1902 Encyclopedia > Madras, India


MADRAS, a presidency of British India, occupying, with its dependencies, the entire south of the Indian peninsula, and washed on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the west by the Indian Ocean. The north boundary is extremely irregular. On the extreme north-east is the Bengal province of Orissa; then the wild highlands of the Central Provinces; next the dominions of the nizam of Hyderabad; and lastly, on the north-west, the Bombay districts of Dharwar and North Kanara. The extreme length from north-east to south-west is about 950 miles, and the breadth 450 miles ; the area of the British districts (1879) -is 138,856 square miles, and the population in 1871 was 31,672,613. The five native states attached to Madras—Travancore, Cochin, Puducottah, Banganapalli, and Sandur—have an additional area of 9818 square miles, and a population of 3,289,392, making a grand total area of 148,674 square miles, with a population of 34,962,005.

General Aspect.—From a physical point of view, the Madras presidency may be roughly divided into three tracts —(1) the long and broad east coast, (2) the shorter and narrower west coast, and (3) the high interior table-land. These divisions are determined by the great mountain ranges of the Eastern and Western Ghats. The Eastern Ghats form a continuation of the confused hill system of Chutia Nagpur. They run in a south-west direction through almost the entire length of Madras until they lose themselves in the Nilgiris, and there join the Western Ghats. Their average height is only 1500 feet, and for the most part they leave a broad expanse of low land between their base and the sea; their line is pierced by three great rivers—the Godavari, Kistna, and Kaveri (Cauvery). The Western Ghats stretch continuously along the shore of the Indian Ocean. Rising steeply at a distance of from 30 to 50 miles from the coast, they catch almost the whole rain-fall of the monsoon; and within Madras territory not a single stream breaks through their barrier. Some of the peaks attain an elevation of more than 5000 feet. Between these two ranges lies the central table-land, with an eleva-tion of from 1000 to 3000 feet, which includes the whole of Mysore, and extends over about half a dozen districts of Madras. The three principal rivers above-mentioned, each having a large tributary system, all rise in the Western Ghats, and run across the peninsula in a south-east direction into the Bay of Bengal. In the upper parts of their course they drain rather than water the country through which they flow, and are comparatively valueless either for navigation or for irrigation; but before reaching the sea they spread over alluvial deltas. Other but smaller rivers of the same character are the North and South Penuar or Ponniyar, Palar, Vaigai, Vellar, and Tambraparni. The two main hill systems have been already described (see GHATS, vol. x. p. 559). The Nilgiris, which join these, culminate in Dodabetta (8640 feet), the loftiest peak in southern India. There are, besides, many outlying spurs and tangled masses of hills, of which the Shevaroys, Ana-malais, and the Palnis are the most important. The principal lake in the presidency is that of Palicat on the east coast, which is 33 miles from north to south, and forms an important means of communication between Madras city and the north districts. On the west coast are a remarkable series of backwaters or lagoons, fringing the seaboard of Kanara, Malabar, and Travancore. The largest is the backwater of Cochin, which extends for a distance of 120 miles from north to south.

The mineral wealth of the province is as yet undeveloped. Iron of excellent quality has been smelted by native smiths in many localities from time immemorial; but attempts to work the beds after European methods have hitherto proved unsuccessful. Carboniferous sandstone extends across the Godavari valley as far as Ellore, but the coal has been found to be of inferior quality. Scientific researches have proved the existence of gold in the Nilgiris, in suf-ficient quantity to render outlay on it profitable; and several companies, representing a large amount of capital, have been formed for working the mines. Among other minerals may be mentioned manganese in the Nflgiris and Bellary; copper and lead ores in many parts of the Eastern Ghats ; antimony and silver; and corundum in the valley of the Kaveri. Garnets are abundant in the sandstone of the Northern Circars, and diamonds of moderate value are found in the same region. Stone and gravel quarries are very numerous.

