1902 Encyclopedia > Lebanon

Lebanon




LEBANON. The name of Mount Lebanon (Heb. ____), from the Semitic root laban, " to be white, or whitish," probably refers, not to the perpetual snow, but to the bare white walls of chalk or limestone which form the character-istic feature of the whole range. Syria is traversed by a branch thrown off almost at right angles from Mount Taurus in Asia Minor, and Lebanon is the name of the central mountain mass of Syria, extending for about 100 miles from north-north-east to south-south-west. It is bounded W. by the sea, N. by the plain Jiin Akkar, beyond which rise the mountains of the Nusairieh, and E. by the inland plateau of Syria, mainly steppe-land. To the south Lebanon ends about the point where the river Litany bends westward, and at Banias. A valley narrowing towards its southern end, and now called El-Buka'a, divides the mountainous mass into two great parts. That lying to the west is still called Jebel Libnan ; the greater part of the eastern mass now bears the name of the Eastern Mountain (Jebel el-Sharki). In Greek the western range was called Libanos, the eastern Antilibanos. The southern extension of the latter, Mount HERMON (q.v.), may in many respects be treated as a separate mountain.

Lebanon and Antilibanus have many features in com-mon; in both the southern portion is less arid and barren than the northern, the western valleys better wooded and more fertile than the eastern. In general the main eleva-tions of the two ranges form pairs lying opposite one another; the forms of both ranges are monotonous, but the colouring splendid, especially when viewed from a distance; when seen close at hand, indeed, only a few valleys with perennial streams offer pictures of landscape beauty, their rich green contrasting pleasantly with the bare brown and yellow mountain sides.

Geology.—The Lebanon strata are generally inclined, curved, and twisted, often vertical, seldom quite horizontal. Throughout the whole of Syria the prevailing line of cleavage runs from north to south; subordinate to this is another at right angles to it. The rocks belong to the Middle Chalk system, and fall into four subdivisions. The first consists of an under hippurite zone about 3000 feet thick. Sometimes light grey dolomites boldly rise to a height of several hundred yards (as in Kesrawan); some-times masses of marble present equally grand mountain forms (Jezzin); sometimes again friable marl and clay occur, producing rich pasture lands. The last member of this lower zone is a brown oolite containing sponges, corals, and echinoderms, amongst which the best known fossil is Ciclaris glandarius (Salima). Here also belong the Radiolaria of Hakel, above which occurs the famous bed of fossil fishes. The second subdivision of the Middle Chalk consists of a thick sandstone formation, distinguished by the presence of Trigonia scabra and syriaca, and by a fossil balsam poplar (Nicolia). To the period of the formation of this member of the system belong volcanic eruptions of melaphyre and basaltite, and also copious eruptions of ashes, which are now met with as tufa in the neighbourhood of the igneous rocks. These eruptive rocks, which every-where have again been overlaid by the thick sandstone, yield bitumen (mineral oils, asphalt, and dysodil), and have also had a great influence upon the superficial aspect of the country, the sandstone stratum (1300 to 1600 feet thick) having become the centre of its life and fertility, inasmuch as here alone water can gather. In the third subdivision, the Turon strictly so-called, oyster beds (Ostrea africana) and a stratum of orbitulites have the widest diffusion. Above the oysters come the ammonites (Ammonites syriacus, Von Buch). The fourth subdivision is formed by a light grey chalk of the upper hippurite zone, which begins in the Buka'a, and can be traced as far as to the Eed Sea. The latest member is the Eocene nummulite (especially in Antilibanus). Generally speaking the pre-vailing colours are white in the first district, brown in the second, yellow in the third, and grey in the fourth. Apart from the formations already named, there only remain to be mentioned one or two more recent Tertiaries, which in some cases may go back to the end of the Miocene period, but for the most part are Pliocene. They are met with partly on the coast, being due to the action of the sea (Tripoli), partly in the Buka a (Zahleh), the result of the action of fresh water. Finally, throughout the whole of the Lebanon district, there are unmistakable traces of ice action in the shape of ground moraines and erratic blocks. The glacier remains may practically be said to be associated with the four chief streams (Nahr Kadisha, J6z, Ibrahim, and Kelb).

