1902 Encyclopedia > Observatory

Observatory




Up to a comparatively recent date an " observatory" was a place exclusively devoted to the taking of astronomical observations, although frequently a rough account of the weather was kept. When the progress of terrestrial magnetism and meteorology began to make regular observations necessary, the duty of taking these was often thrown on astronomical observatories, although in some cases separate institutions were created for the purpose. Of late years, as the work to be done in astro-nomical observatories is increasing, there seems to be a general tendency to have the magnetical and meteoro-logical observations taken in separate establishments ; but, as the exclusively magnetical or meteorological observa-tories now existing are generally very small institutions and of recent creation, the astronomical observatories will be chiefly considered in this article.

Up to about 300 B.C. it can scarcely be said that an observatory existed anywhere, as the crude observations of the heavens then taken were only made by individuals and at intervals, employing the simplest possible appara-tuses. But, when philosophical speculation had exhausted its resources, and an accumulation of facts was found to be necessary before the knowledge of the construction of the universe could advance farther, the first observatory was founded at Alexandria, and continued in activity for about four hundred years, or until the middle or end of the 2d century of the Christian era. It was here that Hipparchus, the founder of modern astronomy, by repeat-ing observations made by his predecessors, discovered the precession of the equinoxes, and investigated with consi-derable success the motions of the sun, moon, and planets. His work was continued by more or less distinguished astronomers, until Btolemy (in the 2d century A.D.) gave the astronomy of Alexandria its final development. When science again began to be cultivated after the dark ages which followed, we find several observatories founded by Arabian princes; first one at Baghdad (and possibly one at Damascus), built by the caliph Al-Mamun early in the 9th century, then one on the Mokattam near Cairo, built for Ibn Yunis by the caliph Hakim (about 1000 A.D.), where the Hakimite tables of the sun, moon, and planefs were constructed. The Mongol khans followed the ex-ample ; thus arose the splendid observatory at MerAgha in the north-west of Persia, founded about 1260 A.D. by Hulagu Khan, where Nasir al-din Trisi constructed the Hohkhanic tables; and in the 15th century the observa-tory at Samarkand was founded by Ulug Begh, and served not only in the construction of new planetary tables but also in the formation of a new catalogue of stars.

With the commencement of scientific studies in Europe in the 15th century the necessity of astronomical ob-servations became at once felt, as they afforded the only bjape of improving the theory of the motions of the celestial bodies. Although astronomy was taught in all univer-sities, the taking of observations was for two hundred years left to private individuals. The first observatory in Europe was erected at Nuremberg in 1472 by a wealthy citizen, Bernhard Walther, who for some years enjoyed the co-operation of the celebrated astronomer Regiomontanus. At this observatory, where the work was continued till the founder's death in 1504, many new methods of observing were invented, so that the revival of practical astronomy may be dated from its foundation. The two celebrated observatories of the 16th century, Tycho Brahe's on the Danish island of Huen (in activity from 1576 to 1597) and that of Landgrave William IV. at Cassel (1561-97), made a complete revolution in the art of observing. While the credit of having vastly improved the astronomical in-struments perhaps should be divided equally between Tycho Brahe and the landgrave's astronomer Biirgi, the former may claim the honour of having been the first to see the necessity of carrying on for a number of years an extensive and carefully-planned series of observations with various instruments, worked by himself and a staff of assistants. In this respect his observatory (Uraniburgum) resembles our modern larger institutions more closely than do many observatories of much more recent date. The mighty impulse which Tycho Brahe gave to practical astro-nomy at last installed this science at the universities, among which those of Leyden and Copenhagen were the first to found observatories. We still find a large private observa-tory in the middle of the 17th century, that of Johannes Hevelius at Dantzic, but the foundation of the royal observatories at Paris and Greenwich and of numerous university observatories shows how rapidly the importance of observations had become recognized by governments and public bodies, and it is not until within the last hundred years that the development of various new branches of astronomy has enabled private observers to compete with public institutions.

The instruments employed in observatories have of course changed considerably during the last two hundred years. When the first royal observatories were founded, the principal instruments were the mural quadrant for measuring meridian zenith' distances of stars, and the sextant for measuring distances of stars inter se, with a view of determining their difference of right ascension by a simple calculation. These instruments were intro-duced by Tycho Brahe, but were subsequently much im-proved by the addition of telescopes and micrometers. When the law of gravitation was discovered it became necessary to test the correctness of the theoretical con-clusions drawn from it as to the motions within the solar system, and this necessarily added to the importance of observations. By degrees, as theory progressed, it made greater demands for the accuracy of observations, and accordingly the instruments had to be improved. The transit instrument superseded the sextant and offered the advantage of furnishing the difference of right ascension directly; the clocks and chronometers were greatly im-proved; and lastly astronomers began early in the 19th century to treat their instruments, not as faultless appara-tuses but as imperfect ones, whose errors of construction had to be detected, studied, and taken into account before the results of observations could be used to test the theory. This century has also witnessed the combination of the transit instrument and the mural quadrant or circle in one instrument,—the transit or meridian circle.

While the necessity of following the sun, moon, and planets as regularly as possible increased the daily work of observatories, other branches of astronomy were opened and demanded other observations. Hitherto observations of the "fixed stars" had been supposed to be of little importance beyond fixing points of comparison for obser-vations of the movable bodies. But when many of the fixed stars were found to be endowed with "proper motion," it became necessary to include them among the objects of constant attention, and in their turn the hitherto totally neglected telescopic stars had to be observed with precision, when they were required as comparison stars for comets or minor planets. Thus the field of work for meridian instru-ments became very considerably enlarged.
In addition to this, the increase of optical power of tele-scopes revealed hitherto unknown objects—double stars and nebulse—and brought the study of the physical con-stitution of the heavenly bodies within the range of obser-vatory work. Besearches connected with these matters were, however, for a number of years chiefly left to amateur-observers, and it is only within the last fifty years that many public observatories have taken up this kind of work. The application of spectrum analysis, photo-graphy, photometry, &c, in astronomy has still more increased the number and variety of observations to be made, so that it has now become necessary for most observatories to devote themselves to one or two special fields of work.

It would be difficult to arrange the existing observatories into classes either according to the work pursued in them or their organization, as the work in many cases at different times has been directed to different objects, while the organization depends mostly on national and local circum-stances. As already alluded to above, one of the principal characteristics of the larger observatories of the present day is the distribution of the work among a number of assistants under the general superintendence of a director. This applies principally to the great observatories, where the sun, moon, planets, and a limited number of fixed stars are without interruption being observed, but even among these institutions hardly two are conducted on the same principles. Thus in Greenwich the instruments and ob-servations are all treated according to strict rules laid down by the astronomer-royal, while in Washington or Pnlkowa each astronomer has to a certain extent his choice as to the treatment of the instrument and arrangement of the observations. The same is the case with the smaller institutions, in most of which these arrangements vary very much with change of personnel.

The way in which the results of observations are pub-lished depends principally on the size of the institutions. The larger observatories issue their " Annals " or " Observa-tions " as separate periodically-published volumes, while the smaller ones chiefly depend on scientific journals to lay their results before the public, naturally less fully as to details. Among these journals the principal are :—Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch (for the years 1776 to 1829), Mdnatliche Correspondent, (edited by Von Zach, 28 vols., 1800-13), Astronomische Nachrichten (founded 1821 ; 107 vols, in 4to, still appearing with two vols, per annum), Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society (47 vols. 4to, from 1822), and Monthly Notices of the Roycd Astronomical Society (44 vols. 8vo, from 1827).
Subjoined is a catalogue of public and private observa-tories now in activity or which have existed within the last hundred years. (4m= 1° long.)

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

A. Public Observatories.

Greenwich, royal observatory, lat. + 51° 28' 38"-4. Founded in 1675 for the promotion of astronomy and navigation. The observations have therefore from the first been principally intended to determine the positions of standard stars, the sun and planets, and above all to follow the motion of the moon with as little interruption as possible, both on and«utside the meridian. Since 1873 spectro-scopic observations and a daily photographic record of sun-spots have been taken. The observatory is under the direction of the astronomer-royal; and from the time of its first astronomer, Flam-steed, the institution has always maintained its place in the fore--raost rank of observatories. Thus the observations of Bradley (ob. 1762) form the foundation of modern stellar astronomy ; but it was •especially during the directorship of Airy (1835-81) that the observa-tory rose to its present high state of efficiency. There are now a chief assistant, eight assistants, and a staff of computers employed. The principal instruments now in use are :—a meridian circle by Simms (and Ransomes and May as engineers), erected in 1850, having a circle of 6-feet diameter and a telescope of 8-inches aperture ; a large chronograph (1854) ; an altazimuth by Simms and Ransomes and May, for observations of the moon, erected in 1847, with 3-feet circles and 4-inch telescope ; an equatorial refractor by the same makers (O.G. 12'8 inches, by Merz), mounted in the "English" manner with long polar axis, chiefly used for spectroscopic work ; photoheliograph by Dallmeyer of 4-inches aperture, smaller equatorials, clocks, &c. The standard "motor clock" is the centre of a system of electrically-controlled clocks scattered over many provincial towns in the three kingdoms. The magnetical and meteorological department was founded in 1838 ; it contains a complete set of instruments giving continuous photographic records of magnetic declination, horizontal and vertical force, barometric pressure, dry and wet bulb thermometers, &c. The Observations are published with all details from 1750, beginning with 1836 in annual bulky 4to volumes; special results—e.g., five Star Catalogues, Reductions of Lunar and Planetary Observations—are published in separate volumes.

Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory, lat. + 51° 45' 36"'0, long. 0h 5m 2s-6 W Founded in 1771 by the Radcliffe trustees at the instance of Pro-fessor Hornsby. Observations were regularly made, but none were published until Manuel .1. Johnson was appointed Radcliffe observer in 1839, when systematic observations were commenced with an 8-feet transit instrument by Bird (1773) and a 6-feet mural circle by Jones (1836). Johnson was succeeded in 1860 by Rev. R. Main, who died in 1878, and was followed in 1879 by E. J. Stone. Helio-meter (7J inch) by Repsold (1849) ; meridian circle by Troughton and Simms, mounted in 1361, formerly belonging to Mr Carrington; self-recording meteorological instruments. The staff now consists of three assistants. Besides the annual 8vo volumes of Observations (from 1840), two catalogues of respectively 6317 and 2386 stars, chiefly circunipolar (1860 and 1870) have been published.

Oxford, university observatory,lat. + 51° 45' 34"'2, long. 0" 5™ 0S'4W. Finished in 1875 ; is under the Savilian professor of astronomy; there are two assistants. 12J-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb, and a 13-inch reflector made and presented by Mr De La Rue. The former is used for micrometer work (chiefly on clusters of stars) and photometric observations ; the latter for taking lunar photo-graphs, by means of which the director, Professor Pritchard, has investigated the libration of the moon. No. 1 of Astronomical Observations (8vo) was published in 1878.

Cambridge, lat. + 52* 12' 51"'6, long. 0h 0m 22s'8 E. Founded by the university senate in 1820. Directors : G. B. Airy, 1828 to 1835 ; J. Challis, to 1861; J. C. Adams. Chiefly devoted to meridian work,—up to 1870 with a 5-inch transit by Dollond and a mural circle by Jones ; a new meridian circle by Simms, of 8-inches aperture and 3-feet circles, was then erected, and is being used for determining the places of all the stars down to 9 '0 mag. between + 25° and + 30° deck The "Northumberland equatorial" was mounted in the "English" fashion in 1838 ; the object-glass by Cauchoix is of llj-inches aperture and 19-feet focal length. The Observations from 1828 to 1865 are published in 21 4to volumes.

Durham, lat. + 54° 46' 6"'2, long. 0h 6m 19s'8 W. Founded in 1841, principally by private subscription; is under the direction of the professor of mathematics and astronomy in the university. There is a small meridian circle b}' Simms, and an equatorial refractor by Fraunhofer of 6J-inches aperture, with which minor planets, comets, and double stars have been observed. The results from the years 1846-52 have been published in 2 8vo volumes.
Liverpool (Bidston near Birkenhead), lat. + 53° 24' 4", long. 0h 12m 17s'2 W. Founded in 1838 by the municipal council; transferred in 1856 to the Docks and Harbour Board ; moved to Birkenhead in 1867. Specially intended for testing the rates of chronometers under different temperatures. Transit instrument by Troughton and Simms, and an 8-inch equatorial by Merz.

New (Richmond), lat. + 51° 28' 6", long. 0" lm 15s-l W. The central meteorological observatory of the United Kingdom, with self-registering meteorological and magnetical instruments. Estab-lished in 1842 under the auspices of the British Association, after-wards transferred to the Royal Society. A photoheliograph was employed at Mr De La Rue's expense to take daily sun-pictures from 1863 to 1872.

Edinburgh, royal observatory, lat. + 55° 57' 23"'2, long. 0h 12m 43s'0 W. Founded in 1811 by subscription ; the building on the Calton Hill erected in 1818. In 1834 the founders handed over the administration to the Government, and in 1846 the owner-ship was similarly transferred. Since 1834 the observatory has been under the direction of the astronomer-royal for Scotland, who is also professor of practical astronomy in the university ; these are two assistants. Professor T. Henderson (1833 to 1845) commenced extensive meridian observations of fixed stars, since continued by his successor, C. Piazzi Smyth. The mural circle of 6-feet diameter and 8-feet transit are now out of date. A reflector of 2-feet aperture by Grubb (silver on glass) was erected in 1872, but has never been quite finished nor come into use. Observations with deep-soil thermometers have been carried on since 1837, and delicate spectro-scopic investigations made by the present astronomer, partly abroad. Observations and results have been published in 14 4to volumes.

Glasgow, lat. + 55° 52' 42"-8, long. 0h 17m 10s-6 W. Organ* ized in 1840 by subscription, aided by subsidies from the university and the state ; is under the professor of astronomy. Meridian circle by Ertel with 42-inch circles, and telescope of 6-inches aper-ture ; equatorial of 9-inches aperture. A catalogue of 6415 stars from meridian observations made since 1860 was published in 1883 by the present director, R. Grant. The observatory was (1868-83) one of the seven first-class meteorological stations.

Dublin, situated about 4 miles north-west of Dublin at Dunsink, lat. + 53° 23' 13"-0, long. 0h 25m 21s W. Belongs to the univer-sity ; erected in 1785; is under the direction of the "Andrews professor of astronomy and royal astronomer of Ireland." There is one assistant. In 1808 a reversible meridian circle by Ramsden and Berge of 8-feet diameter was put tip, with which Brinkley observed assiduously till 1827, though of his results those relating to stellar parallax were affected by certain instrmmental errors which rendered them of no value. Sir Mr. R. Hamilton (1827-65) devoted himself exclusively to mathematics. In 1868 was erected an equatorial refractor, object-glass of llf-inches aperture by Cauchoix (formerly belonging to and given by Sir J. South), which has been used by Briinnow and his successor R. S. Ball (since 1874) for researches on stellar parallax. A meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6'4-inches aperture w~as mounted in 1873 and a large chronograph in 1882 ; they are used for observing stars possessing special interest (red stars, stars with proper motion, &c). Astro-nomical Observations and Researches made at Dunsink, parts 1-5, 4to, 1870-84.

Armagh, lat. + 54° 21' 12"7, long. 0h 26m 35s'5 W. Founded and endowed by Archbishop Robinson in 1791. Possessed very few instruments until the observatory was enlarged by Archbishop Lord John Beresford in 1S27, when a mural circle and a transit by Jones were provided, with which T. R. Robinson (director from 1823 to 1882) observed the stars contained in the catalogue of 5345 stars published in 1859. "With the mural circle, to which had been added a 7-inch telescope by T. Grubb (in 1862), about 3000 stars have been observed since 1864, and these are now (1884) ready for press. There is also a 15-inch reflector. Armagh was (1868-83) one of the seven first-class meteorological observatories.

Cork, observatory of Queen's College, lat. + 51° 53' 30", long. 0H 33m 58s W. Erected in 1878 at the expense of Mr Crawford of Cork ; 8-inch refractor, 4-inch siderostat and transit circle, by Grubb. Managed by the professor of natural philosophy.

B. Private Observatories now existing.

Mr J. 67. Barclay's observatory, Leyton, Essex, lat. + 51° 34' 34", long. 0h 0M 0s-9 W. In activity since 1862 ; 10-ineh refractor by Cooke; chiefly devoted to dorrble stars ; small transit circle. Four parts of Observations have been published (4to, 1863-77).

Mr A. A. Common's observatory, Ealing, London, W. Silvered-glass reflector of 36-inehes aperture (mirror by Calver, mounting by the owner), erected in 1879 ; chiefly used for celestial photo-graphy. Also 18-inch silvered-glass reflector erected in 1876.

Colonel Cooper's observatory, Markree Castle, Sligo, Ireland, lat. 54° 10' 31"-8, long. 0« 33m 48s-4 W. Founded by the late E. J. Cooper, who in 1834 erected an equatorial refractor of 13'3-inches aperture (glass by Cauchoix). In addition to numerous other observations this instrument was from 1848 to 1856 used for determining the approximate places of 60,000 stars near the ecliptic (Markree Catalogue, 4 vols. 8vo, 1852-56). The obser-vatory was restored in 1874, and the refractor has since been used for double-star observations. There is also a transit circle by Ertel.

Earl of Crawford's observatorv, Dun Edit, Aberdeenshire, lat. +' 57° 9' 36", long. 0h 9m 40s W. Founded in 1872 ; is one of the best-equipped observatories existing; has 15-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb, large chronograph (driven by same clock as the refractor), 12-inch silvered reflector by Browning, two 6-inch and several smaller refractors, meridian circle by Simms similar to the one at Cambridge, numerous spectroscopes and minor in-struments, also a large library, and a collection of physical instru-ments. Cometary and spectroscopic observations and reduction of the observations made by the Venus expedition to Mauritius in 1874 have hitherto principally occupied the staff. Three 4to volumes of Publications and very frequent Dun Echt Circulars, distributing news of discoveries (chiefly relating to comets), have "been issued.

Mr E. Crossley's observatory, Bermerside, Halifax, Yorkshire. Equatorial refractor by Cooke of 9 •3-inches aperture, erected in 1871, chiefly used for observations of double stars.

Dr W. Huggins's observatory, Upper Tulse Hill, London, lat. + 51° 26' 47", long. Oh 0m 27s7 W. Founded in 1856 ; furnished with an 8-inclf refractor (glass by Clark, mounting by Cooke). In 1870 was erected an equatorial mounting which could carry either a 15-inch refractor or a Cassegrain reflector of 18-inches aperture, both made by Grubb for the Royal Society ; mounting improved in 1882 to carry both instruments simultaneously. With these Dr Huggins has made his well-known spectroscopic observations and photographs of stellar spectra, the solar corona, &c., the results "being published from time to time in the Philosophical Trans-fictions.

Mr 67. Knott's observatory, Cuckfield, Sussex (from 1860 to 1873 at Woodcroft, lat. + 51° 0' 41", long. 0h 0m 34s W., since then at Knowles Lodge, Cuckfield). 7'3-inch refractor by Clark, used for observing double stars and variable stars.