The Forest Department of Madras was first organized in 1856, and it is estimated that forests cover a total area of more than 5000 square miles, the whole of which is under conservancy rules. For supplying fuel to the railways an area of about 160,000 acres is strictly conserved. In the remaining forests, after supplying local wants, timber is either sold direct by the department, or licences are granted to wood-cutters. The more valuable timber-trees comprise teak, ebony, rosewood, sandal-wood, and redwood. The Government plantations cover an area of 9000 acres. The trees thus artificially reared are teak, sandal-wood, Casuarina, and Eucalyptus. The finest teak plantation (over 3000 acres) is near Beypur in Malabar. At Mudumalli there are plantations of both teak and sandal-wood ; and the Eucalyptus or Australian gum-tree now grows on the Nilgiris in magnificent clumps. The total value of timber and wood exported was £95,801 in 1875-76, and £122,413 in 1880-81.
The wild animals are those for the most part common to the rest of India. Those deserving mention are the elephant, bison, sambur, and ibex of the Western Ghats and the Nilgiris. Bison are also found in the hill tracts of the Northern Circars. In Travancore state the black variety of leopard is not uncommon. In 1880-81 182 persons and 11,628 cattle were returned as killed by wild beasts. The number of persons killed by snake-bites in 1880 was 928. The elephant is now protected by law from indiscriminate destruction. The agricultural re-turns for 1880-81 report the number of buffaloes as

1,324,435, bullocks 3,228,907, cows 2,873,979, goats 2,803,407, sheep 4,082,411, horses 8986, and elephants 532. The cattle are small, but in Nellore and along the Mysore frontier a superior breed is carefully kept up by the wealthier farmers. The best buffaloes are imported from the Bombay district of Dharwar. Experiments in sheep breeding have been made at the Saidapet model farm, with fair success.

Population.—The first census, in 1822, returned the population as 13,476,923, and an enumeration in 1866-67 gave 26,539,052. The census of November 1871, however, was the first conducted in regular form. The following table gives the results for the British districts of the presidency. According to the preliminary return the total population at the census in 1871 was 30,839,181 (15,242,122 males and 15,597,059 females). This would seem to show that the loss caused by the famine of 1876-78 has been nearly made up.

Area, Population, &c., of Madras Presidency in 1871.

== TABLE ==

Hindus numbered 28,863,978 ; Mohammedans, 1,857,857; Chris-tians, 533,760 ; Jains, 21,254 ; and "others," 4328. The Hindus (92'3 per cent, of the whole) are subdivided into 16,159,610 Sivaites, 11,657,311 Vishnuvites, 154,989 Lingayats, and 892,068 " others," including hill tribes. The Sivaites are most numerous in the extreme south and on the west coast, while the Vishnuvites are chiefly found in the northern districts. The Lingayats may be described as a sect of Sivaite puritans, who derive their name from their practice of carrying about on their persons the lingd or emblem of Siva. Of Hindu castes, Brahmans number 1,094,455. They follow various pursuits, and many of them are said to be recent immigrants, who came south in the train of the Mahratta armies. A peculiar caste of Brahmans, called Namburi, is found in Malabar, who are said to be descended from fishermen. The Kshattriyas, or warrior caste of the ancient Hindu organization, number only 190,415. The three trading castes of Chettis, Beri Chettis, and Komatis number 714,712, and except in Kanara district still retain in their hands nearly all the commerce of the country. Agricul-tural castes number 7,826,127 ; the highest classes among them do not cultivate with their own hands, and many of them formerly held their lands on a military tenure. The pastoral castes number 1,730,681, but a large proportion of them have now abandoned their hereditary occupation. Artisans number 785,085, of whom nearly one-half are workers in metal. Weavers number 1,017,781, but their industry is now decayed owing to Manchester competition. The labouring castes are returned at 3,944,463. Fishing and hunting castes number 971,837, but many have now betaken them-selves to agriculture. The palm cultivators and toddy makers amount to 1,664,862. Out-castes (Pariahs) number 4,761,503 ; in the country round Madras they form about one-quarter of the total population. Up to the close of the last century they lived in a state of slavery to the superior castes ; and they are still compelled by custom to live in separate hovels outside the boundary of the village, and to perform all menial services. They are described as a laborious, frugal, pleasure-loving people, omnivorous in diet, and capable of performing much hard work. Unclassified Hindus (2,666,890) consist of aboriginal hill races and wandering tribes. Numerically the most important are the Kandhs and Sauras, two cognate races who inhabit the mountainous tracts of the Eastern Ghats attached to several of the large zaminddris of Ganjam and Vizagapatam. On the Nilgiris, the aboriginal tribe best known to Europeans is the Todas, a stalwart, haughty race, who domineer over the more timid jungle folk, and confine themselves to the pasturing of buffaloes. It is believed that the Todas are now dying out, for in 1871 they numbered only 693. The principal wandering tribes are the Brinjaris and Lambadis, who are to be found in all parts of the country as carriers of grain and salt.