Vegetation.—The western versant has the common characteristics of the flora of the Mediterranean coast, but the eastern portion belongs to the poorer region of the steppes, and the Mediterranean species are met with only sporadically along the water-courses. Forest and pasture land in our sense of the word do not exist: the place of the first is for the most part taken by a low brushwood; grass is not plentiful, and the higher ridges maintain a growth of alpine plants only so long as patches of snow continue to lie. The rock walls harbour some rock plants, but many absolutely barren wildernesses of stone occur. (1) On the western versant, as we ascend, we have first, to a height of 1600 feet, the coast region, similar to that of Syria in general and of the south of Asia Minor. Character-istic trees are the locust tree and the stone pine; in Melia Azedarach and Ficus Sycomorus (Beyrout) we have an admixture of foreign and partially subtropical elements. The great mass of the vegetation, however, is of the low-growing type (maquis or garrigue of the western Mediter-ranean), with small and stiff leaves, and frequently thorny and aromatic, as for example the ilex (Quercus cocci/era), Smilax, Cistus, Lentiscus, Calycotome, &c. (2) Next comes, from 1600 to 6500 feet, the mountain region, which may also be called the forest region, still exhibiting as it does sparse woods and isolated trees wherever shelter, moisture, and the bad husbandry of the inhabitants have permitted their growth. From 1600 to 3200 feet is a zone of dwarf hard-leaved oaks, amongst which occur the Oriental forms Fontanesia phillyrxoides, Acer syriacum, and the beautiful red-stemmed Arbutus Andrachne. Higher up, between 3700 feet and 4200 feet, a tall pine, Pinus Brutia, Ten., is characteristic. Between 4200 and 6200 feet is the region of the two most interesting forest trees of Lebanon, the cypress and the cedar. The former still grows thickly, especially in the valley of the Kadisha; the horizontal is the prevailing variety. In the upper Kadisha valley there is a cedar grove of about three hundred trees, amongst which five are of gigantic size; it is alleged that other specimens occur elsewhere in Lebanon. The Cedrus Libani is intermediate between the Cedrus Deodara and the C. atlantica (see CEDAR). The cypress and cedar zone exhibits a variety of other leaf-bearing and coniferous trees ; of the first may be mentioned several oaks—Quercus Mellul, Q. subalpina (Kotschy), Q. Cerris, and the hop-horn-beam (Ostrya) ; of the second class the rare Cilician silver fir (Abies cilicica) may be noticed. Next come the junipers, sometimes attaining the size of trees (Jimiperus excelsa, J. rufescens, and, with fruit as large as plums, J. drupacea). But the chief ornament of Lebanon is the Rhododendron ponticum, with its brilliant purple flower clusters; a peculiar evergreen, Vinca libanotica, also adds beauty to this zone. (3) Into the alpine region (6200 to 10,400 feet) penetrate a few very stunted oaks (Quercus subalpina, Kotschy), the junipers already mentioned, and a barberry (Berberis cretica), which sometimes spreads into close thickets. Then follow the low, dense, prone, pillow-like dwarf bushes, thorny and grey, common to the Oriental high-lands—Astragalus and the peculiar Acantholimon. They are found up to within 300 feet of the highest summits. Upon the exposed mountain slopes rhubarb (Rheum Ribes) is noticeable, and also a vetch (Vicia canescens, Lab.) excellent for sheep. The spring vegetation, which lasts until July, appears to be rich, especially as regards corolla-bearing plants, such as Corydalis, Gagea, Btdbillaria, Colchieum, Puschkinia, Geranium, Ornithogalum, &c. The flora of the highest ridges, along the edges of the snow patches, exhibits no forms related to our northern alpine flora, but suggestions of it are found in a Draba, an Andro-sace, an Alsine, and a violet, occurring, however, only in local species. Upon the highest summits are found Sapo-naria Pumilio (resembling our Silene acaidis) and varieties of Galium, Euphorbia, Astragalus, Veronica, Jnrinea, Festuca, Scrophularia, Geranium, Asphodeline, Allium, Aspenda; and, on the margins of the snow fields, a Taraxacum and Ranunculus demissus. The alpine flora of Lebanon thus connects itself directly with the Oriental flora of lower altitudes, and is unrelated to the glacial flora of Europe and northern Asia.

Zoology.—There is nothing of special interest about the fauna of Lebanon. Bears are no longer numerous; the panther and the ounce are met with ; the wild hog, hyaena, wolf, and fox are by no means rare; jackals and gazelles are very common. The polecat and hedgehog also occur. As a rule there are not many birds, but the eagle and the vulture may occasionally be seen ; of eatable kinds part-ridges and wild pigeons are the most abundant. In some places the bat occasionally multiplies so as actually to become a plague.