Mr R. S. Newall's observatory, Gateshead, Newcastle-on-Tjme. A refractor of 25-inches aperture by Cooke was mounted in 1870, but appears to have been little used.

Earl of Posse's observatory, Birr Castle, King's county, Ireland, lat. + 53° 5' 47", long. 0h 31m 40s'9 W. In 1839 the late earl made and mounted a reflector of 3-feet aperture (remounted as equatorial in 1876), and in 1845 he completed the celebrated reflector of 6-feet -aperture and 54-feet focal length. These instruments, particularly the latter, were used from 1848 to 1878 for observations of nebula1, and revealed many new features in these bodies ; results published in the Phil. Trans", for 1844, 1850, 1861,1868, and collected systema-tically in the Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc, 1879-80. Experiments were made by the present earl to determine the amount of heat radiated from the moon (Phil. Trans., 1873).

Rugby School (Temple Observatory). Founded in 1872 in memory of the bishop of Exeter ; with 8J-incli equatorial refractor by Clark, used for observations of double stars and of stellar spectra.

Stonyhurst College observatory, Lancashire, lat. + 53° 50' 40", long. 0h 9m 52s 7 W. An 8-inch equatorial refractor by Troughton and Simms, mounted in 1867, used for spectroscopic and micrometric observations; a complete set of self-recording magnetic instruments. From 1868 to 1883 the observatory was one of the seven first-class meteorological stations.

Colonel Tomline's observatory, at Orwell Park, Ipswich, lat. + 52°0' 33", long. 0h 4™ 55s'8 E. Founded in 1874 ; has a 10-inch refractor by Merz, used for observations of comets.

Owing to the limited space at our disposal we are obliged to pass over several smaller private observatories.





C. Private Observatories now discontinued.

Mr Bishop's observatory, South Villa, Regent's Park, London, lat. + 51° 31' 29"'9, long. 0n 0™ 37s'l W. In activity from 1836 to 1861, then removed to Twickenham, and discontinued in 1874 ; has a 7-inch refractor by Dollond, with which Mr Hind discovered ten minor planets and several comets, and constructed maps of stars near the ecliptic.

Mr R. C. Carrington's observatory, Redhill, lat. + 51° 14' 25"'3, long. 0h 0m 41s'3 W. Established in 1854 ; has a 4J-inch refractor, and transit circle of 5-inch aperture (now at Radcliffc Observa-tory). With the latter a catalogue of the positions of 3735 stars within 9° of the pole, with the former regular observations of sun-spots, were made from 1853 to 1861.

Rev. W. R. Dawes's observatory, first at Ormskirk (1830-39), lat. + 53° 34' 18", long. 0h llm 36s W. ; afterwards at Cranbrook, Kent (1844-50), lat. + 51° 6' 31", long. 0h 2m 10s'8 E. ; then at Wateringbury, near Maidstone, lat. + 51° 15' 12", long. 0h lm 39s'8 E., till 1857 ; and finally at Hopefield, Haddenham, lat. + 51° 45' 54", long. 0h 3m 43s'4 W., till Mr Dawes's death in 1868. Possessed at first only small instruments, then successively a 6-inch refractor by Merz, a 7J-inch and an 8l-inch refractor by Clark, and an 8-inch refractor by Cooke, with all of which a great many measures of double stars were made, which were published in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society.

J_'rZ>eiaJS;?(.'sobservatory,Cranford, Middlesex, lat. + 51° 28' 57"-8, long. 0h lm 37s'5 W. Established in 1857; with 13-inch reflector, de-voted to solar and lunar photography. The Kew photoheliograph was employed here from 1858 to 1863 to take daily photographs of the sun. The reflector was presented to the Oxford observatory in 1874.

Mr Isaac Fletcher's observatory, Tarnbank, Cumberland, lat. + 54° 39' 13"7, long. Oh 13m 44s'5 W. Established in 1847 ; in 1859 a 95-ineh refjactor by Cooke was mounted and used for observing double stars.

Mr Groombridge's observatory, Blackheath, lat. + 51° 28' 2"-7, long. 0h 0m 0s'6 E. In 1806 Mr Groombridge obtained a new transit circle of 4-feet diameter by Troughton, with which he up to 1816 observed stars within 50° of the pole. The resulting catalogue of 4243 stars was published in 1838.

Sir William and Sir John Herschel's observatorv at Slough near Windsor, lat. + 51° 30' 20", long. 0h 2m 24s W. William Herschel settled at Datchet in 1782, and at Slough in 1786, and erected several 20-feet reflectors (of 18-inches aperture), and in 1789 his 40-feet reflector of 4-feet aperture. The latter was comparatively little used (two satellites of Saturn were discovered with it), while the former served to discover about 2500 nebula; and clusters, 800 double stars, and two satellites of Uranus, as also to make the innumerable other observations which have made the name of Herschel so celebrated. Sir J. Herschel used a 20-feet reflector at Slough from 1825 to 1833, and from 1834 to 1838 at the Cape of Good Hope, to examine the nebula; and double stars of the whole of the visible heavens, discovering 2100 new nebula, and 5500 new double stars.

Rev. T. J. Hussey's observatory, Hayes, Kent, lat. + 51° 22' 38", long. 0h 0m 3s-6 E. In activity from about 1825 for about twelve years ; 6J-inch refractor by Fraunhofer, used for making one of the star maps published by the Berlin Academy, also small transit circle by Simms.

Mr Lassell's observatory, from about 1820 to 1861 at Starfield near Liverpool, lat. + 53° 25' 28", long. 0h llm 38"-7 W.; contained reflectors of 9 and 24 inches aperture ; employed for observations of the satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and of nebulae. The 2-feet reflector was used at Malta in 1852-53, and a 4-feet reflector was mounted in 1861, also at Malta, and used till 1864 for observa-tions of satellites and nebulse. The eighth satellite of Saturn, the two inner satellites of Uranus, and the satellite of Neptune wer? discovered at Starfield by Mr Lassell.

Dr Lee's observatory, Hartwell, Bucks, lat. + 51° 48' 36", long. Oh 3m 24s '3 W. In 1836 Dr Lee came into possession of Captain Smyth's 6-inch refractor, and mounted it at Hartwell House, wher. it continued to be occasionally employed for double-star observa. tions and other work up to about 1864.

Captain Smyth's observatory, Bedford, lat. + 52° 8' 27"'6, long. 0h l«a 52s-0 W. In 1830 Captain (afterwards Admiral) Smyth erected a 6-inch refractor by Tulley, and observed the double stars and nebula; contained in his "Bedford Catalogue" (1844), forming vol. ii. of his Cycle of Celestial Objects.

Sir James South's observatory, from 1816 to 1824 at Blackman Street, Southwark, long. 0h 0™ 21s-8 W. Here South took transit observations of the sun, and he and J. Herschel measured double stars, in 1821-23. In 1826 South erected an observatory at Camp-don Hill, Kensington, lat. + 51° 30' 12", long. 0h 0m 46s'8 W.. and procured a 12-inch object-glass from Cauchoix. As Troughton, however, failed to make a satisfactory mounting, the glass was never used until after it had been presented to Dublin university in 1862.

Lord Wrottesley's observatory, from 1829 to 1841 at Blackheath, lat. + 51° 28' 2", long. 0h 0m 2s 7 E., where a catalogue of the right ascensions of 1318 stars was formed from observations with a transit instrument by Jones. In 1842 a new observatory was built at Wrottesley Hall, lat. + 52° 37' 2"'3, long. Oh 8m 53s'6 W., where the transit and a 7 j-inch refractor by Dollond were mounted. Observations were here made of double stars, and for testing J. Herschel's method of finding the annual parallax of stars.

FRANCE.

Paris, national observatory, lat. + 48° 50' ll"-8, long. 0h 9m 20s-9 E. Founded in 1667, when the construction of a large and monumental building was commenced by the architect Perrault. J. D. Cassini's observations made the institution for some time the most celebrated observatory existing, but later the activity declined, although several eminent men, as Bouvard and Arago, have held the post of director. Since 1854, when Leverrier assumed the directorship, the observations have been conducted with more regu-larity, and, together with a number of most important theoretical works, published in the Annals (35 volumes of Observations, 16 of Memoirs). The observations are now chiefly taken in order to re-determine the positions of Lalande's 50,000 stars. The principal instruments now in use are :—a meridian circle by Secretan and Eichens, with an object-glass of 9'5-inches aperture and 12-feet focal length, another by Eichens (given by M. Bischoffsheim) of 7'5-inches aperture and 7-feet focal length, a 15-inch equatorial refractor by Lerebours and Briinner, a 12-inch equatorial refractor by Secretan and Eichens, two refractors of 9'5-inehes aperture, &e. A refractor of 29-inches aperture by Martin is being mounted. A silvered glass reflector of 4-feet aperture was mounted in 1875, but has never been used. The meteorological bureau was after Leverrier's death (1877) separated from the observatory.

In addition to this national observatory there were during the latter half of last century several minor observatories in Paris, which only lasted for some years. Among these were the observa-tory at College Mazarin, lat. + 48° 51' 29", where Lacaille observed from 1746 to 1750, and from 1754 to 1762, and the observatory at the Ecole Militaire, lat. + 48° 51' 5", built in 1768 and furnished with an 8-feet mural quadrant by Bird, with which D'Agelet observed telescopic stars (1782-85), and which was afterwards (1789-#1801), under Lalande's direction, employed for observing more than 50,000 stars, published in the Histoire Celeste (1801).

Meudon, close to Paris. Founded in 1875 ; devoted to physical astronomy, and especially to celestial photography, under the direc-tion of J. Janssen.

Montsouris, situated in the Montsouris Park, south of Paris, lat. + 48° 49' 18", long. 0h 9m 20s7 E. Founded in 1875 for the train-ing of naval officers.