The Mohammedans are thus subdivided:—Sunnis, 1,654,529 ; Shias, 69,302 ; Wahhabis, 3954 ; unspecified, 130,072. A more familiar division is a race one :—Labbay, Mopla, Arab, Shaikh, Sayyid, Pathan, and Mughal. The Labbays (312,088) are the de-scendants of Hindu converts, and are traders by hereditary occu-pation, although many now employ themselves as sailors and fishermen. The Moplas (612,789) are the descendants of Malayalam converts to Islam,—the head of the tribe, the raja of Kananur, being descended from a fisher family in Malabar. They are a hard-working, frugal people, but quite uneducated and very fanatical, and under the influence of religious excitement have often disturbed the public peace. The Shaikhs number 511,112, the Sayyids 89,219, the Pathans 70,943, and the Mughals 12,407.

Christians are more numerous in Madras than in any other part of India. They number in the British districts 533,760, of whom 40,879 are Europeans or Eurasians, and the remainder native con-verts ; Roman Catholics number 397,071, and Protestants 93,228. In Travancore and Cochin states the native Christians are still more numerous, constituting as much as one-fourth of the population. The Roman Catholics, whose number throughout southern India is estimated at upwards of 650,000, owe their origin to St Fran-cis Xavier, and the famous Jesuit mission of Madura ; they are partly under the authority of the archbishop of Goa, and partly under twelve Jesuit vicariates. Protestant missions date from the beginning of the last century. The Danes were the pioneers ; but their work was taken up by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, under whom laboured the great Lutherans of the last century—Schultz, Sartorius, Fabrieius, and Schwartz. The Church Missionary Society entered the field in 1814 ; and subsequently an American mission joined in the work. The total number of Protestant native Christians in southern India (British and native) in 1878 was 296,408.

Urban life may be said to be more highly developed in Madras than in Bengal or Bombay. Populous cities, indeed, are not numerous, but there is an unusual proportion of towns with from 2000 to 20,000 inhabitants. The six cities with a population of more than 50,000 are—Madras city (1871), 397,552 ; Trichinopoli, 76,530 ; Tanjore, 52,175 ; Madura, 51,987 ; Bellary, 51,766; Salem, 50,012.

Agriculture.—Over the greater part of the area of Madras arti-ficial irrigation is impossible, and cultivation, is dependent upon the local rainfall, which rarely exceeds 40 inches a year, and is liable to fall irregularly. The Malabar coast is the only part where the rainfall brought by the south-west monsoon may be trusted both for its amount and regularity. Other districts, such as Bellary, are also dependent upon this monsoon, but in their case the rain clouds have spent themselves in passing over the Western Ghats, and cultivation becomes a matter of hazard. Over the greater part of the presidency the rainy season is caused by the south-east monsoon, which breaks about the end of September. The deltas of the Godavari, Kistna, and Kaveri rivers are the only spots on the east coast which artificial irrigation is able to save from risk of occasional scarcity. Of the total cultivated area about 80 per cent, is returned as "dry " land, or that which is solely dependent upon local rainfall; 15 per cent, as "wet" land, irrigated from river channels ; 2 per cent, as garden land irrigated from wells ; and about 3 per cent, fallow and pasture. The principal food staples are rice, cholam, kambu, ragi, and varagu. The most common oilseed is gingelly. Garden crops comprise tobacco, sugar-cane, chillies, betel-leaf, and plantains. The fruit trees are cocoa-nut, areca-nut, date and palmyra palm, jack, tamarind, and mango. Special crops include cotton, indigo, coffee, tea, cinchona. The principal coffee tract stretches along the slopes of the Western Ghats from the north of Mysore almost down to Cape Comorin. The larger portion of this area lies within Mysore, Coorg, and Travancore states, but Wainad and the Nilgiri hills are within Madras. The first coffee plantation was opened in the Wainad in 1840. Many of the early clearings proved unprofitable, and the enterprise made little pro-gress till about 1855, in which year the total exports were 32,000 cwts. Coffee, which is much cultivated on the Nilgiris, now covers in the whole presidency 131,348 acres. The tea plant was also in-troduced into the Nilgiri hills about 1840, but was not taken up as a commercial speculation till 1865. The area under tea is over 4000 acres, and the exports in 1880-81 were 263,940 lb. The cinchona plant was successfully introduced into the Nilgiri hills by Government in 1860. In 1880-81 847 acres were under cultiva-tion ; 1,087,637 plants were raised; and the receipts of sales were £39,618, the amount in 1875-76 being only £4989. Tobacco is extensively grown in Godavari and Kistna districts. The greater part of the soil in Madras is held by the cultivators direct from Government under the tenure known as rdyatwari. The average rate of Government assessment is about 2s. 3d. per acre on unirri-gated and 9s. 6d. on irrigated land. In 1880-81 the total revenue from this source amounted to £4,170,052. Besides these lands in the hands of the Government, there are also proprietary or zamiil-ddri estates in all parts of the country. These estates are either the remains of ancient principalities, which the holder cannot sell or encumber beyond his own life interest, or they are creations of British rule and subject to the usual Hindu custom of partition. The total area of the zaminddri estates is about 21 million acres, or one-fourth of the whole presidency. The pesKkash or tribute pay-able to Government in perpetuity amounts to about £500,000 a year. Indms, revenue-free or quit-rent grants of lands made for religious endowments or for services rendered to the state, occupy an aggregate area of a little over 1,500,000 acres.