Geography.—The district to the west of Lebanon, averaging about six hours in breadth, slopes in an intricate series of plateaus and terraces to the Mediterranean. The coast is for the most part abrupt and rocky, often leaving room for only a narrow path along the shore, and when viewed from the sea it does not lead one to have the least suspicion of the extent of country lying between its cliffs and the lofty summits behind. Most of the mountain spurs run from east to west, but in northern Lebanon the prevailing direction of the valleys is north-westerly, and in the south some ridges also run parallel with the principal chain. The valleys have for the most part been deeply excavated by the rapid mountain streams which traverse them ; the apparently inaccessible heights are crowned by numerous villages, castles, or cloisters embosomed among trees. Of the streams which are perennial, the most worthy of note, beginning from the north, are the Nahr Akkar, N. Arka, N. el-Barid, N. Kadisha, " the holy river " (the valley of which begins far up in the immediate neighbour-hood of the highest summits, and rapidly descends in a series of great bends till the river reaches the sea at Tri-poli), Wady el-J6z (falling into the sea at Batriin), Wady Fidar, Nahr Ibrahim (the ancient Adonis, having its source in a recess of the great mountain amphitheatre where the famous sanctuary Apheca, the modern Afka, lay), Nahr el-Kelb (the ancient Lycus), Nahr Beirut (the ancient Magoras, entering the sea at Beyrout), Nahr Damur (ancient Tam-yras), Nahr el-'Auwaly (the ancient Bostrenus, which in the upper part of its course is joined by the Nahr el-Bartik). The 'Auwaly and the Nahr el-Zaherani, the only other streams that fall to be mentioned before we reach the Litany, flow north-east to south-west, in consequence of the interposition of a ridge subordinate and parallel to the central chain. On the north, where the mountain bears the special name of Jebel Akkar, the main ridge of Lebanon rises gradually from the plain. A number of valleys run to the north and north-east, among which must be mentioned that of the Nahr el-Kebir, the Eleutherus of the ancients, which takes its rise in the Jebel el-Abyad on the eastern slope of Lebanon, and afterwards, skirting the district, flows westward to the sea. To the south of Jebel el-Abyad, beneath the main ridge, which as a rule falls away suddenly towards the east, occur several small elevated terraces having a southward slope; among these the Wadi en-Nusiir ("vale of eagles"), and the basin of the lake Yammuna, with its intermittent spring Neb'a el-Arba'in, deserve special mention. Of the streams which descend into the Buka'a, only the Berdani need be named ; it rises in Jebel Sunnin, and enters the plain by a deep and picturesque mountain cleft at Zahleh. With regard to height, the most elevated summits occur in the north, but even these are of very gentle gradient, and are ascended quite easily. The names and the elevations of the several peaks, which even in summer are covered with snow, have been very variously given by different explorers; according to the most accurate accounts the " Cedar block" consists of a double line of four and three sum-mits respectively, ranged from north to south, with a deviation of about 35°. Those to the east are 'Uyun Urghush, Makmal, Muskiyya (or Naba' esh-Shemaila), and Bas Zahr el-Kazib; fronting the sea are Karn Sauda or Timarun, Fumm el-Mizab, and Zahr el-Kandil. The height of Zahr el-Kazib, by barometric measurement, is 10,018 feet; that of the others is almost the same. South from them is the pass (8351 feet) which leads from Baalbec to Tripoli; the great mountain amphitheatre on the west side of its summit is remarkable. Further to the south is a second group of lofty summits—the snow-capped Sunnin, visible from Beyrout; its height is 8554 feet, or, according to other accounts, 8895 feet. Between this group and the more southerly Jebel Kuneiseh (about 6700 feet) lies the pass (4700 feet) now traversed by the French post road between Beyrout and Damascus. Among the other bare summits still further south are the long ridge of Jebel el-Bariik (about 7000 feet), the Jebel Niha, with the Tau'amat Niha (about 6100 feet), near which is a pass to Sidon, and the Jebel Eihdn (about 5400 feet).