Lyons, old observatory in lat. 45° 45' 46", long. 0h 19m 18SE., at the Jesuit college. A new observatory was erected in 1877 at St Genis-Laval, at some distance from the city. Transit circle by Eichens (2-feet circles, 6-inch O.G.), 6-inch refractor by Briinner.

Marseilles, lat. 43° 18' 19"-1, long. 0h 21m 34s'8 E. Originally belonging to the Jesuits, taken over by the ministry of the navy in 1749. It was here that Pons made his numerous discoveries of comets. A new building was erected in 1869 ; 9J-inch equatorial refractor, reflector of 32-inches aperture and 16-feet focal length. The present director, Stephan, has discovered and micrometrically measured several hundred very faint nebula,.

Toulouse, lat. 43° 36' 47"-0, long. 0b 5m oV'O E. Erected in 1840 (Darquier had observed at the Lyceum towards the end of last century); restored a few years ago, when an equatorial refractor by Briinner was procured.

Nice, founded and endowed by M. Bischoffsheim for the Bureau de Longitude (1880), situated at Mont Gros, north-east of Nice. Is being furnished with first-class instruments, among which are a refractor of 30-inches aperture by Henry Brothers (mounting by Eichens), a meridian circle by Briinner of 8-inches aperture, and large spectroscopes, &c.

GERMANY.

Altona, lat. + 53° 32' 45"'3, long. 0h 39m 46s'1 E. Founded in 1823 by the Danish Government to assist in the geodetic operations in Holstein. A meridian circle by Beichenbach (of 4-inches aper-ture and 3-feet circle) and several theodolites were procured, to which, in 1858, was added a 4^-inch equatorial by Repsold. The observatory is best known by the fact that the Astronomische Nachrichten, the principal astronomical journal, was published here from 1821 (by Schumacher up to 1850, by Peters from 1854). The observatory was moved to Kiel in 1872.

Berlin, royal observatory, lat. + 52° 30' 16"7, long. 0h 53m 34s'9 E. Was erected in 1705 as part of the building of the Academy of Sciences (lat. + 52° 31' 12"'5, long. 0h 53m 35s E.), a very unsuit-able locality. After the death of Bode in 1826, who had founded the Astronomisches Jahrbuch (from 1776), a new observatory was built in the southern part of the city under the direction of En eke, finished in 1835. With the observatory is now connected a com-puting office, where the Jahrbuch is edited. The instruments now in use are :—an equatorial refractor by Utzschneider and Fraun-hofer, of 9-inches aperture and 14-feet focal length (with which Neptune was found in 1846 in the place indicated by Leverrier ; used at present for observations of minor planets), a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 4-inches aperture (lately used by Auwers to observe stars between + 15° and +25° deck), another by the same makers of 7-inches aperture, now used to observe stars between + 25° and +30° deck

Bonn, university observatory, lat. + 50° 43' 45"'0, long. 0h 28m 23s'3 E. Finished in 1845 (a temporary observatory had been used by Argelander from 1841 to observe stars from + 45° to + 80° deck); meridian circle by Pistor of 4J-inches aperture, helio-meter by Merz of 6-inches aperture. The former was used by Argelander for observing stars between -15° and —31° deck, and afterwards for determining 33,000 places of stars in the northern heavens. The observatory is chiefly known by the zone observa-tions, made from 1852 to 1859 with a small comet-seeker, on which Argeiander's great atlas of 324,198 stars between the North Pole and - 2° decl. is founded; many other investigations on proper motions, variable stars, &c, were also made by Argelander. The zone work is now being continued with a 6-inch refractor from - 2° to - 31° deck by the present director, Schönfeld, who had already, with Krüger, assisted Argelander in the northern zones. With the meridian circle stars between + 40° and + 50° decl. are now being observed. A new meridian circle of 6-inches aperture by Repsold has recently been mounted. Seven 4to volumes of Observations have been published.

Bothlcamp, Herr von Biilow's observatory, lat. 54° 12' 9"'6, long. 0h 40™ 30s'8 E. Situated a few miles from Kiel, founded in 1870, the principal instrument being an equatorial refractor of 11-inehes aperture by Schröder, with spectroscopic and photographic appliances, with which Dr Vogel obtained valuable results from 1871-74, published in three 4to parts of Beobachtungen. The observations have only quite recently been recommenced.

Bremen. In the third story of his house in Sandstrasse, Olbers (died 1840) had his observatory, lat. 53° 4' 38", long. 0h 35m 10s E.; though the principal instrument was only a 3f-inch refractor by Dollond, many comets and the planets Pallas and Vesta were discovered and observed here.

Breslau, lat. + 51° 6' 56"-l, long. lh 8m 9s'l E. In a small and unsuitable locality, where a few small instruments are placed.

Dresden, Baron von Engelhardts observatory, lat. + 51° 2' 16"-8, long. 0h 54m 54s'8 E. A 12-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb (mounted 1880), used for observations of comets and double stars.

Düsseldorf (Bilk, originally a suburb, now part of the city), lat. + 51° 12' 25", long. 0h 27m 5s-5 E. Founded and endowed by Professor Benzenberg (died 1846); best known by the discovery of twenty-one minor planets by R. Luther ; the principal instrument is a 4J-inch refractor.

Gotha. In 1791 an observatory was founded by Duke Ernest II. at Seeberg, lat. + 50° 56' 5" "2, long. 0b 42m 55s'8 E., on a hill a few miles from Gotha, the chief instrument being a large transit instru-ment by Ramsden. Through the labours, principally theoretical, of the successive directors, Zach, Lindenau, Encke, and Hansen, the institution ranked with the first observatories, but the distance from Gotha and the decay of the buildings made it necessary to build a new observatory at Gotha in 1857, lat. + 50° 56' 37"'5, long. Oh 42m 50s-5 E. This observatory received the instruments from Seeberg, including a small transit circle by Ertel (made in 1824), also a new equatorial by Repsold of 44-inches aperture.

Göttingen, university observatory, lat. + 51° 31' 47"'9, long. Oh 39m 46s-5 E. An observatory had existed here during the 18th century, where Tobias Mayer worked. In 1811 a new building was constructed. Besides his mathematical works, Gauss found time to engage in important geodetic and magnetic observations. In 1867-69 a catalogue of stars between the equator and -2° decl. was made by Copeland and Borgen. The principal instruments are a meridian circle by Repsold (4J-inches aperture), another by Reichenbach (4J-incb.es), several refractors from 3 to 5 inches aper-ture, &c.

Hamburg, lat. + 53° 33' 7"'0, long. 0h 39m 53" 7 E. Built in the year 1825. With a meridian circle of 4-inches aperture by Repsold, C. Riimker observed the places of 12,000 stars. An equa-torial refractor of 10-inches aperture w-as mounted in 1868, used for observations of star-clusters, comets, and minor planets.

Kiel, royal observatory, lat. + 54° 20' 29"7, long. 0h 40m 35s-8 E. Contains the instruments removed from Altona in 1872, also an 8-inch refractor by Steinheil. The office of the Astronomische Nachrichten has been here since 1872.

Königsberg, university observatory, lat. + 54° 42' 50"-6, long, lh 21m'58s-9 E. Built 1813 ; Bessef was the director till his death in 1846, and nearly all his celebrated investigations were carried out here, e.g., observations of fundamental stars, zone observations of stars from -15° to +45° deck, researches on refraction, helio-metric observations, by which the annual parallax of the star 61 Cygni was first determined, &c., published in the first 21 volumes of the Beobachtungen auf der k. Sternwarte zu Königsberg. The instruments are a meridian circle by Reichenbach and Ertel, of 4-inches aperture (mounted 1819), another of the same dimensions by Repsold (1841), a 6-inch heliometer by Utzschneider (1829), &c.

Leipsic, university observatory lat. + 51° 20' 20"'5, long. 0a 49m 30S-2E. Erected 1787-90 on the " Pleissenburg" ; possessed only small instruments, the largest being a 4J-inch refractor by. Fraunhofer (1830) with which from 1848 D'Arrest observed minor planets, comets, and nebula;. In 1861 a new observatory was erected under the direction of Bruhns, lat. + 51° 20' 6"'3, long. 0h 49m 34s'0 E., with a refractor of 8J-inches aperture by Steinheil and a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6 '3-inehes aperture mounted. The former is used for observing double stars, nebula., and comets, the latter for observing stars between + 5° and +15° decl. In 1881 Dr Engelmann mounted an 8-inch equatorial re-fractor by Clark and Repsold in a small private observatory close to the university observatory.

Lilienthal, near Bremen, lat. + 53° 8' 25", long. 0h 36m Is E. J. H. Schröter's private observatory ; from 1779 to 1813. Con-tained a number of reflectors by Herschel and Schräder, the largest being of 27-feet focal length and 20-inches aperture (movable round the eye-piece), used for physical observations, chiefly of planets. Destroyed during the war in 1813 ; the instruments (which had been bought by the Government in 1800) were, for the greater part, sent to the Göttingen observatory.

Mannheim, lat. + 49° 29' 10"'9, long. 0h 33m 50s"5 E. Built in 1772; except C. Mayer's observations of distant companions to bright stars, very few observations were published until the observa-tory was restored in 1860, when a 6-inch refractor by Steinheil was procured, with which Schiinfeld determined the positions of 500 nebulae. In 1879 the observatory was moved to Karlsruhe.