Manufactures. —Madras possesses few staple manufactures. The preparation of the coffee berry for export constitutes the one great business carried on by means of European capital and under Euro-pean supervision. Indigo is manufactured in considerable quan-tities, but of inferior quality. The more important of the large manufactories are three cotton mills in Madras, a weaving estab-lishment maintained by the Basel mission in South Kanara, sugar works in Ganjam and South Arcot, and a jute factory at Vizaga-patam. Up to the close of the last century cotton goods consti-tuted the main article of export. Masulipatam, where the first English factory on the Coromandel coast was established in 1620, enjoyed a special reputation for its chintzes, which were valued for the freshness and permanency of their dyes. There is still a small demand for these articles in Burmah, the Straits, and the Persian Gulf; but Manchester goods have nearly beaten the Indian exporter out of the field. Native looms, however, still hold their own in the local market, in face of strenuous opposition. After weaving, working in metals appears to be the most widespread native in-dustry. Among local specialities which have attracted European curiosity may be mentioned the jewellery of Trichinopoli, orna-ments of ivory and horn worked at Vizagapatam, and sandal-wood carving at Kanara. The manufacture and sale of salt is a Govern-ment monopoly, carried on under close supervision. The process employed is solar evaporation, and the entire eastern coast-line from Orissa to Cape Comorin affords natural facilities for the in-dustry. The preparation of arrack and toddy spirit is also a Government monopoly. On the Nilgiri hills and at Bellary country beer is manufactured by European firms subject to an excise duty of 6d. per gallon.

Railways.—Two guaranteed railway companies, the Madras and the South Indian, have their lines almost entirely within the presidency. The Madras Railway, which connects at Eaichur with the Great Indian Peninsular system, runs south-east to Madras, and then west across the peninsula to Beypur, with branches to Bellary and Bangalore. The total length open in 1881 was 858 miles ; the capital expended, £10,441,699 ; the net profits £177,433, giving a dividend of 1"7 per cent, on the capital expended. The South Indian Railway (narrow guage) runs north from Tuticorin to Madras. In 1881 the total length was 658 miles ; the capital expended, £4,291,311; and the net profits yielded a dividend of 2 '9 per cent.

Commerce and Trade.—The continuous seaboard of the Madras presidency, without any natural harbours of the first rank, has tended to create a widely diffused trade. Madras city conducts nearly one-half of the total sea-borne commerce; next comes Malabar, containing the western railway terminus near Calicut; then Goda-vari, with its cluster of ports along the fringe of the delta; Tinnevelli, with the new harbour at Tuticorin, which has opened large dealings with Ceylon; Tanjore, South Kanara, Ganjam, and Vizagapatam in the order given. The total foreign trade in 1880-81 was as follows. The imports amounted to £6,518,783, of which cotton piece goods and twist made up £2,908,379, grain £158,144, and apparel £147,691. The exports amounted to £9,271,345, the chief items being—coffee, £1,393,090 ; raw cotton, £939,127 ; hides and skins, £1,261,182 ; rice, £996,314 ; seeds, £708,390 ; indigo, £693,103; spices, £379,282; oils, £372,119; sugar, £301,670. The total number of vessels engaged in foreign trade that cleared and entered Madras ports in 1880-81 was 6247, with a tonnage of 1,177,337 ; the coasting trade was conducted by 11,316 vessels, with 3,748,474 tons, for ports outside Madras presidency, and 24,057 vessels, with 3,092,286 tons, for ports within the pre-sidency. The importance of this active coasting trade may be gathered from the fact that in 1876-77 (the first year of the late famine) the imports of grain suddenly rose to 652,850 tons, by far the greater part consisting of rice from Bengal.
Administration.—The supreme executive authority is vested in the governor, with a council of three members, of whom one is the commander-in-chief; the others belong to the covenanted civil service. For legislative purposes this council is increased by the presence of the advocate-general and from four to eight other mem-bers nominated by the governor, of whom not less than one-half must be non-officials. The local administration is organized with the district or zild as its unit. Of these districts there are twenty-one in all, including the Nilgiris and Madras city, both of which occupy an exceptional position. Each of the remaining districts is under the jurisdiction of a collector-magistrate and a sessions judge. Beneath the collector-magistrate come deputy collectors, sub-col-lectors, and assistants. Each district is subdivided into taluks, numbering one hundred and fifty-six in all, under the charge of a tahsilddr. Each tdluk comprises from fifty to one hundred villages, which constitute the ultimate units for fiscal and administrative purposes. The hereditary village officials, to be found in almost every Hindu village, are employed to perform minor public offices, revenue and judicial, and are inadequately remunerated either by fees in grain and other cesses levied from the villagers, or by a reduction in their land assessment. The heads of villages and village accountants (karnam) collect and account for all revenue, rates, and taxes within their respective villages or townships.

