related to the country and the people, proved a stimulus to his Dutch successors ; and the whole relation of the Government to scholarship and investigation has been placed on a more liberal and European footing. The restoration of the East Indian possessions to the Dutch was decided by the treaty of 1814, but was not carried out till 1816, when Baron van der Capellan became governor-general. A variety of local disturbances followed the change of government, and a more serious war in Java (1825-30) required a special expedition from Holland. The year 1830 saw the beginning of that famous " culture " system, under Van den Bosch, to which so much of the financial success and peaceful administration of the modern Dutch government must be ascribed. In 1846 a new code of laws was introduced. The recent history of the colony may be briefly described as a gradual but steady extension of the autho-rity of the Dutch Government, marked by a succession of revolts, disturbances, expeditions, skirmishes, and subjugations ; a gradual but steady endeavour to develop the resources of the country ; and, it may happily be added, an endeavour growing ever stronger and more enlightened to improve the condition of the subject races.
The literature connected with the East Indian archipelago is a vast and rapidly
increasing one. For general information we have—J. Crawfurd, History of the
Indian Archipelago, Edir,., 1S20, 3 vols.; J. H. Moor, Notices of the Indian
Archipelago, Singapore, 1837 ; P. P. Roorda van Eysinga, Handboek der Land- en
Volkenkunde van Nederl. Indie, 1811 ; A. J. van der Aa, Nederlandsch Vost-Indie,
Amsterdam, 1845-57, 4 vols.; and the Aardrijkskuiuiig en statislisch Woordenboek
van Nederlandsch Indie, Amsterdam, 1S69, to which Professor Vetli, Jonkheer
van Alphen, and other specialists were irrportant contributors. Of works which
contain the results of recent individual explorations, the most important are—
Wallace, The Malay Archipelago, 3d ed., London, 1873; Rosenberg, Die Indische
Archipel, Leipsic, 1878 ; Backer, Varci.ipel indien, Paris, 1874. Early notices
of tlie archipelago are found in several Arabic writers. The first European to
give any details is the Italian traveller Lodovico di Varthema, but little confidence
can be placed in his narrative. Navarrete's Coleccion de documentos ; Castan-
heda's Hisloria de descobrimento, Lisbon, 1833 ; Caspar Correa's Lendas or Le-
gends ; De Barros, Asia ; Faria y Sousa, Asia I'ortuguesa, Lisbon, 1666 ; and A.
de Morga, The Philippine Islands, Moluccas, etc., at the close of the ldth century,
translated from the Spanish, Hakluyt Society, 1868, may be consulted for the
early history ; a critical resume' of which, from the pen of P. A. Tiele, is to be
found in Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van N. I., The Hague,
1878. Facile princeps among older Dutch works is Valentijn's voluminous
and well-known Oitd en Nieuw Oost Indie, Amsterdam, 1724-26. Dealing more
restrictedly with the Dutch colony are G. Laut's Geschiedenis van de vestiging,
(EC,, in Indie, Gron., 1852-60 ; Saalf eld, Geschichte des Holland. Colonialwesens in
O. Ind., Gb'tt., 1812; Gerlach, Fastes militaires des In. Or., Zaltbommel, 1859 ; Du
Bois, Vies des gouverneurs-généraux, Hague, 1763, with some good plans and
views ; Elout, Bijdragen tot de Kennis van het Koloniaal beheer, 1851, and other
volumes of Bijdragen from his papers, published in 1863 and 1874; P. Myer,
Verzameling van instructien, ordonnancien, &c, voor de rcgering v. Ned. Ind., Bat.,
1S48 ; Boudewijnse and Van Goest, De Indo-Nedei-landsche Wetgeving, 1816-57,
Haarlem and Batavia, 1876-79 ; E. de Waal, Nederlandsch Indië en de Staten-
Generaal sed. de grondwet v. 1814, Hague, 1860-61. A bibliography of the Dutch
Indies was compiled by J. A. van der Chijs, Proeve eener Nederlandsch Indische
bibliografie, 1659-1870, Batavia, 1875. (H. A. W.)


1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago the reader is referred to the separate articles BORNEO, JAVA, SUMATRA, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, &C.
2 Various subdivisions have been suggested of the great Sunda and Molucca groups, which may be described as the Indian Archipelago par excellence. Mr Wallace arranges them thus:—The Inolo-Malay Islands—Borneo, Java, and Sumatra ; the Timor group—Timor, Flores, Sunibawa, and Iiombok ; Celebes, with the Sulu Islands and Buton ; the Molucean group—Burn, Ceram, Batchian, Jilolo, and Morty, with the smaller islands of Ternate, Tidore, Makian, Kaioa, Amboyna, Banda, Goram, and Matabello. The Ke and the Aru Islands he treats along with New Guinea.

Wallace, Malay Archipelago, p. 8.

See Burbidge's interesting chapter in his Gardens of the Sun, 1880.
Compare Musschenbroek, Mededeelingen omirent grondstojfen uit
het oost. gedeelte van onzen Ind. Archipel, Briel, 1880.

* See Professor Veth's valuable monograph, Overzicht van hetgeen, in het Ujzonder door Nederland, gedaan is voor de Kennis der Fauna van Nederlandseh lndië, Leyden, 1879.

No accurate data are known for the native tribes of the Outer Possessions.

1 The technical use of this name extends it to all except Arabs, Moors, Chinese, und generally all Mahometans and pagans, who are collectively classed as natives.

2 The technical use of this name extends it to all except Arabs, Moors, Chinese, und generally all Mahometans and pagans, who are collectively classed as natives.

See Life of Lord Minto.
Dmjmaer van Twist (12th May 1851 to 22d May 1856); Charles F. Pahud (1856 to 2d September 1S61); Arij Prins (2d September 1861); Ludolt Anne Jan Wilt, Baron Sloet van de Beele (19th October 1860 to 25th October 1866); Arij Prins (2d October 1866); Pieter Mijer (28th December 1866); James Loudon (1st January 1872 to 26th March 1875); J. W. van Lursberge (26th March 1875).

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