Munich, at Bogenhausen, royal observatory, lat. + 48° 8' 45"'5, long. 0n 46m 26s-l E. Founded in 1809 ; a meridian circle by Reichenbach was mounted in 1824, an 11-inch equatorial refractor by Fraunhofer in 1835. The former was used from 1840 for zone observations (about 80,000) of telescopic stars, the resulting 34,000 places of which were published in six catalogues ; the latter was for some years used by Lamont for observing satellites and nebulae. Afterwards Lamont chiefly devoted his attention to terrestrial magnetism.

Potsdam, lat. + 52° 22' 56", long. Oh 52"» 17s E. " Astrophysical observatory," founded in 1874, devoted to spectroscopic, photo-graphic, and other physical observations. An equatorial refractor by Schröder of llj-inehes aperture, another by Grubb of 8-inches aperture, spectroscopes, photometers, &c. Results are published in 4to volumes.
Spires, observatory of the lyceum, lat. + 49° 18' 56", long. 0h 33m 45s-5 E., established in 1827. With a meridian circle by Ertel, Schwerd observed in 1827-29 the positions of circumpolar stars. Discontinued many years ago.

Strasburg, university observatory, lat. + 48° 34' 59"7, long. 0h 31m 4S7 E. Finished in 1881 (observations made in a temporary observatory from 1872) ; an 18-inch equatorial refractor by Merz ; altazimuth of 5J-incl.es aperture, meridian circle of 6¿-inches aper-ture, and a 6J-inch orbit sweeper, all by Repsold.

Wilhelmshafen (Prussia), navai observatory, lat. + 53° 31' 52"'2, long.0h 32m 35s'2 E. ; situated on the Jahde to the north of Olden-burg. Founded in 1874 ; meridian circle by Repsold of 4J-inches aperture, and meteorological, magnetical, and tide - registering instruments.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

Vienna, imperial and royal observatory, lat. + 48° 12' 35"'5, long. ln 5m 31s7 E. On the university building an observatory was founded in 1756. Owing to the unsuitable locality and the want of instruments, very few observations of value were taken until the observatory was rebuilt in 1826, when some better instruments were procured, especially a meridian circle of 4-inches aperture, and a 6-inch refractor by Fraunhofer (mounted in 1832), used for observations of planets and comets. The Annalen commenced to appear in 1821 ; besides observations made at Vienna, they have contained Piazzi's original observations and Oeltzen's catalogue of stars between + 45° and + 80° deck from Argelander's observa-tions. From 1874 to 1879 a large and magnificent building (with four domes, the central one being 45 feet in diameter) was erected at Währing, north-west of the city, lat. + 48° 13' 55"'4, long, lh 5m 21s'5 E. In addition to the old instruments, two equatorial refractors were erected, one by Clark of 11 f -inches aperture, another by Grubb of 27-inches aperture (mounted 1882).

Vienna, (Josephstadt), private observatory of Th. von Oppolzer, lat. + 48° 12' 53"-8, long. lh 5m 25^-3 E. Established in 1865 ; 5-inch refractor by Merz, 4-inch meridian circle.
Prague, university observatory, lat. + 50° 5' 18"'8, long. 0° 57m 41s'4 E. Founded in 1751 at the Collegium Clementinum, on a high tower. Very few astronomical observations have been taken here ; at present only magnetic and meteorological work is attended to, as a 6-inch refractor by Steinheil and a 4-inch meridian circle cannot be mounted for want of a proper locality.

Senftenberg (in the east of Bohemia), lat. + 50° 5' 55", long. ln 5m 51s E. Baron von Senftenberg's observatory ; established in 1844. Observations of comets and planets made with small instruments till the owner's death (1858).

Olmiitz, lat. + 49° 35' 40", long. lh 9m 0s E. Hen- von Unkrechts-berg's observatory ; 5 - inch refractor by Merz. Julius Schmidt observed planets and comets from 1852 to 1858.

Kremsmumter (Upper Austria), lat. + 48° 3' 23"'8, long. 0h 56m 32s-2 E. Founded in 1748 at the gymnasium of the Bene-dictines. 3-inch meridian circle (mounted in 1827), used for observ-ing minor planets ; 5_:-inch refractor (mounted in 1856), used for comets and minor planets.

Pola (sea-coast, Austria), naval observatory, lat. + 44° 51' 49", long. 0h 55m 23s'5 E. Founded in 1871 ; meridian circle of 6-inches aperture by Simms, 6-inch refractor by Steinheil, magnetic and meteorological instruments. Twenty-eight minor planets were discovered here from 1874 to 1880 by J. Palisa.

Cracow, university observatory, lat. + 50° 3' 50"'0, long, lh 19m 51s'l E. Possesses only small instruments.

Budapest (Ofen), royal observatory. Founded 1777 ; a new build-ing was erected in 1813, and new instruments (a 6-inch refractor by Fraunhofer and a meridian circle by Reichenbach) provided, with which comets and planets were observed. Nothing has been heard of this observatory for the last fifty years.

O'Cyalla (near Komom, Hungary), lat. +47° 52' 43"-4, long, lh 12m 45s-g E. Nicolas de Konkoly's observatory. Established in 1871, rebuilt and enlarged in 1876, devoted to spectroscopy and physical astronomy generally ; there is a large workshop attached. A 10-inch silvered glass reflector by Browning was in use up to 1881, when it was disposed of and a 10-inch equatorial refractor (O.G. by Merz) mounted in its place; also a 6-inch refractor by Merz, and many spectroscopes and minor instruments. Results are published in 4to volumes.

Kalocza (south of Budapest), lat. + 46° 31', long, lh 15™ ± E. Observatory of the Jesuit college, founded in 1878 by Cardinal Haynald ; 7-inch refractor by Merz.

Heriny (Vas, Hungary), lat. + 47° 16' 37", long. lh 6m 24s'7 E. E. and A. von Gothard's observatorj^. Founded in 1881 ; 10-inch reflector by Browning.

SWITZERLAND.

Zurich, lat. +47° 22' 40"'0, long. 0h 34m 12s'6 E. An observa-tory existed since 1759 ; handed over to the Polytechnic School in 1855 ; new building erected in 1863. A 6-inch refractor by Merz and Kern, two transit instruments, &c. Sun-spots are regularly observed, but the institution is chiefly devoted to educational purposes.

Neuchâtel, lat. + 46° 59' 51"'0, long. 0h 27m 50s'2 E. Erected in 1858 ; meridian circle of 4|-inches aperture by Ertel.

Geneva, lat. + 46° 11' 58"'8, long. 0h 24™ 36s-8 E, Founded in 1773 ; a new building erected in 1830. The observatory has been the centre of the important geodetic operations carried on in Switzerland since 1861. A 10-inch refractor (O.G. by Merz) was presented by tbe director Plantamour in 1880.

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

Madrid, royal observatory, lat. + 40°24'29"7,long. 0hl4m45s-4W. Observations are made of comets, sun-spots, &c, with an equatorial by Merz.

Cadiz, naval observatory, at San Fernando, lat. + 36° 27' 41"'5, long. 0h 24m 49s-6 W. Fo'unded in 1797.

Lisbon, royal observatory, lat. + 38° 42' 31"'3, long. 0h 36m 44s7 W. A large refractor was mounted in 1863.

Coimbra, university observatory, lat. + 40° 12' 25"'8, long. 0h 33m 34s"5 W. Founded 1792. An astronomical ephemeris has been published from 1804.

ITALY.

Turin, university observatory, lat. + 45° 4' 6", long. 0h 30m 4 8s '4 E. Founded in 1790 by the Academy of Science ; rebuilt in 1820 on a tower of the Palazzo Madania, where a meridian circle by Reichen-bach of 4-inches aperture was mounted; handed over to the university in 1865.

Milan, originally observatory of Brera College, now royal observatory of Brera, lat. + 45° 27' 59"'2, long. 0>> 36m 46s! E. Founded in 1763. The publication of an annual ephemeris from 1775 to 1875 and important theoretical works absorbed most of the time of the directors Oriani and Carlini, and the instruments were rather insufficient. In 1875 an 8-inch refractor by Merz was mounted, with which Schiaparelli has made valuable observations of Mars. An 18-inch refractor has been ordered from Merz.

Padua, university observatory, lat. + 45° 24' 2"'5, long. Oh 47m 29s'0 E. Founded in 1761. In 1837 a meridian circle by Starke of 4-inches aperture was mounted, with which stars from Bessel's zones were re-observed ; the results were published in five catalogues. A 4J-inch refractor by Merz and Starke (1858) has served to observe comets, spectra of solar prominences, &c.

Gallarate, near Lago Maggiore, from 1860 to 1879, Baron Dem-bows*i's observatory. From 1852 to 1859 Baron Dembowski had observed double stars at Naples with a 5-inch dialyte by Plbssl, and a small transit circle by Starke. From 1860 he used a 7-inch refractor by Merz.
Modena, university observatory, lat. + 44° 38' 52"'8, long. 0'i rlm 42s-8 E. Founded in 1819. There is a meridian circle by Keichenbach, but very little astronomical work has been done.

Bologna, university observatory, lat. + 44° 29' 47"'0, long. (jh 45m 24s-5 E. Founded in 1724 on a tower of the university building. Ephemerides were published from 1715 to 1836, but observations have only been made occasionally. A 3 J-inch meri-dian circle was mounted in 1846.

Florence. In 1774 a museum of science and natural history was established, part of which was used as an observatory, lat. + 43° 46' 4"'l, long. 0h 45m ls'5 E. Very few observations were made; only Donati's discoveries of six comets and his early observa-tions of star-spectra deserve to be noticed. A new observatory was finished in 1872 at Arcetri, but is very badly built, so that two fine refractors by Amici of 11- and 9J-inches aperture (the mountings unfinished) can only find limited application.