Local and municipal administration, including roads and com-munications, schools and primary education, public health and local endowments, together with special taxation levied for any of these purposes, is provided for by special legislation passed in 1871. Entire districts or, where these are of unmanageable size, parts of districts have been constituted local fund circles, each under the management of a board of commissioners, of which the collector is ex officio president, and the district engineer, medical officer, and one or more civil officers are official members. "With them are associ-ated at least an equal number of native non-official gentlemen, appointed by Government. To these boards is entrusted the entire management of the local interests above named, subject to the sub-mission of an annual budget for the sanction of Government, and of a report of the board's transactions at the close of each year. The twenty-one districts of the presidency comprise thirty-five such local fund circles. The sources of income at the disposal of these boards are a grant from provincial funds, a special land rate not exceeding one anna in the rupee of the Government assessment, tolls, school fees, loeal endowments, and other minor special funds. Municipal administration of the larger towns is provided for by boards of town commissioners, constituted similarly to the local boards as regards official and non-official members, except that, with the consent of. Government, the latter may be elected by the rate-payers. Besides the above-named local interests, the commissioners manage the local sanitation and hospitals of the towns, registration of births and deaths, lighting, and police. About fifty towns, in-cluding Madras city, with an aggregate population of 1,500,000, are provided with municipal administration, and the number is steadily increasing. The funds at the disposal of the commissioners consist of rates on houses and lands, a tax on professions and trades, a wheel and animal tax, tolls and ferries, school and market fees, &c. Under the administration of these local and municipal boards great impulse has been given to the development of roads, educa-tion, and hospitals and dispensaries.

Revenue and Expenditure.—Down to 1871 every branch of revenue and expenditure throughout India was managed in all details by the Government of India. Under the decentralization scheme of that year the financial administration of the jail, police, and educational services, together with certain branches of the medical, sanitary, and other minor services, were transferred to the Government of Madras, and a grant of a single fixed sum from the imperial funds was assigned for their maintenance. The local fund boards, described above, were constituted in the same year, and the municipal administration improved. The provincial expenditure is almost entirely met by a grant from imperial funds ; and the local receipts benefit in a similar way by a subsidy from the imperial budget. The following figures show the revenue and expenditure under each head of finance for the year 1880-81, exclusive of the charges under the heads of army, interest, and imperial public works. (1) Imperial: total revenue, £8,526,451, of which about one-half, £4,284,335, is derived from the land revenue, and £1,433,974 from salt; expenditure, £3,478,655. (2) Provincial: total revenue, £955,162, of which £781,990 forms the allotment from the im-perial funds; expenditure, £971,011,—the main items being police, £376,356 ; law and justice, £105,962; public works, £142,187; education, £90,875. (3) Unfettered local funds: receipts, £24,768; charges, £19,628. (4) Fettered local funds : income, £748,315 ; expenditure, £729,746. (5) Municipal: total revenue, £137,364 ; expenditure, £129,525. The gross revenue of the presidency was £9,030,152, and the expenditure £6,893,960.

Army.—The Madras army garrisons, besides the whole of Madras proper, the adjoining state of Mysore, the Nizam's Dominions, the Central Provinces, and British Burmah; a regiment is also usually stationed at Dorunda in the Chutia Nagpur division of Bengal, and another at Cuttack in Orissa. The entire force consists of 1 regiment of European cavalry, 19 batteries of European artillery, and 8 regiments of European infantry, with 1 company of native sappers and miners, 4 regiments of native cavalry, and 40 regiments of native infantry. In 1880-81 the European force numbered 10,229, and the native army 30,958 of all ranks. The military expenditure charged against Madras in 1880-81 was £2,722,105. The principal cantonments are Kámpti, Secunderábád, Bangalore, Bellary, and Rangoon. St Thomas's Mount near Madras city is an important station for artillery. The two military sanatariums are Ramandrug near Bellary, and Jakatala or Wellington in the Nilgiri hills.