The Buka'a, the broad valley which separates Lebanon from Antilibanus, is watered by two rivers having their watershed near Baalbec, at an elevation of about 3600 feet, and separated only by a short mile at their sources. That, flowing northwards, El-'Asy, is the ancient Orontes ; the other is the Lit4ny. In the lower part of its course the latter has scooped out for itself a deep and narrow rocky bed; at Burghuz it is spanned by a great natural bridge. Not far from the point where it suddenly trends to the west lie, immediately above the romantic valley, at an elevation of 1500 feet, the imposing ruins of the old castle Karat esh-Shakif, near one of the passes to Sidon. In its lower part the Litany bears the name of Nahr el-Kasimiyeh. Neither the Orontes nor the Litany has any important affluent.

The Buka'a used to be known as Ccelesyria (Strabo, xvi. 2, 21), but that word as employed by the ancients had a much more extensive application. At present its full name is Buka'a el-'Aziz (the dear Buka'a), and its northern portion is known as Sahlet Ba'albek (the plain of Baalbec). The valley is from 4 to 6 miles broad, with an undulating surface. It is said to contain one hundred and thirty-seven hamlets or settlements, the larger of which skirt the hills, while the smaller, consisting of mud hovels, stand upon dwarf mounds, the debris of ages. The whole valley could be much more richly cultivated than it is at present; but fever is frequent.

The Antilibanus chain has in many respects been much less fully explored than that of Lebanon. Apart from its southern offshoots it is 67 miles long, while its width varies from 16 to 13-J- miles. It rises from the plain of Hasya-Homs, and in its northern portion is very arid and barren. The range has not so many offshoots as occur on the west side of Lebanon; under its precipitous slopes stretch table-lands and broad plateaus, which, especially on the east side looking towards the steppe, steadily increase in width. Along the western side of northern Antilibanus stretches the Khasha'a, a rough red region lined with juniper trees, a succession of the hardest ,_ limestone crests and ridges, bristling with bare rock and crag that shelter tufts of vegetation, and are divided by a succession of grassy ravines. On the eastern side the parallel valley of 'Asal el-Ward deserves special mention ; the descent towards the plain eastwards, as seen for example at Ma'liila, is singular,— first a spacious amphitheatre and then two deep very narrow gorges. The perennial streams that take their rise in Antilibanus are not numerous; one of the finest and best watered valleys is that of Helbiin, the ancient Chalybon, the Helbon of Ezek. xxvii. 18. The highest points of the range, reckoning from the north, are Halimat el-Kabu (8257 feet), which has a splendid view; the Fatly block, including Tal'at Miisa (8721 feet) and the adjoining Jebel Nebi Baruh (7900 feet); and a third group near Bliidan, in which the most prominent names are Shakif, Akkyar, and Abu'l-Hm (8330 feet). Of the valleys descending westward the first to claim mention is the Wady Yafiifa; a little further to the south, lying north and south, is the rich upland valley of Zebedani, where the Barada has its highest sources. Pursuing an easterly course of several hours, this stream receives the waters of the romantic 'Ain Fije (which doubles its volume), and bursts out by a rocky gateway upon the plain of Damascus, in the irrigation of which it is the chief agent. It is the Amana of 2 Kings v. 12 ; the portion of Antilibanus traversed by it was also called by the same name (Cant. iv. 8). The French post road after leaving the Buka'a first enters a little valley running north and south, where a projecting ridge of Antilibanus bears the ruins of the ancient cities Chalcis and Gerrha. It next traverses the gorge of Wady el-Harir, the level upland Sahlet Judeideh, the ravine of Wady el-Karn, the ridge of 'Akabat et-Tin, the descent Daurat el-Billan, and finally the unpeopled plain of Dimas, from which it enters the valley of Barada. This route marks the southern boundary of Antilibanus proper, where the Hermon group begins (vol. xi. p. 751). From the point where this continuation of Antilibanus begins to take a more westerly direction, a low ridge shoots out towards the south-west, trending further and further away from the eastern chain and narrowing the Buka'a; upon the eastern side of this ridge lies the elevated valley or hilly stretch known as WTady et-Teim. In the north, beside 'Ain Faliij, it is connected by a low watershed with the Buka'a; from the gorge of the LitAny it is separated by the ridge of Jebel ed-Dahr. At its southern end it contracts and merges into the plain of Banias, thus enclosing Mount Hermon on its north-west and west sides ; eastward from the Hasbany branch of the Jordan lies the meadow-land Merj Tyun, the ancient Ijon (1 Kings xv. 20).