Rome, observatory of the Roman College, lat. + 41° 53' 53"'7, long. 0h 49m 54s7 E. Established in 1787. Little was done until Da Vico became director in 1838, when numerous observations of satellites, comets, &c., were commenced with a 6j-inch refractor by Cauchoix. In 1853 a hew observatory was erected on the unfinished piles of the church of St Ignatius, and furnished with a 9-inch refractor by Merz, a meridian circle by Ertel of 3g-inches aperture (in use from 1842), a 3-inch refractor for observing sun-spots, &c. With these instruments, to which were later added powerful spec-troscopes, Secehi has made a great many observations, chiefly relating to spectrum analysis and physical astronomy.

Rome, observatory of the Capitol, lat. + 41° 53' 33"-6. Estab-lished in 1848 ;• belongs to the university ; small transit circle and a 4i-inch refractor by Merz. The latter is used by Respighi for observations of solar prominences.

Naples, royal observatory, situated at Capo di Monte, lat. + 40° 51' 45"-4, long. 0h 57m 0S'9 E. Erected in 1812-19 (an observ-atory commenced in 1790 at the Royal Museum had been left unfinished) ; furnished with a number of instruments, among which a 4-inch meridian circle and two repeating circles by Reichenbach, a 6i-inch equatorial by Reichenbach and Fraunhofer, &c. Very little was done until De Gasparis entered the observatory, where he has discovered nine minor planets and made other observations, partly with a 6-inch Merz refractor.

Palermo, royal observatory, lat. + 3S°V 44", long. 0h 53m 25s'0 E. Erected in 1790 on a tower of the royal palace. The principal in-struments were a reversible vertical circle by Bamsden of 5-feot dia-meter, with a 3-inch telescope, and a transit instrument of 3-inches aperture. With these Piazzi observed the stars contained in his celebrated Catalogue of 7641 Stars (1814) ; this work led him to the discovery of the first minor planet, Ceres, on 1st January 1801. The activity was revived in 1857, when a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 5-inches aperture was mounted and a 92-inch re-fractor ordered from Merz. The latter has been used by Tacchini for spectroscopic work, chiefly on the sun.

Etna. In 1879-80 an observatory was built at the "Casa degF Inglesi," 9650 feet above the sea. During the summer months a 12-inch object-glass by Merz is to be used here for solar observa-tions, while there is to be a duplicate mounting for it at Catania for use during the winter.





GREECE.

Athens, lat, + 37° 58' 20", long. 1* 34™ 55s 7 E. Commenced ii 1845 ; founded by Baron Sina, There is a refractor of 6i-inches aperture, which has been used by Julius Schmidt (died 1884) for observations of the physical appearance of the moon, planets, and comets.

RUSSIA.

St Petersburg, observatory of the Academy of Sciences, lat. + 59° 56' 29"7, long. 2h 1™ 13s'5 E. Founded in 1725, restored in 1803 ; meridian circle by Ertel and other instruments. A small university observatory was founded in 1880.

Pulkowa, Nicholas Central Observatory, lat. + 59° 46' 18"7, long. 2" 1™ 18*7 E. Finished in 1839. Was under the direction of F. G. W. Struve till 1861, since then of his son O. Strove ; the staff consists now of the director, four astronomers, four assistants, two computers, and a secretary. The principal instruments are:—a transit instrument by Ertel of 6-inches aperture and 83-feet focal length ; a vertical circle by Ertel of 6-inches aperture and 6J-feet focal length (the circle of 3J-feet diameter has been redivided by Repsold),—these two instruments have been used for determining standard places of stars for the epochs 1845 and 1865 ; a meridian circle by Repsold (6-inches aperture, 4-feet circles), used since 1841 to observe all stars north of-15° deck down to the 6th mag., and all others observed by Bradley ; a prime vertical transit by Rep-sold with 6J-inches aperture, used for determining the constant of aberration; a 73-inch heliometer by Merz, which has been very little used ; an equatorial refractor by Merz of 22-feet focal length and 14'9-inches aperture (remounted by Repsold in 1S80), which has been used incessantly by O. Struve since 1841 to observe double stars. A 30-inch refractor is now in process of construction, the object-glass being made by Clark, the mounting by Repsold. In addition to numerous memoirs and papers by the various astro-nomers, published by the Academy of St Petersburg, the Pulkowa Observations are published in large 4to volumes (10 vols, published up to 1883).

Abo (Finland), university observatory, lat. + 60° 26' 56"'8, long. lh 29m 8S'3 E. Founded in 1819. With the meridian circle by Reichenbach of 4-inches aperture, Argelander observed the 560 stars (chiefly stars with proper motion) contained in the Abo catalogue. In consequence of a great fire in 1827 the university and observatory were moved to Helsingfors.

Helsingfors (Finland), university observatory, lat. + 60° 9' 43""3, long. 1" 39m 49s -2 E. Erected in 1832-35 ; furnished with a 63-inch refractor and the instruments from Abo, including a transit instru-ment by Fraunhofer of 53-inches aperture. With the last-named instrument, furnished with a divided arc, Kriiger has observed the stars between + 55° and + 65° deck

Dorpat, university observatory, lat. + 58° 22' 47"*1, long, lh 46m 53s'6 E. Founded in 1808 ; from 1814 under the dinee-tion of F. G. W. Struve. With a meridian circle by Reichenbach observations were made from 1822 to 1843 of 2874 stars, chiefly double stars (Struve's Positiones medim, 1852), while the 9J-inch refractor by Fraunhofer was used from 1824 to 1837 for measuring double stars (Mensural micrometricee, 1837, also Catologus novus stel-larum diiplicium, 1827). Dorpat was also the centre of important geodetic works. Mkdler, who succeeded Struve in 1840, continued the observations of double stars. The meridian circle has been used since 1870 for observations of stars between + 70° and + 75° deck

Vilna, lat. + 54° 41' 0", long. lh 41™ lls-9 E. Founded in 1753. From time to time observations of planets have been made with a 6-inch refractor (Merz, 1845) and minor instruments. Of late years the observatory has been devoted to astronomical physics ; a photo-heliograph was in operation from 1869 to 1876.

Warsaw, university observatory, lat. + 52° 13' 5"7, long, lh 24™ 7s-4 E. Erected in 1820-24 ; meridian circle by Reichenbach, 6-inch refractor by Merz.

Plonsk (Poland), Dr Jedrzejewicz's observatory, lat. + 52° 37' 38" '8, long. lh 22™ 4s E. Established in 1875 ; a 6.,-inch refractor by Steinheil is being used for observations of double stars.
Moscoio, university observatory, lat. + 55° 45' 19"'8, long. 2h 30™ 17s-0 E. An observatory was built in 1825-32 ; the present building was erected about 1850. There is a 107-inch refractor by Merz (used for observations of planets and comets and spectroscopic observations of the sun), a meridian circle by Repsold of 5'3-inches aperture, &c. The Annals, published since 1874, contain many researches on the nature of comets by the director, Bredichin.

Kasan, university observatory, lat. + 55° 47' 24"'2, long. 3h 16™ 28>*-9 E. Founded in 18i4, restored in 1842 ; 10-ineh re-fractor by Merz, meridian circle by Repsold.

Kharkoff, lat. + 50° 0' 10"'2, long. 2h 24™ 54s 7 E.

Kief,university observatory, lat. + 50° 27' ll"'l, long. 2h 2™ 0S'6 E. Erected in the years 1840-45 ; has a 9-inch refractor, a meridian circle, and smaller instruments.

Odessa, university observatory, lat. + 46° 28' 36"'2, long. 2h 3m 2s-4 E. Recently established ; 5-inch refractor by Steinheil.

Nikolaieff, naval observatory, lat. + 46° 58' 20"'6, long. 2h 7™ 54s! E. Erected in 1824 ; meridian circle by Ertel with 4-inches aperture, 9J-inch refractor by Repsold.

Tiflis. Founded in 1863 to assist the geodetic operations in the Caucasian provinces.

SWEDEN, NORWAY, AND DENMARK.

Stockholm, lat. + 59° 20' 33"-2, long. lh 12™ 14s'0 E., is under the Academy of Sciences. Founded in 1750 ; is best known by Wargentin's observations of Jupiter's satellites, carried on for many years. Meridian circle by Ertel of 4^-inches aperture, 7 - inch equatorial refractor by Repsold ; the latter is now being employed by Gylden for researches on the annual parallax of bright stars.

Upsala, university observatory, lat. + 59° 51' 31"'5, long. lh 10™ 30s6 E. Founded in 1730, but very little was done until the observatory acquired a 9-inch refractor by Steinheil, which has been used by the present director, Schultz, for micrometric observa-tions of 500 nebula;.

Lund, university observatorj-, lat. + 55° 41' 52"-0, long. Oh 52™ 45s-0 E. Built in 1866 (an observatory had existed since about 1760, but only with very small instruments) ; 93-inch equa-torial refractor, object-glass by Merz, used for observations of double stars and minor planets ; meridian circle by Repsold of 62-inches aperture, used for observing stars between + 35° and + 40° deck

Christiania, university observatory, lat. + 59° 54' 43" 7, long. Oh 42m 53s-6 E. Erected in 1831 ; meridian circle by Ertel of 4-inches aperture, now used to observe stars between + 65° and -+70° decl.; a ^-inch equatorial by Kepsold, and a 7-inch re-fractor by Merz; magnetical instruments (which were extensively used by the first director, Hansteen).

Copenhagen, university observatory, lat. 55° 40' 53"'0, long. 0n 50m 19s'8 E. Founded in 1641 on the top of a high tower ; the locality was so very unsuitable that Rbnier (the inventor of the transit instrument and modern equatorial, died 1710) established his own observatory at Vridlosemagle, at some distance from the city. The observatory on the tower was burned in 1728, restored in 1741 and 1780. A new observatory was erected in 1861, lat. + 55° 41' 13"-6, long. 0h 50m 193-2 E. " It is furnished with an equa-torial refractor by Merz of 11-inehes aperture, with which D'Arrest made observations of 1900 nebulae ; a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of IJ-inches aperture, with which Schjellerup observed 10,000 stars between +15° and -15° decl.; and a meridian transit instrument of 63-inches aperture, intended for zone observations of very faint stars.