Administrative Statistics.—An early task of the English ad-ministration was the repression of the system of black mail levied by bands of Kavilgars, which was not fully extinguished for many years. By a Government regulation in 1866 the village police was placed under the head of the village, and became practically the most useful (although a somewhat dishonest) agency of the magis-trate in the police administration. The Madras police force was organized in its present form in 1860. In March 1881 it consisted of a total strength of 26,415 officers and men, maintained at a cost of £364,233. In 1880 the total number of prisoners passing through the jails in the presidency was 27,708,—considerably less than during and after the famine ; the daily average number of prisoners was 12,202. Education was afforded in 1880-81 by 12,878 schools, attended by 327,808 pupils; the expenditure was ¿284,873, of which £86,641 was contributed by the state. The chief educational institutions are the Madras university, the provincial college of Combaconum, the Madras Christian college, the Doveton Protestant college, S. P. G. high school at Tanjore, medical college, civil engineering college, Lawrence asylum, school of agriculture, school of ordnance artificers and school of arts, and the military orphanage at Utakamand in memory of the late Sir Henry Lawrence.

Climate and Health.—The climate varies in different parts of the presidency, being determined by the very diverse geographical conditions. The Nilgiri hills enjoy the climate of the temperate zone, with a moderate rainfall, and a thermometer rarely exceed-ing 80° P., and sometimes falling to the freezing-point. On the Malabar coast the south-west monsoon brings an excessive rainfall, reaching 150 inches in the year at certain spots. The rain clouds hanging on the slope of the Western Ghats sometimes obscure the sun for month after month. Along the eastern coast and on the central table-lands the rainfall is comparatively low, but the heat of the summer months is excessive. At Masuiipatam the thermo-meter frequently rises to above 110° F. in the shade. The whole coast of the Bay of Bengal is liable to disastrous cyclones, which not only wreck the shipping in the roads, but have repeatedly over-whelmed the low-lying ports. The most prevalent diseases are fevers, diarrhoea, dysentery, and other bowel complaints, cholera, and small-pox.

History.—Until the English conquest the whole of southern India had never acknowledged a single ruler. The difficult nature of the hill passes and the warlike character of the highland tribes forbade the growth of great empires, such as succeeded one another on the plains of Hindustan. The Tamil country in the extreme south is traditionally divided between the three kingdoms of Pandya, Chola, and Chera. The west coast supplied the nucleus of a monarchy which afterwards extended over the highlands of Mysore, and took its name from the Carnatic. On the north-east the kings of Ealinga at one time ruled over the entire line of sea-board from the Krishna to the Ganges. Hindu legend has preserved marvellous stories of these early dynasties, but our only authentic evidence consists in their inscriptions on stone and brass, and their noble architecture. The Mohammedan invader first established himself in the south in the beginning of the 14th century. Ala-ud-din, the second monarch of the Khilji dynasty at Delhi, and his general Malik Kafur conquered the Decean, and overthrew the kingdoms of Karnataka and Telingana, which were then the most powerful in southern India. But after the withdrawal of the Musal-man armies the native monarchy of Vijayanagar arose out of the ruins. This dynasty gradually extended its dominions from sea to sea, and reached a pitch of prosperity before unknown. At last, in 1565, it was overwhelmed by a combination of the four Moham-medan principalities of the Deccan. At the close of the reign of Aurangzeb, although that emperor nominally extended his sove-reignty as far as Cape Comorin, in reality South India had again fallen under a number of rulers who owned no regular allegiance. The nizam of the Deccan, himself an independent sovereign, represented the distant court of Delhi. The most powerful of his feudatories was the nawab of the Carnatic, with his capital at Arcot. In Tanjore, a descendant of Sivaji ruled ; and on the cen-tral table-land a Hindu chieftain was gradually establishing his authority and founding the state of Mysore, destined soon to pass to a Mohammedan usurper.