Political Divisions and Population.—The inhabitants of Lebanon have at no time played a conspicuous part in history. There are remains of prehistoric occupation, but we do not even know what races dwelt there in the historical period of antiquity. Probably they belonged partly to Canaanite, but chiefly to the Aramaean group of nationalities ; the Bible mentions Hivites (Judg. iii. 3) and Giblites (Josh. xiii. 5). A portion of the western coast land was always, it may be assumed, in the hands of the Phoenician states, and it is possible that once and again their sovereignty may have extended even into the Buka'a. Lebanon was also included within the ideal boundaries of the land of Israel, and the whole region was well known to the Hebrews, by whose poets its many excellences are often praised. In the Roman period the district of Phcenice ex-tended into Lebanon ; in the 2d centuiy it, along with the inland districts pertaining to it, constituted a subdivision of the province of Syria, having Emesa (Honrs) for its capital; from the time of Diocletian there was a Phcenice ad Libanum, with Emesa as capital, as well as a Phcenice Maritima of which Tyre was the chief city. Remains of the Roman period occur throughout Lebanon, and more especially in Hermon, in the shape of small temples in more or less perfect preservation; for the more splendid ruins of Baalbec see that article (vol. iii. p. 176). Although Christianity early obtained a foot-ing in Lebanon, the pagan worship, and even human sacrifice, nevertheless survived for a long time, especially in remote valleys such as Afka. The present inhabitants are for the most part of Syrian (Aramaean) descent; Islam and the Arabs have at no time penetrated very deep into the mountain land. At present the eastern range belongs to the vilayet of Damascus (Soria), of which Damascus itself constitutes the first subdivision (mutasarriflik); the subordinate divisions (kazas) of the government are Damascus, Baalbec, Hasbaya, Rashaya, and Buka'a Gharbi or Western Buka'a. Included within the vilayet of Soria, but with an independent administration, is the government of Lebanon properly so called, a region some 87 miles long, which in virtue of an ordinance published by the Porte in concert with the protecting powers in 1861 and revised in 1864 is ruled by a governor, who must be a Christian, in direct dependence on Constantinople. The seat of the pasha is at present at Ba'abda, 6 miles south-east from Beyrout, his summer residence being at Bteddin. The pashalik is subdivided into the lieutenancies of Jurd, Batrun, Kasrawan, Metn, Zahle, Shuf, and Jezzin. A somewhat different account of the districts is given in the statistical statement (1875) of the English consul at Beyrout:—

== TABLE ==

The statistics accompanying the French map of 1862 give the population of Lebanon proper as some 100,000 in excess of these figures, but there can be no doubt of the inaccuracy of this esti-mate. The same authority gives the districts (taken in order from north to south) as follow :—Akkar, ed-Dunniye, el-Kiira (Upper and Lower), ez-Zawiye, Bsherre, Batrun, Jebeil, Muneitira, el-Fetuh, Kesrawan, el-Metn, Zahle, es-Sahil, el-Gharb, el-Manasif, Shahar, Jurd, Arkub, Shuf, Jezzin, Rihan, Kharnub, Tuffah, Shakif, Shumar Beshara, Merj Ayiin. Hule and the towns of Sidon, Beyrout, and Tripoli are also reckoned in this account as belonging to Lebanon. It also enumerates the following districts:—

== TABLE

The Maronites, as the preceding statistics show, are the principal element of the Lebanon population; for the DRUSES, see vol. vii. p. 483. The Metawile, who enjoy no good reputation, are Shi'ite Mohammedans; their sheikh resides at Jeba'a in South Lebanon. Of late years Pro-testantism, through the agency of the American mission at Beyrout, has begun to take some hold of the population, and is daily gaining ground. The Catholic missions also, with Beyrout for their centre, are meeting with some success, and the Western schools are indisputably affecting the culture and manners of the country. The present comparative security of life and property are highly favourable to its development. Since the violent outbreak of 1860, the bloody contests between the Maronites and Druses have not been renewed, although the mutual hatred still continues. To what has been already said on this subject (vol. vii. p. 485), it may here be added that the primary object of the Lebanon mountaineers is before everything the maintenance of their national freedom, and that the responsibility for the massacres of 1860 rests chiefly upon the Turkish Government (Ahmet Pasha of Damascus). The property of the Maronites had been promised to the Druses, and the Maronites on the other hand had been persuaded to disarm ; as soon as the latter had done so they were attacked by Druses and Turks together. In Deir el-Kamar alone, the chief place of South Lebanon, eighteen hundred Maronites perished. Since the pacification of the country by foreign intervention, particularly on the part of Napoleon III., the Druses have withdrawn more into the inaccessible Hauran. Although every inhabitant of Lebanon still retains his warrior habits, and willingly enough joins the high-land troops (six hundred regular soldiers), the situation is now much more pacific, a circumstance due in large measure to the fact that the power of the numerous noble families has been much curtailed. On the other hand the clergy, although for the most part an extremely uneducated body of men, has great influence among the Maronites. The number of Maronite monks in the mountain district is said to reach eight thousand. The monasteries possess a large portion of the best land, which is cultivated by the monks themselves, and is quite exempt from all public burdens. Other land is liable to be taxed annually at the rate of 3s. 6d. upon every =£55 of assessed value; there is, besides, a poll tax exigible from every healthy male from the age of fourteen until he becomes unfit for work. The village head (sheikh), for every £8 of taxes, is entitled to exact from the inhabitants 4s. for his own remuneration. Every inhabitant must devote to the public service four days of free labour in the year. The gross revenue of Lebanon, which amounts to about £32,000 per annum, does not cover the expenses of ad-ministration.