HOLLAND AND BELGIUM.

Leyden, university observatory, lat. + 52° 9' 20"'3, long. Oh 17m 56s-2 E. Founded already in 1632, but the instruments were always very small, and hardly any observations were taken until Kaiser became director in 1837. A 6-inch refractor by Merz was now provided, and in 1858-60 a new observatory was erected, and furnished with a 7-inch refractor by Merz and a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6 '3-inches aperture. These instruments have since been in constant use, the refractor for measures with a double-image micrometer, the meridian circle principally for observations of stars between + 30° and + 35° deck, and of southern standard stars. There is a large collection of minor instruments and appa-ratuses for special researches. Annalen der Sternwarte in Leyden appear in 4to volumes.

Utrecht, s university observatory, lat. + 52° 5' 10" '5, long. 0h 20m 31s'7 E. Seems to have existed already during the 18th century; a new building was erected in 1855, but there are only small instruments, except a 10-inch object-glass by Steinheil on Gauss's plan, which seems to be a failure.

Brussels, royal observatory, lat. + 50° 51' 10"7, long. 0h17m28s,6E. Erected in 1829-34. A transit instrument by Gambey and a mural circle by Trough ton have been used for observations of stars having proper motion, but the institution was while under the direction of Quetelet chiefly devoted to physics and meteorology. In 1877 a 6-inch refractor by Merz was mounted, and a meridian circle by Repsold and a 15-inch refractor by Cooke have been mounted in a temporary manner, pending the erection of a new observatory at some distance from the city. The Annates de V Observatoire de Bruxelles (28 vols. 4to) contain, besides the obser-vations, many investigations on special subjects.

UNITED STATES.

Albany (New York), Dudley Observatory, lat. + 42° 39' 49"'5, long. 4h 54m 59s,2 W. Erected in 1851-56 by subscription ; equa-torial refractor by Fitz of 13-inches aperture, meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 8-inches aperture, now used for observing stars between + 1° and + 5° deck, transit instrument of 6'4-inchesaper-ture by the same makers.

Allegheny (Pennsylvania), lat. + 40° 27'41"-6, long. 5h20m 2S'9W. Founded in 1860 in connexion with the university; 13-inch equatorial refractor by Fitz (improved by Clark), mounted in 1867 ; several spectroscopes and other instruments for researches on solar energy.

Amherst (Massachusetts), lat. + 42° 22' 15"-6, long. 4h50m 73-3 W. Founded in 1857 as an annex to the college; 7|-inch refractor by Clark.

Annapolis (Maryland), lat. + 38° 58' 53"-5, long. 5h 5m 568'5 W. U.S. Naval Academy observatory, used for instruction only; 4-inch meridian circle by Kepsold, 7|-inch refractor by Clark, and smaller instruments.

Ann Arbor (Michigan), lat. +42° 16' 48"-0, long. 5h 34m55s'2 W. Belongs to the university of Michigan ; erected in 1854 ; meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6J-inches aperture, 123-inch equa-torial refractor by Fitz. The observatoiy is known by the works of the successive directors, Briinnow and Watson ; the latter discovered twenty-one minor planets here.

Cambridge (Massachusetts), Harvard College observatory, lat. + 42° 22' 48"-3, long. 4h 44™ 31s-0 W. Erected in 1839. "Equa-torial refractor of 15-inches aperture by Merz, with wdiich W. C. Bond discovered a satellite of Saturn (Hyperion) in 1848, and which was afterwards used by G. P. Bond to observe the nebula of Orion,— it is now employed by Pickering for extensive photometric observa-tions of fixed stars and satellites ; a meridian circle by Troughton and Simms with 8J-inches aperture, mounted in 1870, used for obser-vations of standard stars and stars between + 50° and + 55° decl. The Annals of the observatory (13 vols. 4to) form one of the most important collections of astronomical researches. Since 1877 the means of the institution have been increased by public subscription, and a large staff of assistants has since been actively employed on photometric and meridian work.

Chicago (Illinois), Dearborn Observatory, lat. + 41° 50' l"-0, long. 511 gom 26s'8 W. Attached to the university ; founded by sub-scription in 1862. The principal instrument is an 18£-ineh equa-torial refractor by Clark (mounted in 1864, but not used till 1877), with which Burnham has continued his observations and discoveries of double stars, commenced with a 6-inch refractor. There is also a 6-inch meridian circle by Bepsold.

Cincinnati (Ohio), lat. + 39° 6' 26"'5, long. 5h 37m 58s'9 W. In 1842 an observatory was founded by subscription, and furnished with an equatorial refractor of Ill-inches aperture by Merz. In 1873 the observatory was removed to a distance from the city, to Mount Lookout, lat. + 39° 8' 35"'5, long. 5h 37m 41s'4 W. The refractor has been almost exclusively devoted to observations of double stars (Publications of the Cincinnati Observatory, 5 parts, 8vo).

Clinton (New York), Litchfield Observatory of Hamilton College, lat. + 43° 3' 17"-0, long. 5h 1™ 37s"4 W. Erected by subscription, 1852-55 ; equatorial refractor of 13J inches by Spencer, employed by C. H. F. Peters for construction of celestial charts (Nos. 1-20 published in 1882), in the course of which work he has discovered forty-one minor planets.

Georgetown (District of Columbia), college observatory, lat. + 38° 54' 26"-2, long. 5h 8™ 18^3 W. Erected in 1844 ; 6-ihcli re-fractor and small meridian circle, both by Simms.

Glasgow (Missouri), Morrison Observatory, lat. + 39° 16' 16"-8, long. 611 llm l8s-o W. Founded in 1876 ; attached to the univer-sity ; 12J-inch equatorial refractor by Clark, used for observations of comets, planets, and double stars ; meridian circle by Simms of 6 - inches aperture.

Hanover (New Hampshire), Dartmouth College observatory, lat. + 43° 42' 15", long. 4h 49™ 83'0 W. Founded in 1853 ; 9l-ineh equatorial by Clark, used by C. A. Young (up to 1878) for spectro-scopic observations of the sun ; meridian circle by Simms of 4-inches aperture.

Hastings (New York), Prof. Henry Draper's observatory, lat. + 40° 59' 25", long. 4h 55m 293'7 W. Built in 1860 ; 28-iiich re-flector by the owner, 11-inch refractor (with photographic lens) by Clark, both used up to the owner's death (1882) for celestial and spectrum photography. The first photograph of the nebula of Orion was taken here in 1880.

Madison (Wisconsin), Washburn Observatory, lat. + 43° 4' 36"-7, long. 5h 57m 37s '9 W. Erected at the expense of Governor Wash-burn in 1878 ; belongs to the university. Meridian circle by Bepsold of 4-8-incb.es aperture, 15.J-inch, equatorial refractor by Clark, used for observations of nebula; and double stars. Publications in 8vo volumes.

Mount Hamilton (California), Lick Observatory of the university of California, lat. + 37° 21' 3", long. 8h 6™ 26s""7 W., about 4250 feet above sea-level. Is being erected in pursuance of the will of the late James Lick, and is to contain a 36-inch refractor by Clark. The suitability of the site was tested in 1879 by Burnham, who observed for some weeks with his 6-inch refractor. A 12-inch re-fractor and a 5-inch photoheliograph were used for observing the transit of Venus in 1882.

New Haven (Connecticut), Winchester Observatory of Yale College, lat. +41° 18' 36"'5, long. 4h 51m 42s'2 W. An observatory had existed since 1830, possessing among other instruments a 9-inch refractor by Clark and a meridian circle by Ertel. In 1880 a bureau for verifying chronometers and thermometers was established, and in 1881 the observatory was rebuilt, and furnished with a 6-inch heliometer by Repsold, and an 8-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb.

New York, L. M. Rutherfurd's observatory, lat. + 40° 43' 48"-5, long. 4h 55m 56s,6 W. 13-inch refractor by Rutherfurd and Fitz, used for celestial photography.

Northfield (Minnesota), Carleton College observatory, lat. + 44° 27' 40"-8, long. 6h 12m 35s-9 W. Erected in 1878 ; 8J-inch refractor by Clark.

Princeton (New Jersey). Attached to the college are two observatories,—the "J. C. Green School of Science observatory," lat. + 40° 20' 57"'8, long. 4h 58m 37s'6 W., erected in 1877, and furnished with a 9J-inch refractor by Clark ; and the Halsted observatory, in which a 23-inch refractor by Clark was mounted in 1883.

Rochester (New York), Warner Observatory, lat. + 43° 8' 15", long. 5h llm 20' W. Erected by H. H. Warner in 1879-80; has a 16-inch refractor by Clark.

Washington (D.C.), U.S. naval observatory, lat. + 38° 53' 38""8, long. 5h 8m 12s'1 W. Observations were commenced in a temporary observatory in 1838 ; the naval observatory was organized in 1842 ; observations commenced in 1845. For some years a large amount of zone observations were taken with three meridian instruments, but as Maury, who held the office of superintendent from 1844 to 1861, devoted himself exclusively to meteorology, the astronomical I work was considered of less importance. Since 1861 the observations have again been published in annual 4to volumes, the appendices to which contain many important memoirs by the five astronomers attached to the institution. In addition to these and the super-intendent (a naval officer) there arc three assistants. The instru-ments are :—a mural circle by Troughton and Simms of 4 inches ; a transit instrument by Ertel of 5'3-inches aperture,—these two instruments have been used to observe a catalogue of 11,000 fixed stars; a 9'6-inch equatorial refractor by Merz, used for observing minor planets and comets; a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 8'5-inches aperture, mounted in 1865, and used for observing standard stars and planets; a 26-inch equatorial refractor by Clark, mounted in 1873, and used for observations of satellites and difficult double stars,—with this instrument Hall discovered the satellites of Mars in 1877. A new observatory is now being built, the former locality being too near the Potomac river.