Vasco da Gama east anchor off Calicut on the 20th May 1498, and for a century the Portuguese retained in their control the commerce of India. The Dutch began to establish themselves on the ruin of the Portuguese at the beginning of the 17th century, and were quickly followed by the English, who established them-selves at Calicut and Cranganore in 1616. Tellicherri became the principal British emporium on the west coast of Madras. The Portuguese eventually retired to Goa, and the Dutch to the Spice Islands. The first English settlement on the east coast was in 1620, at Masuiipatam, even then celebrated for its fabrics. Farther south a factory, the nucleus of Madras city, was erected in 1639. Pondicherri was purchased by the French in 1762. For many years the English and French traders lived peacefully side by side, and with no ambition for territorial aggrandisement. The war of the Austrian succession in Europe lit the first flame of hostility on the Coromandel coast. In 1746 Madras was forced to surrender to Labourdonnais, and Fort. St David remained the only British possession in southern India. By the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Madras was restored to the English ; but from this time the rivalry of the two nations was keen, and found its opportunities in the disputed successions which always fill a large place in Oriental politics. English influence was generally able to secure the favour of the rulers of the Carnatic and Tanjore, while the French suc-ceeded in placing their own nominee on the throne at Hyderabad. At last Dupleix rose to be the temporary arbiter of the fate of southern India, but he was overthrown by Clive, whose defence of Arcot in 1751 forms the turning point in Indian history. In 1760 the crowning victory of Wandewash was won by Colonel (afterwards Sir Eyre) Cooto, over Lally, and in the following year, despite help from Mysore, Pondicherri was captured.

Though the English had no longer any European rival, they had yet to deal with Mohammedan fanaticism and the warlike popula-tion of the highlands of Mysore. The dynasty founded by Hyder Ali, and terminating in his son Tipri Sultan, proved itself in four several wars, which terminated only in 1799, the most formidable antagonist which the English had ever encountered (see HYDER AM and INDIA). Since the beginning of the present century Madras has known no regular war, but occasional disturbances have called for measures of repression. The pdlcydrs or local chieftains long clung to their independence after their country was ceded to the British. On the west coast, the feudal aristocracy of the Nairs, and the religious fanaticism of the Moplas, have more than once led to rebellion and bloodshed. In the extreme north, the wild tribes occupying the hills of Ganjam and Vizagapatam have only lately learned the habit of subordination. In 1836 the zaminddri of Gumsiir in this remote tract was attached by Government for the rebellious conduct of its chief. An inquiry then instituted revealed the wide prevalence among the tribe of Kandhs of human sacrifice, under the name of meriah. The practice has since been suppressed by a special agency.

The different territories comprising the Madras presidency have been acquired by the British at various dates. In 1763 the tract encircling Madras city, now Chengalpat district, was ceded by the nawab of Arcot. In 1765 the Northern Circars, out of which the French had recently been driven, were granted to the Company by the Mughal emperor, but at the price of an annual tribute of £90,000. Full rights of dominion were not acquired till 1823, when the tribute was commuted for a lump payment. In 1792 Tipii was compelled to cede the Baramahal (now part of Salem district), Malabar, and Dindigal subdivision of Madura. In 1799, on the reconstruction of Mysore state after Tipii's death, Coimbatore and Kanara were appropriated as the British share ; and in the same year the Mahratta raja of Tanjore resigned the administration of his territory, though his descendant retained titular rank till 1855. In 1800 Beilary and Cuddapah were made over by the nizam of Hyderabad to defray the expense of an increased subsidiary force. In the following year the dominions of the nawab of the Carnatic, extending along the east coast almost continuously from Nellore to Tinnevelli, were resigned into the hands of the British by a puppet who had been put upon the throne for the purpose. The last titular nawab of the Carnatic died in 1855 ; but his representative still bears the title of prince of Arcot, and is recognized as the first native nobleman in Madras. In 1838 the nawab of Karnul was deposed for misgovernment and suspicion of treason, and his terri-tories annexed.

MADRAS, capital of Madras presidency, is situated on the sea-coast in 13° 4' 8" N. lat., 80° 14' 51" E. long. Although at first sight the city presents a disappointing appearance, and possesses not a single handsome street, it has several edifices of high architectural pretensions, and many spots of historical interest. Seen from the roadstead, the fort, a row of merchants' offices, a few spires and public buildings, are all that strike the eye. Roughly speaking, it consists of the following divisions. (1) Black Town, an ill-built, densely populated block, about a mile square, is the business part of the town, and contains the banks, custom house, high court, and all the mercantile offices. The last, for the most part handsome structures, lie along the beach. On the sea-face of Black Town are the pier and the new harbour. Immediately south of Black Town there is (2) an open space which contains the fort, esplanade, brigade parade ground, Government house, and several handsome public buildings on the sea-face. (3) West and south of this lung of the city come a series of crowded quarters known by

Plan of Madras.

various native names—Chintadrapet, Tiruvaleswarampet, the west of Black Town are the quarters of Veperi and Pudupak, Eoyapet; Kistnampet, and Mylapur, which bend Pudupet, chiefly inhabited by Eurasians and the suburbs to the sea again at the old town of Saint Thome, (4) To of Egmore, Nangambakam, and Perambur, adorned with handsome European mansions and their spacious "com-, pounds" or parks. (5) South-west and south lie the European quarters of Tanampet and aristocratic Adyar. Amongst the buildings most deserving of notice for their architectural features are the cathedral, Scotch church, Government house, Patcheappah's hall, senate house, Chepauk palace (now the Revenue Board), and the Central Railway station.