The Lebanon mountaineers are a fine vigorous set of men. In what relates to dress they show a preference for gay colours. Tattooing is universal in both sexes. Their diligence is worthy of all praise. In the upper regions cattle breeding is the chief occupation ; the numerous flocks of sheep and goats are the great obstacle to forestry in these parts. No care is taken to protect the woods. For practical utility the trees which are planted (besides various fruit trees, especially figs) are the white poplar (for building purposes), the walnut, the olive, and above all the mulberry,—silk culture being an important industry with the mountain population, and still remunerative notwithstanding the occasional fall of prices. In 1872 the production amounted to 2,000,000 okes (about 5,000,000 lb) of fresh cocoons, from which 1,200,000 okes of raw silk and 200,000 okes of silk fabrics were produced, the latter exclusively for home use. The vine is cultivated, and with great care, at an elevation of 3900 to 5200 feet. Unfortunately the wine is simply stored in large stone jars, there being neither barrels nor cellars; the consequence is that it cannot be kept—in point of fact it is seldom more than a year old—and exportation is impossible. The excellent Lebanon white wine known as vino d'oro belongs to the class of sweet wines. Amongst the mineral products coal deserves special mention ; the beds are thick, but the presence of iron pyrites prevents it from coming into more general use. Some shafts, from which bitumen is obtained, occur in the neighbourhood of Hasbaya ; also petroleum wells. The chief food crops are wheat, Holcus sorghum, and barley, the last being cultivated as high as 6500 feet above the sea. Tobacco culture is universal.

Throughout the whole of Lebanon, but especially on the slope towards the sea, carefully tended terraces occur. The houses, little four-cornered boxes, generally shaded by a walnut or fig tree, stand as a rule upon the slope ; the roof is formed by pine stems upon which other timber, brushwood, and finally a coating of mud clay are laid. Under good government Lebanon, with its able and vigor-ous population, would rapidly develop.

Literature.—Hitter, Die Erdkunde von Asien: Die Sinai-Halb-insel, Palästina, u. Syrien, 2d ed., Berlin, 1848-55; Kobinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine and the adjacent Regions (London, 1856), and Physical Geography of the Holy Land (London, 1865); R. F. Burton and C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, Unexplored Syria, London, 1872; Churchill, Ten Years' Residence in Mount Lebanon, 3 vols., 1853; De Rialle, " L'Antiliban," in the Bull. de la Soc. de Geogr., 5th ser., xvi. 225 sq., Paris, 1868 ; O. Fraas, Drei Monate am Libanon (Stuttgart, 1876), and Aus dem Orient (pt. ii., "Geologische Beobachtungen am Libanon," Stuttgart, 1878); Cotschy, "Der Libanon u. seine Alpenflora" in the Verhandl. d. K.-K. zoolog.-botan. Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1864; Porter, Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Palestine, London, 1875; Socin, Palestine and Syria, a handbook for travellers, Bädeker, Leipsic, 1876. For maps, see Burton and Socin-Bädeker, also Van de Velde's Map of the Holy Land (Gotha, 1858; Germ, ed., 1866), and the Carte du Liban d'apres les reconnaissances de la brigade topographique du corps expeditionnaire de Syrie en 1860-61, prepared at the French War Office, Paris, 1862. (A. SO.)


Footnotes

Lat., Antilibanus. The popular form Antilebanon is not legitimate.



The above article was written by Prof. A . Socin, University of Tübingen, Würtemburg.




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