Williamstown (Massachusetts), lat. + 42° 42' 49", long. 4h 52^ 33s-5 Founded in 1836 ; 7J-inch refractor by Clark ; meridian circle of 44-inches aperture by Repsold, mounted in 1882.

MEXICO.

Chapultepec (about 2 miles south-west of Mexico), national observatory, lat. + 19° 25' 17""5, long. 6h 36m 38s'2 W. Erected in 1877-80 ; a 15-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb was procured in 1882 ; there is also an altazimuth by Simms, &c. In 1883 the observatory was moved to Tacubaya.

SOUTH AMERICA.

Santiago (Chili), national observatory, lat. - 33° 26' 42"'0, long. 4h. 42m 42--4 \y. In 1849 the U.S. Government sent an astronomical expedition to Chili to observe Venus and Mars, in order to deter-mine the solar parallax. When the expedition returned in 1852, the Government of Chili bought all the instruments—a 6-inch meridian circle by Pistor and Martins, a 6J-inch refractor by Fitz, &e. Meridian observations of southern stars, observations of Mars in opposition, of the parallax of a Centauri, &c., were carried on by Moesta till 1863 (from 1860 in a new observatory). Since the retirement of Moesta very little has been heard of the institution, although it soon after received a 9J-inch refractor by Merz and Rep-sold. Two volumes of Observations have been published.

Lima (Peru). In 1866 a meridian circle of 7-inches aperture and a 10|-inch reffaetor were procured from Eiehens, but we are not aware of any astronomical work having been done at Lima.

Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), imperial observatory, lat. -22° 54' 23"'8, long. 2h 52m 41s-4 W. Founded in 1845 ; no work done until 1871. The principal instruments are a meridian circle by Dollond, an altazimuth, a 92-inch refractor by Henry, &c. A Bulletin was com-menced in 1881.

Cordova (Argentine Republic), national observatory, lat. - 31° 25' 15" "4, long. ih 16m 45s-i w. Erected in 1871, under the direction of B. A. Gould, who has here constructed his Urano-mclria Argentina, an atlas of all the stars visible to the naked eye from the south pole to +10° deck, with their apparent magnitudes. With a meridian circle by Repsold of 5-inches aperture 105 000 zone observations of stars between - 23° and - 80° deck have been made, while an 11-inch refractor by Fitz, with photographic object-glass, has been employed for taking photographs of southern star-elusters. The results are being published in 4to volumes.

AFRICA.

Cape of Good Hope, royal observatory, lat. - 33° 56' 3"'4, long. lh 13m 55s-0 E. Founded in 1820 ; erected in 1825-29, about 3£ miles from Cape Town. Observations were commenced by Fallows in 1829 with a transit instrument by Dollond of 5-inches aperture and a mural circle by Jones. After the death of Fallows (1831), T. Henderson observed from 1832-33, chiefly the moon and Mars for determining their parallaxes, and a Centauri for annual parallax. He was succeeded as "His Majesty's astronomer" by Thomas Maclear, who undertook to verify and extend the are of meridian measured by Lacaille in 1751-53, which work occupied the observa-tory staff for a number of years. The results of the meridian observations were therefore first published by Maclear's successors in the form of three star catalogues for 1840, 1850, and 1860. In 1849 a 7-inch equatorial refractor by Merz was mounted, and in 1855 a new meridian circle, a facsimile of the one at Greenwich, superseded the older instruments. With the equatorial comets, occultations of stars, &c., were observed. Maclear was succeeded by E. J. Stone (1870 to 1879), who, in addition to bringing out much of his .predecessor's work, devoted himself and the staff to observations of stars, embodied in a catalogue of 12,441 stars for the epoch 1880. Under the present astronomer, D. Gill, standard stars between the equator and -23° deck, as also stars suitable for investigations on refraction, are observed, while a 4-inch heliometer by Repsold is privately employed by the astronomer for researches on annual parallax.

Besides the observatory of Lacaille in Cape Town, already men-tioned (lat. - 33° 55' 16"I, long. lh 13m 41s E.), another temporary observatory, at Feldhausen, lat. - 33° 58' 56"'6, long. 1* 13m 5ls E.,

6 miles from Cape Town, deserves to be mentioned. It was here that Sir John Herschel observed nebula, and double stars from 1834 to 1838 with a reflector of 18J-inches aperture ; the results were pub-lished in a large 4to volume in 1847.

Durban (Natal). Erected in 1882 ; 8-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb.

Algiers (Algeria), national observatory, lat. + 36° 45' 2"7, long. 0h 12m lis-4 K_ Recently founded.

St Helena, lat. -15° 55' 26"'0, long. 0^ 22m 54s-6 W. Erected in 1829, with a transit instrument and mural circle ; M. Johnson observed the places of 606 southern stars from 1829 to 1833.

INDIA.

Madras, Government observatory, lat. + 13° 4' 8"'l, long. 5h 20m 59s'4 E. In operation since the beginning of this century. In 1831 a transit instrument and a mural circle, both of 3|-inches aperture, by Dollond were mounted, and with these T. G. Taylor observed 11,000 stars, published in a large Catalogue (1845) ; a Sub-sidiary Catalogue of 1440 stars appeared in 1854. Taylor's successor, Jacob, chiefly devoted himself to double stars. A meridian circle by Simms was mounted in 1858, and in 1865 an 8-inch equatorial refractor, also by Simms, was put up, and the observations have been vigorously continued under the direction of Pogson. Eight volumes in 4to of Observations were published from 1832 to 1854. In a small private observatory at Madras, E. B. Powell observed double stars with a 4-inch refractor by Simms from 1853.

Lucknow. An observatory was founded by the king of Oude, and observations were made with a transit instrument and mural circle by Major Wilcox from 1841 till his death in 1848. Both instruments and manuscripts were destroyed during the mutiny in 1857.

Trivandrum, lat. + 8° 30' 32", long. 5h 7m 59s E. Founded by the rajah of Travancore in 1836, and furnished with a 5-inch re-fractor and a transit instrument by Dollond, and two mural circles by Jones and Simms. The building was badly constructed, and the instruments could not be properly placed, so that no astronomical work could be done, but valuable magnetical and meteorological observations were made by J. A. Broun from 1852 to 1863.

CHINA.

Peking. The Jesuit missionaries under Verbiest erected in 1673 new instruments in the old observatory built in 1279 by Ko Show King. Observations were made and published at least up to 1770. The Russian embassy now maintains a meteorological observatory at Peking.
Hong Kong. In 1883 the colonial Government established an observatory, furnished with a 6-inch refractor, a small transit instrument, and full equipment of magnetical and meteorological instruments.

TURKESTAN.

Tashkencl. Founded in 1874 to assist in the geodetic operations of the Russian general staff; 6-inch refractor and meridian circle by Repsold.

AUSTRALIA.

Paramatta (New South Wales), lat. - 33° 48' 50", long. 10h4m6s-3E. Erected by Sir Thomas Macdougall Brisbane, in 1821 ; handed over to the New South Wales Government in 1826 ; furnished with a transit instrument and a mural circle by Troughton, with which observations of southern stars were made by C. Riimker and Dunlop in the years 1822 to 1826, and from which a catalogue of 7385 stars was deduced (1835). The value of this catalogue is, however, lessened by instrumental imperfections. Observations were also made of comets, double stars, and nebula;. From about 1835 no observations seem to have been made; the observatory was abolished in 1855.

____ (New South Wales), lat. - 33°51'41"-1, long.l0h4™50s-6E. Founded in 1855; furnished with the instruments from Parramatta, and a very inferior meridian circle by Jones (improved by Simms). In 1861 a 7J-inch refractor by Merz, and in 1874 an Ill-inch equatorial refractor by Schroder were mounted, and have been regularly used 'for observations of double stars. In 1879 a meridian circle by Simms of 6-inches aperture was acquired.

Windsor (New South Wales),lat. - 33°36' 28"-9,long. 10h3m 21s 7 E. Private observatory of Mr J. Tebbutt, who has devoted himself since 1861 to discoveries and observations of comets, using a 4A-inch refractor by Cooke.

Melbourne (Victoria), lat.-37° 52' 7"'2, long. 9^ 39™ 38^-8 E. Founded in 1853 at Williamstown. In 1861 a meridian circle by Simms of 5-inches aperture was mount"'! but in 1863 the observa-tory was moved to Melbourne, lat. - 37° •! _>' 53" '4, long. 9h 39m 54S'8E. The instrumental equipment was further increased by "the great Melbourne telescope," a Cassegrain reflet a-, equatorially mounted, of 4-feet aperture and 20-feet focal length, made by Th. Grubb and erected in 1869, since when it has been used for observations of nebulae and lunar photography ; there is also an 8-inch refractor by Cooke, used for observations of comets, &c. The results of the meridian work from 1861 to 1875 are published in five 8vo volumes, and a First Melbourne Catalogue of 1227 stars was publisned In 1874.

Adelaide (South Australia),lat. - 34°55'33"-8, long. 9h 14m21=-3E. In operation since 1861; has been gradually improved, and contains now an 8-inch equatorial by Cooke, and a transit circle has been ordered. (J. L. E. D.)



The above article was written by: J. L. E. Dreyer, Ph.D.



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