Nearly all the most important offices of the presidency, and the headquarters of every department, are located in Madras. Apart from the headquarters staff of the Madras army, that of the central division is also stationed here, with a garrison of 1 European and 3 native infantry regi-ments, 1 battery of artillery, and the bodyguard of the governor (100 sabres). At St Thomas's Mount are 3 bat-teries of artillery and a detachment of native infantry. Including these, the garrison of Madras is about 3500 strong, of whom 1200 are Europeans.
The population of Madras city, as ascertained by the census of 1871, was 397,552, including 330,062 Hindus, 50,964 Mohammedans, 12,013 Eurasians, and 3613 Europeans. The annual municipal income is about ¿£53,000. Madras, notwithstanding its exposed situation, ranks third among the ports of India in respect of the number and tonnage of vessels calling and the value of its imports and exports. The port trades with every part of the world, exporting coffee, cotton, grain, hides, indigo, oilseeds, dyes, sugar, and horns, and importing piece goods, iron and other metals, and all kinds of European manufactures. The lighthouse, 125 feet high, is visible from a ship's deck 15 miles at sea. The Madras roadstead, like the whole line of the western coast of India, is liable to be swept by hurricanes of irresistible fury, which occur at irregular intervals of years, generally at the beginning of the monsoons in May and October. The first recorded cyclone was in October 1746, a few weeks after the fort had surrendered to Labourdonnais. A French fleet then lay at anchor in the roads. Five large ships foundered, with 1200 men on board; and scarcely a single vessel escaped with its masts standing. Perhaps the most destructive of these storms occurred in May 1872. On this occasion the registered wind pressure reached a maximum of 53 lb to the square foot. In the space of a few hours nine English vessels and twenty native craft were driven ashore. In May 1874 another cyclone broke on the Madras coast, but the ships were warned in time to put to sea and gain an offing. The most recent of these periodical hurricanes occurred in November 1881, when the new harbour works sustained serious damage.

The trade of the town does not depend on any special local manufactures or produce. Such industries as once flourished—weaving, for instance—have decayed, and no others have grown up to replace them. As elsewhere in India, spinning companies have recently been formed, but what effect they are likely to exercise on local trade remains to be seen. With the exception of banks, and enterprises connected with the preparation of produce for export, e.g., cotton-pressing and coffee-cleaning, joint-stock undertakings have not prospered. As the capital of southern India, Madras is the centre on which all the great military roads converge. It is also the terminal station of two lines of railway, the Madras line and the Madras and Tanjore section of the South Indian Railway.

The Buckingham Canal, which passes through an outlying part of the city, connects South Arcot district with Nellore and the Krishna and Godavari system of canal navigation. This long delayed project was undertaken as a famine work.

The town of Madras dates from 1639, when Francis Day, chief of the East India Company's settlement at Armagon, obtained a grant nf the present site of the city from the raja of Chandragiri.

A factory, with some slight fortifications, was at once constructed, and a gradually increasing population settled around its walls. In 1653 Madras, which had previously been subordinate to the settle-ment of Bantam in Java, was raised to the rank of an independent presidency. In 1702 Daúd Ehán, Aurangzeb's general, blockaded the town for a few weeks, and in 1741 the Mahrattas unsuccess-fully attacked the place. In 1746 Labourdonnais bombarded and captured the fort. The settlement was restored to the English two years later by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, but the government of the presidency did not return to Madras till 1762. In 1758 the French under tally occupied the Black Town, and invested the fort. The siege was conducted on both sides with great skill and vigour. After two months, the arrival of a British fleet relieved the garrison, and the besiegers retired with some precipitancy. With the exception of the threatening approach of Hyder Ali's horsemen in 1769, and again in 1780, Madras has since the French siege been free from external attack. The town of Saint Thome, now part of Madras city, was founded and fortified by the Portuguese in 1504, and was held by the French from 1672 to 1674.

The above article was written by Hon. W. W. Hunter, Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India.

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